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Surveillance of Fontan associated liver disease in childhood and adolescence.

Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Department of Congenital Heart Disease and Pediatric Cardiology; DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Hamburg/Kiel/Lübeck, Germany.

Fontan associated liver disease (FALD) has been recognized as a potentially serious sequela of the Fontan circulation. Prevalence of FALD among different age groups and risk factors for advanced changes were assessed. FALD screening included abdominal ultrasound and laboratory tests. Read More

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IL-6 deficiency promotes colitis by recruiting Ly6C monocytes into inflamed colon tissues in a CCL2-CCR2-dependent manner.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 May 9:174165. Epub 2021 May 9.

Center for New Drug Safety Evaluation and Research, State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 211198, PR China. Electronic address:

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine that is elevated in inflammatory bowel disease. However, the role of IL-6 deficiency in colitis is not well-defined. Some IL-6 and IL-6 receptor antagonists are associated with severe gastrointestinal immune adverse effects, but the mechanisms of the effects are not clear. Read More

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Impaired glucose-1,6-biphosphate production due to bi-allelic PGM2L1 mutations is associated with a neurodevelopmental disorder.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

de Duve Institute, UCLouvain, 1200 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

We describe a genetic syndrome due to PGM2L1 deficiency. PGM2 and PGM2L1 make hexose-bisphosphates, like glucose-1,6-bisphosphate, which are indispensable cofactors for sugar phosphomutases. These enzymes form the hexose-1-phosphates crucial for NDP-sugars synthesis and ensuing glycosylation reactions. Read More

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Anxiety and Alzheimer's disease: Behavioral Analysis and Neural Basis in Rodent Models of Alzheimer's-Related Neuropathology.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87109, Mexico. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is commonly associated with cognitive decline but is also composed of neuropsychiatric symptoms including psychological distress and alterations in mood, including anxiety and depression. Emotional dysfunction in AD is frequently modeled using tests of anxiety-like behavior in transgenic rodents. These tests often include the elevated plus-maze, light/dark test and open field test. Read More

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Malnutrition is associated with hyperinflammation and immunosuppression in COVID-19 patients: A prospective observational study.

Nutr Clin Pract 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Emergency Department, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, PR, China.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading globally and has caused many deaths. This study investigated, for the first time, COVID-19 patients' nutrition status and its effects on their inflammatory and immune responses.

Methods: Forty-seven COVID-19 patients were recruited for this prospective study. Read More

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Changes in unhealthy exercise in outpatient eating disorder treatment: examining emotion avoidance mechanisms.

Eat Weight Disord 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Ohio University, Athens, USA.

Unhealthy exercise (UE) is a common symptom of eating disorders (EDs) associated with elevated chronicity and relapse. Previous research suggests that UE serves an emotion regulation function, especially to reduce negative affect. UE may be especially prevalent among individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN), as UE and restrictive eating may be used to avoid unpleasant emotions. Read More

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Nutritional Predictors of Wound Infection in Patients with Lower Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Division Musculoskeletal Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) frequently requires high-risk surgery that predisposes patients to complex wounds. Past studies have identified a variety of tumor characteristics as risk factors for wound infection (WI); however, physiologic characteristics have not yet been studied in this population. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify any nutritional indicators and physiologic characteristics associated with the development of WI. Read More

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Dichotomy in Growth and Invasion from Low- to High-Grade Glioma Cellular Variants.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Immunobiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Panihati Mahavidyalaya, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Glial dysfunction outraging CNS plasticity and integrity results in one of the most dangerous cancers, namely glioma, featuring little median survival period and high recurrence. The hallmark properties of proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis with the infiltrated macrophages in glioma are expected to be tightly coupled or cross-linked, but not properly related so far. The present study is aimed to find a relationship between this featured quadrangle from lower to higher grades (HG) of post-operative glioma tissues and their invading subsets. Read More

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Noninvasive evaluation of tumor immune microenvironment in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma using metabolic parameter from preoperative 2-[F]FDG PET/CT.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, 100034, China.

Purpose: Nowadays, it is necessary to explore effective biomarkers associated with tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) noninvasively. Here, we investigated whether the metabolic parameter from preoperative 2-[F]FDG PET/CT could provide information related to TIME in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC).

Methods: Ninety patients with newly diagnosed ccRCC who underwent 2-[F]FDG PET/CT prior to surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

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Basal Cell Carcinoma of Prostate With MSMB-NCOA4 Fusion and a Probable Basal Cell Carcinoma In Situ: Case Report.

Int J Surg Pathol 2021 May 12:10668969211017321. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pathology, 572974Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Basal cell carcinomas of prostate (BCCP) are very rare. Most arise in the transition zone and thus are associated with lower urinary tract symptoms and rarely associated with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA). These features make diagnosis/early diagnosis difficult because of the routine protocols followed. Read More

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The Elevated Risk of Recurrent Clostridioides Difficile Infection in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Clin Lab 2021 May;67(5)

Background: The association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the risk of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) is still controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to clarify whether the risk of rCDI is associated with IBD based on published data.

Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted in English and Chinese databases, covering all available publications until date 01/01/2020. Read More

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Biological markers and follow-up after discharge home of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

Emergencias 2021 Jun;33(3):174-180

Grupo "gestión del paciente sangrante" idiPaz-Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, España. Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, España.

Objectives: We aimed to analyze the clinical course of patients discharged from our emergency departament (ED) with pneumonia symptoms compatible with a diagnosis of COVID-19.

Material And Methods: We followed 102 patients discharged home with a diagnosis of pneumonia compatible with COVID19 between March 12 and 21, 2020, in our hospital in the southern part of the autonomous community of Madrid. Descriptive statistics (medians and interquartile ranges or frequencies, as appropriate) were compiled for the main variables. Read More

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Delayed referral is common even when new-onset diabetes is suspected in children. A Swedish prospective observational study of diabetic ketoacidosis at onset of type 1 diabetes.

Pediatr Diabetes 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Introduction: Delayed treatment for new-onset diabetes type 1 (T1D) can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) with potentially devastating consequences. This prospective observational study aimed to characterize pediatric patients with DKA at hospital admission, regarding parental awareness of diabetes-related symptoms and delayed referrals from primary health care providers to pediatric emergency wards.

Methods: Patients 0-18 years admitted to hospital with new-onset T1D and DKA between 2015 and 2017 were invited to participate. Read More

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Dysbalance of ACE2 levels - a possible cause for severe COVID-19 outcome in COPD.

J Pathol Clin Res 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Lung Vascular Research, Graz, Austria.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a serious threat to healthcare systems worldwide. Binding of the virus to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an important step in the infection mechanism. However, it is unknown if ACE2 expression in patients with chronic lung diseases (CLDs), such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), or pulmonary fibrosis (PF), is changed as compared to controls. Read More

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The role of mitochondrial oxidative stress and the tumor microenvironment in radiation-related cancer.

Authors:
Tsutomu Shimura

J Radiat Res 2021 May;62(Supplement_1):i36-i43

Department of Environmental Health, National Institute of Public Health, Saitama, 351-0197, Japan.

The health risks associated with low-dose radiation, which are a major concern after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident (the Fukushima accident), have been extensively investigated, and the cancer risks from low-dose radiation exposure (below ~ 100 mSv) are thought to be negligible. According to World Health Organization and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation reports, the level of radiation exposure from the Fukushima accident is limited, estimating no significant increased risk from the accident. Radiation-induced cell injury is mainly caused by oxidative damage to biomolecules, including DNA, lipids and proteins. Read More

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Comparison of results on the use of extended criteria liver doners for transplants in Espírito Santo.

Rev Col Bras Cir 2021 7;48:e20202492. Epub 2021 May 7.

- Federal University of Espírito Santo, Surgycal Clinic - Vitória - ES - Brasil.

Introduction: liver Transplantation is currently the treatment of choice for several terminal liver diseases. Despite the increase in performed transplants, the waiting lists continue to increase. In order to expand the supply of organs, transplantation teams have started to use previously rejected livers for transplants because of an increased risk of unfavorable outcomes. Read More

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Protective effects of fucoidan against ethanol-induced liver injury through maintaining mitochondrial function and mitophagy balance in rats.

Food Funct 2021 May;12(9):3842-3854

The Institute of Human Nutrition, Qingdao University, Ning Xia Road 308, Qingdao 266071, China.

For alcoholic liver disease (ALD), mitophagy has been reported as a promising therapeutic strategy to alleviate the hepatic lesion elicited by ethanol. This study was conducted to investigate the regulatory effects of fucoidan on mitophagy induced by chronic ethanol administration in rats. Here, 20 male rats in each group were treated with fucoidan (150 and 300 mg per kg body weight) by gavage once daily. Read More

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Cancellous Bone May Have a Greater Adaptive Strain Threshold Than Cortical Bone.

JBMR Plus 2021 May 30;5(5):e10489. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Musculoskeletal Biology and Mechanics Lab, Department of Basic Medical Sciences Purdue University West Lafayette IN USA.

Strain magnitude has a controlling influence on bone adaptive response. However, questions remain as to how and if cancellous and cortical bone tissues respond differently to varied strain magnitudes, particularly at a molecular level. The goal of this study was to characterize the time-dependent gene expression, bone formation, and structural response of the cancellous and cortical bone of female C57Bl/6 mice to mechanical loading by applying varying load levels (low: -3. Read More

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Circulating inflammatory biomarkers in adolescents: evidence of interactions between chronic pain and obesity.

Pain Rep 2021 1;6(1):e916. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Introduction: The negative effects of chronic pain and obesity are compounded in those with both conditions. Despite this, little research has focused on the pathophysiology in pediatric samples.

Objective: To examine the effects of comorbid chronic pain and obesity on the concentration of circulating inflammatory biomarkers. Read More

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WGS and RNA Studies Diagnose Noncoding Variants in Males With High Creatine Kinase.

Neurol Genet 2021 Feb 29;7(1):e554. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Kids Neuroscience Centre (L.B.W., S.J.B., A.B., F.J.E., H.J., S.A.S., G.L.O., E.C.O., N.F.C., K.J.J., S.T.C.), Kids Research Institute, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, New South Wales, Australia; Discipline of Child and Adolescent Health (L.B.W., S.J.B., A.B., F.J.E., S.A.S., G.L.O., E.C.O., N.F.C., K.J.J., S.T.C.), Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia; Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit (B.B.C., J.L.M., T.T., E.V., D.G.M., M.L.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Medical and Population Genetics (B.B.C., J.L.M., T.T., E.V., B.W., S.S., D.G.M., M.L.), and Center for Mendelian Genomics (B.B.C., J.L.M., E.V., B.W., S.S., D.G.M., M.L.), Broad Institute of MIT & Harvard, Cambridge, MA; Functional Neuromics (F.J.E., S.T.C.), Children's Medical Research Institute, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia; Murdoch Children's Research Institute (S.S.), Parkville, Victoria, Australia; Department of Diagnostic Genomics (M.R.D., F.F., R.G.), PathWest Laboratory Medicine WA, Nedlands, Australia; Department of Clinical Genetics (S.A.S., A.M., K.J.J.), Children's Hospital at Westmead, New South Wales, Australia; Department of Genetic Medicine (M.C.T.), Westmead Hospital, New South Wales, Australia; Discipline of Genomic Medicine (M.C.T., A.M.), Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Centre for Clinical Genetics (D.R.M.), Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick, New South Wales, Australia; School of Women's and Children's Health (D.R.M., M.A.F.), UNSW Medicine, UNSW Sydney, Australia; Department of Neurology (M.A.F., H.S.), Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick, New South Wales, Australia; Department of Clinical Genetics (A.M.), Nepean Hospital, Sydney, Australia; Genetic Health Service NZ (K.N.), Wellington, New Zealand; Neurology Laboratory (M.-X.W.), Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia; Central Clinical School (M.-X.W.), Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia; Anatomic Pathology (A.C., C.C., N.G., S.A.), The Children's Hospital at Westmead, New South Wales, Australia; Anatomic Pathologist (D.N.K.), Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand; and Harvard Medical School (D.G.M.), Boston, MA.

Objective: To describe the diagnostic utility of whole-genome sequencing and RNA studies in boys with suspected dystrophinopathy, for whom multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and exomic parallel sequencing failed to yield a genetic diagnosis, and to use remnant normal splicing in 3 families to define critical levels of wild-type dystrophin bridging clinical spectrums of Duchenne to myalgia.

Methods: Exome, genome, and/or muscle RNA sequencing was performed for 7 males with elevated creatine kinase. PCR of muscle-derived complementary DNA (cDNA) studied consequences for premessenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing. Read More

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February 2021

MiRNA-202-5p promotes Colorectal Carcinogenesis through suppression of PTEN.

J Cancer 2021 31;12(11):3154-3163. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Immunology, the school of Basic Medical Sciences, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China, 230032.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is still one of the leading causes of cancer-associated death in the modern society. The biological function of miR-202-5p for CRC development remains controversial, largely due to the fact that miR-202-5p can be tumor-suppressive or oncogenic in different contexts. Obtained results indicated that aberrant expression of miR-202-5p was observed in majority of human CRC samples and miR-202-5p was transcriptionally up-regulated by c-Myc. Read More

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Absolute Neutrophil Count in the Peripheral Blood Predicts Prognosis in Lung Cancer Patients Treated with Anlotinib.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 3;13:3619-3627. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Anlotinib is a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor that inhibits tumor angiogenesis and cell proliferation. It is widely used as a third-line therapy for lung cancer. However, reliable prognostic biomarkers for predicting the efficacy of anlotinib are lacking. Read More

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Effects of Transcutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation on Postoperative Cognitive Decline in Elderly Patients: A Pilot Study.

Clin Interv Aging 2021 3;16:757-765. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang City, Hebei, People's Republic of China.

Background: Postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) in the old ages seriously delays the rapid recovery. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) against POCD in elderly patients undergoing laparoscopic radical colon cancer surgery, as well as the potential mechanism.

Methods: A prospective, single-center, parallel-group, randomized trial was designed. Read More

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Dyslipidemia, Not Inflammatory Markers or Adipokines, Contributes Significantly to a Higher SYNTAX Score in Stable Coronary Artery Disease (from the Taichung CAD Study).

Acta Cardiol Sin 2021 May;37(3):232-238

Cardiovascular Center, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung.

Background: The SYNTAX score is an index of coronary severity used to determine the revascularization strategy of a patient. Our previous study confirmed that the SYNTAX score is helpful in predicting major adverse cardiac events in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). However, few studies have comprehensively investigated the predictors for SYNTAX scores in patients with stable CAD, including conventional risk factors, lipid parameters, inflammatory markers and adipokines. Read More

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Tumor-associated autoantibodies from mouse breast cancer models are found in serum of breast cancer patients.

NPJ Breast Cancer 2021 May 11;7(1):50. Epub 2021 May 11.

Cancer Vaccine Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

B cell responses to tumor antigens occur early in breast tumors and may identify immunogenic drivers of tumorigenesis. Sixty-two candidate antigens were identified prior to palpable tumor development in TgMMTV-neu and C3(1)Tag transgenic mouse mammary tumor models. Five antigens (VPS35, ARPC2, SERBP1, KRT8, and PDIA6) were selected because their decreased expression decreased survival in human HER2 positive and triple negative cell lines in a siRNA screen. Read More

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Posterior subthalamic nucleus (PSTh) mediates innate fear-associated hypothermia in mice.

Nat Commun 2021 May 11;12(1):2648. Epub 2021 May 11.

National Institute of Biological Sciences (NIBS), Beijing, China.

The neural mechanisms of fear-associated thermoregulation remain unclear. Innate fear odor 2-methyl-2-thiazoline (2MT) elicits rapid hypothermia and elevated tail temperature, indicative of vasodilation-induced heat dissipation, in wild-type mice, but not in mice lacking Trpa1-the chemosensor for 2MT. Here we report that Trpa1 mice show diminished 2MT-evoked c-fos expression in the posterior subthalamic nucleus (PSTh), external lateral parabrachial subnucleus (PBel) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Read More

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A Stat1 bound enhancer promotes Nampt expression and function within tumor associated macrophages.

Nat Commun 2021 May 11;12(1):2620. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Tumor associated macrophage responses are regulated by distinct metabolic states that affect their function. However, the ability of specific signals in the local tumor microenvironment to program macrophage metabolism remains under investigation. Here, we identify NAMPT, the rate limiting enzyme in NAD salvage synthesis, as a target of STAT1 during cellular activation by interferon gamma, an important driver of macrophage polarization and antitumor responses. Read More

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The RNA landscape of the human placenta in health and disease.

Nat Commun 2021 May 11;12(1):2639. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Cambridge, NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Cambridge, UK.

The placenta is the interface between mother and fetus and inadequate function contributes to short and long-term ill-health. The placenta is absent from most large-scale RNA-Seq datasets. We therefore analyze long and small RNAs (~101 and 20 million reads per sample respectively) from 302 human placentas, including 94 cases of preeclampsia (PE) and 56 cases of fetal growth restriction (FGR). Read More

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Nicotinamide riboside attenuates age-associated metabolic and functional changes in hematopoietic stem cells.

Nat Commun 2021 May 11;12(1):2665. Epub 2021 May 11.

Biomedical Manufacturing Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

With age, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) undergo changes in function, including reduced regenerative potential and loss of quiescence, which is accompanied by a significant expansion of the stem cell pool that can lead to haematological disorders. Elevated metabolic activity has been implicated in driving the HSC ageing phenotype. Here we show that nicotinamide riboside (NR), a form of vitamin B3, restores youthful metabolic capacity by modifying mitochondrial function in multiple ways including reduced expression of nuclear encoded metabolic pathway genes, damping of mitochondrial stress and a decrease in mitochondrial mass and network-size. Read More

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Markers of Bile Acid Metabolism in Pediatric Diarrhea Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Healthy Controls.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2021 Jun;72(6):859-865

Center for Motility and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA.

Objectives: Excessive fecal bile acids in adults have been associated with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), but their role in pediatric IBS-D is unknown. Serum markers including 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) and fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF-19) were validated in adults to detect bile acid diarrhea (BAD) compared to 48-hour fecal bile acid collection (48FBA). Our aims were to assess fasting serum C4 and FGF-19 and 48FBA in a pediatric population, to compare measurements in IBS-D patients and healthy controls (HC), and to determine the prevalence of BAD among children with IBS-D. Read More

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