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Effects of COVID-19 Lockdown and a Subsequent Retraining Period on Elite Athletes' Workload, Performance, and Autonomic Responses: A Case Series.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2021 Apr 19:1-5. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Purpose: To describe the effects of COVID-19 lockdown and a subsequent retraining on the training workloads, autonomic responses, and performance of a group of elite athletes.

Methods: The training workloads and heart rate variability (assessed through the log-transformed root mean square of successive R-R intervals) of 7 elite badminton players were registered daily during 4 weeks of normal training (baseline), 7 to 10 weeks of lockdown, and 6 to 8 weeks of retraining. Physical performance was assessed at baseline and after each phase by means of a countermovement jump and the estimated squat 1-repetition maximum. Read More

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Novel PD-1 inhibitor prolgolimab: expanding non-resectable/metastatic melanoma therapy choice.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Apr 16;149:222-232. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

JSC BIOCAD, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Background: Prolgolimab is an IgG1 anti-PD-1 (programmed cell death protein 1) monoclonal antibody containing the Fc-silencing 'LALA' mutation. We assessed the efficacy and safety of two dosing regimens of prolgolimab in patients with advanced melanoma in a multicenter open-label parallel-arm phase II trial (MIRACULUM). We present the final analysis after 1 year of follow-up and additional efficacy results from 2 years of follow-up. Read More

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Physician-patient concordance in the assessment of asthma control.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Adelphi Real World, Bollington, UK.

Background: Discordance between physician and patient perceptions of asthma control may negatively impact symptom control, treatment, and outcomes.

Objective: To evaluate concordance between physician and patient perception of overall asthma control and the association between perceived overall control and individual components of control.

Methods: US survey data (Dec 2015-Feb 2016; Apr-Aug 2018) from the Respiratory Disease Specific Programme™ were analyzed. Read More

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The combined recombinant cathepsin L1H and cathepsin B3 vaccine against Fasciola gigantica infection.

Parasitol Int 2021 Apr 16:102353. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Ratchathewi, Bangkok 10400, Thailand. Electronic address:

Protections against Fasciola gigantica infection in mice immunized with the individual and combined cathepsin L1H and cathepsin B3 vaccines were assessed. The vaccines comprised recombinant (r) pro-proteins of cathepsin L1H and B3 (rproFgCatL1H and rproFgCatB3) and combined proteins which were expressed in Pichia pastoris. The experimental trials were performed in ICR mice (n = 10 per group) by subcutaneous injection with 50 μg of the recombinant proteins combined with Alum or Freund's adjuvants. Read More

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Vaccination with cathepsin L phage-exposed mimotopes, single or in combination, reduce size, fluke burden, egg production and viability in sheep experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica.

Parasitol Int 2021 Apr 16:102355. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Unidad Académica de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, Ciudad Altamirano, Guerrero, Mexico.

Fascioliasis is a worldwide emergent zoonotic disease that significantly constrains the productivity of livestock. In this study, fluke burdens, liver fluke size and biomass, faecal eggs counts, serum levels of hepatic enzymes and immune response were assessed in sheep vaccinated with peptide mimotopes of cathepsin L and infected with metacercariae. A total of 25 sheep were allocated randomly into five groups of five animals each, and experimental groups were immunised with 1 × 10 filamentous phage particles of cathepsin L1 (CL1) (TPWKDKQ), CL2 (YGSCFLR) and mixtures of CL1 + CL2 mimotopes, in combination with Quil A adjuvant, and wild-type M13KE phage in a two-vaccination scheme on weeks 0 and 4. Read More

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Mepolizumab for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (SYNAPSE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Respir Med 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of ENT, Guy's Hospital, London, UK; St Thomas' Hospital, King's College London, London, UK.

Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps affects approximately 2-4% of the general population, and long-term use of systemic corticosteroids is associated with adverse effects. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of mepolizumab in adults with recurrent, refractory severe bilateral chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.

Methods: SYNAPSE was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase 3 trial done at 93 centres, mainly hospitals, in 11 countries. Read More

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Progestogens for preventing miscarriage: a network meta-analysis.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Apr 19;4:CD013792. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Tommy's National Centre for Miscarriage Research, Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research (IMSR), WHO Collaborating Centre for Global Women's Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

Background: Miscarriage, defined as the spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before 24 weeks' gestation, is common with approximately 25% of women experiencing a miscarriage in their lifetime, and 15% to 20% of pregnancies ending in a miscarriage. Progesterone has an important role in maintaining a pregnancy, and supplementation with different progestogens in early pregnancy has been attempted to rescue a pregnancy in women with early pregnancy bleeding (threatened miscarriage), and to prevent miscarriages in asymptomatic women who have a history of three or more previous miscarriages (recurrent miscarriage).

Objectives: To estimate the relative effectiveness and safety profiles for the different progestogen treatments for threatened and recurrent miscarriage, and provide rankings of the available treatments according to their effectiveness, safety, and side-effect profile. Read More

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Efficacy and Safety of a Hyaluronic Acid-Containing Gauze Pad in the Treatment of Chronic Venous or Mixed-Origin Leg Ulcers: A Prospective, Multicenter, Randomized Controlled Trial.

Wounds 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Dermatology, Hospital Saint-Eloi, Montpellier, France.

Introduction: Hyaluronic acid (HA)-containing formulations routinely are utilized along with standard therapy to promote faster healing of chronic wounds; evidence to guide clinical decisions on the use of topical HA in the healing of vascular leg ulcers is limited.

Objective: This study compared the efficacy and safety of an HA-impregnated gauze pad with an identical gauze pad without HA in the treatment of chronic leg ulcers of vascular origin.

Materials And Methods: A prospective, multicenter, multinational, parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, clinical study was conducted between June 13, 2017, and December 31, 2018. Read More

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The Efficacy of Zemedy, a Mobile Digital Therapeutic for the Self-Management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: a Cross-Over, Randomized Controlled Trial.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Population Health Research Institute, St George's University of London, London, GB.

Background: Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) experience abdominal pain, altered bowel habits, and defecation-related anxiety which can result in reduced productivity and impaired health related quality of life (HRQL). Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to reduce symptoms of IBS and to improve HRQL, but access to qualified therapists is limited. Smartphone-based digital therapeutic interventions have the potential to increase access to guided CBT at scale but require careful study to assess their benefits and risks. Read More

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Impact of Letermovir Use for Cytomegalovirus Prophylaxis on Re-Hospitalization Following Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: An Analysis of a Phase III Randomized Clinical Trial.

Pharmacoecon Open 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Infectious Diseases, City of Hope National Medical Center, 1500 East Duarte Road, Duarte, CA, 91010, USA.

Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with substantial healthcare resource use, particularly when recipients develop cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Letermovir reduced post-HSCT CMV infection risk compared with placebo in a previous phase III trial. This analysis evaluated letermovir's impact on re-hospitalization post-transplant. Read More

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Bee Venom-Derived BBB Shuttle and its Correlation with Oligodendrocyte Proliferation Markers in Mice Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

Neurotox Res 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Isfahan Pharmaceutical Science Research Center, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating disease with a functional disturbance in the immune system and axonal damages. It was shown that Apamin as a blood-brain barrier shuttle acts as a Ca2+ activated K+ channels (SK channels) blocker. In this study, the effects of Apamin on oligodendrocyte differentiation markers were evaluated on an induced model of MS. Read More

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A Pharmacological Batch of Mongersen that Downregulates Smad7 is Effective as Induction Therapy in Active Crohn's Disease: A Phase II, Open-Label Study.

BioDrugs 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Dipartimento di Medicina dei Sistemi, Università di Roma "Tor Vergata", Via Montpellier, 1, 00133, Rome, Italy.

Background: A recent phase III trial did not confirm the previous clinical and endoscopic improvements seen in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) receiving Mongersen, an oral Smad7 antisense oligonucleotide. Factors accounting for such a discrepancy are unknown.

Objective: Our objective was to further assess whether Mongersen was effective as induction therapy in active CD and evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of various batches of Mongersen used in the previous and present trials on Smad7 expression. Read More

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Long-term safety and efficacy of sarilumab over 5 years in patients with rheumatoid arthritis refractory to TNF inhibitors.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Objective: To evaluate long-term safety and efficacy of sarilumab over 5 years in patients with RA refractory to TNF inhibitors (TNFi).

Methods: Patients in the 24-week randomized controlled trial (RCT) TARGET (NCT01709578) whoreceived double-blind placebo or sarilumab 150 or 200 mg every 2 weeks (q2w), plus conventionalsynthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs), were eligible to receive open-label sarilumab 200 mg q2w pluscsDMARDs in the open-label extension (OLE), EXTEND (NCT01146652). OLE dose reduction to 150 mg q2w was permitted per investigators' judgement or protocol-mandated safety concerns. Read More

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Attack rates amongst household members of outpatients with confirmed COVID-19 in Bergen, Norway: A case-ascertained study.

Lancet Reg Health Eur 2021 Apr 31;3:100014. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Clinical Science (NL, BB), University of Bergen, N-5021 Bergen, Norway.

Background: Households studies reflect the natural spread of SARS-CoV-2 in immunologically naive populations with limited preventive measures to control transmission.We hypothesise that seropositivity provides more accurate household attack rates than RT-PCR. Here, we investigated the importance of age in household transmission dynamics. Read More

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Effects of a Digital Mental Health Program on Perceived Stress in Adolescents Aged 13-17 Years: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Apr 19;10(4):e25545. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Happify Health, New York, NY, United States.

Background: Stress is an important transdiagnostic risk factor in adolescence and predicts a host of physical and psychological problems in adolescence and adulthood. Adolescence is also a developmental stage in which people may be more sensitive or reactive to stress. Indeed, research has shown that adolescents report high levels of stress, particularly when enrolled in school. Read More

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Relationship between vertical jumping ability and endurance capacity with internal training loads in professional volleyball players during preseason.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

The College of Healthcare Sciences, James Cook University, Queensland, Australia.

Background: This study aimed to quantify internal training load and changes in vertical jumping ability and endurance capacity of professional volleyball players during the preseason, and to explore relationships between players` physical qualities at the beginning of the preseason with internal training load accumulated during the first two weeks of training.

Methods: Sixteen male professional volleyball players from a team participating in the Brazilian National Super League took part in the study. Before and after a 10-week preseason, their vertical jumping ability and endurance capacity were assessed by squat jump, countermovement jump without and with arm swing, and YoYo endurance test, level 1. Read More

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Variations in athletic performance with occlusal splint in track and field athletes: a randomized clinical trial.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Surgical Sciences, CIR Dental School, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Background: Several studies have been proposed with the aim to demonstrate correlations between the dento-mandibular apparatus and the skeletal muscle system of the human body even in regions distant from the oral cavity. However, a definite conclusion cannot be drawn. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate a possible correlation between dental occlusion and sport performances in track and field athletes. Read More

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Comparison of traditional and accommodating resistance training with chains on muscular adaptations in young men.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia.

Background: Providing accommodating resistance with the use of chains (CRT) is a programming technique that may enhance muscle size, strength, and power. However, there is a paucity of studies comparing the responses to CRT and traditional resistance training (TRT) approaches. This study aimed to examine the effects of 8 weeks of CRT and TRT on muscular adaptations in young recreationally-trained men. Read More

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A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of zinc supplementation during pregnancy for the prevention of stunting: analysis of maternal serum zinc, cord blood osteocalcin and neonatal birth length.

Med Glas (Zenica) 2021 Aug 1;18(2). Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Department of Paediatrics, School of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia.

Aim To investigate the influence of zinc supplementation on pregnant women for the prevention of stunting through an analysis of maternal serum zinc, cord blood osteocalcin and neonatal birth length. Methods This study was conducted with pre-test/post-test control groups and double-blind randomization. Patients were pregnant mothers in second or third trimester and with their newborns who met the inclusion criteria. Read More

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Azathioprine weekly pulse versus methotrexate for the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis: A randomized controlled trial.

Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2021 Mar 12:1-6. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Background: Methotrexate is the most commonly used drug in the treatment of psoriasis with good efficacy and safety. Recently, weekly azathioprine pulse has been shown to be effective in this disease.

Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness and safety of weekly pulse doses of azathioprine and methotrexate for the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis. Read More

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Behavioural effects of cage systems on the G93A Superoxide Dismutase 1 transgenic mouse model for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Genes Brain Behav 2021 Apr 19:e12735. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

School of Medicine, Western Sydney University, NSW, Australia.

Environmental factors inherent to animal facilities can impact on the neuro-behavioural phenotype of laboratory mice and genetic mouse models for human diseases. Many facilities have upgraded from traditional 'open filter top' cages (FT) to individually ventilated cage (IVC) systems, which have been shown to modify various behavioural responses of laboratory mice. Importantly, the impact of IVC housing on the G93A superoxide dismutase 1 mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is currently unknown. Read More

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Digital interventions for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Apr 19;4:CD013246. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Rural Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with dyspnoea, cough or sputum production (or both) and affects quality of life and functional status. More efficient approaches to alternative management that may include patients themselves managing their condition need further exploration in order to reduce the impact on both patients and healthcare services. Digital interventions may potentially impact on health behaviours and encourage patient engagement. Read More

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Ginseng for erectile dysfunction.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Apr 19;4:CD012654. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Urology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, Korea, South.

Background: Dietary supplements with ginseng, or ginseng alone, are widely used for a broad range of conditions, including erectile dysfunction. Ginseng is particularly popular in Asian countries. Individual studies assessing its effects are mostly small, of uneven methodological quality and have unclear results. Read More

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Systemic pharmacological treatments for chronic plaque psoriasis: a network meta-analysis.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Apr 19;4:CD011535. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Dermatology, Hôpital Henri Mondor, Créteil, France.

Background: Psoriasis is an immune-mediated disease for which some people have a genetic predisposition. The condition manifests in inflammatory effects on either the skin or joints, or both, and it has a major impact on quality of life. Although there is currently no cure for psoriasis, various treatment strategies allow sustained control of disease signs and symptoms. Read More

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Daily Motivational Text Messages to Promote Physical Activity in University Students: Results From a Microrandomized Trial.

Ann Behav Med 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

School of Social Welfare, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Background: Low physical activity is an important risk factor for common physical and mental disorders. Physical activity interventions delivered via smartphones can help users maintain and increase physical activity, but outcomes have been mixed.

Purpose: Here we assessed the effects of sending daily motivational and feedback text messages in a microrandomized clinical trial on changes in physical activity from one day to the next in a student population. Read More

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Home-based Pilates for symptoms of anxiety, depression and fatigue among persons with multiple sclerosis: An 8-week randomized controlled trial.

Mult Scler 2021 Apr 19:13524585211009216. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Physical Activity for Health Research Cluster, Health Research Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland/Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.

Background: Symptoms of anxiety, depression and fatigue are common comorbidities among persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). A previous pilot study supported Pilates as a feasible exercise modality that may improve these outcomes among PwMS.

Objective: To quantify the effects of 8 weeks of home-based Pilates on symptoms of anxiety, depression and fatigue among PwMS. Read More

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Effects of Exercise Training Alone and in Combination With Kinesio Taping on Pain, Functionality, and Biomarkers Related to the Cartilage Metabolism in Knee Osteoarthritis.

Cartilage 2021 Apr 17:19476035211007895. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Physiology, Division of Sports Physiology, School of Medicine, Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey.

Objective: To investigate the effects of exercise training alone and in combination with kinesio taping on pain, functionality, and circulating cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, and -3 at rest and immediately after walking exercise in knee osteoarthritis (OA).

Design: A total of 22 female patients diagnosed with knee OA were randomly divided into the exercise training (ET) or exercise training plus kinesio taping (ET + KT) groups. The patients in the ET performed exercise training for 6 weeks. Read More

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Randomized Controlled Trial of Topical Skin Adhesive vs Nylon Sutures for Incision Closure in Forefoot Surgery.

Foot Ankle Int 2021 Apr 19:10711007211002501. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

North Sydney Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Centre, Wollstonecraft, Australia.

Background: There are many options for incision closure in forefoot surgery. The aim of this study was to compare topical skin adhesive (2-octyl-cyanoacrylate) to simple interrupted nylon sutures.

Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial comparing topical skin adhesive (TSA) and nylon sutures (NSs) for elective open forefoot surgery. Read More

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Effect of Increased Potassium Intake on Adrenal Cortical and Cardiovascular Responses to Angiotensin II: A Randomized Crossover Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Apr 19:e018716. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Medicine Amager Hvidovre Hospital in Glostrup University of Copenhagen Glostrup Denmark.

Background Increased potassium intake lowers blood pressure in patients with hypertension, but increased potassium intake also elevates plasma concentrations of the blood pressure-raising hormone aldosterone. Besides its well-described renal effects, aldosterone is also believed to have vascular effects, acting through mineralocorticoid receptors present in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, although mineralocorticoid receptors-independent actions are also thought to be involved. Methods and Results To gain further insight into the effect of increased potassium intake and potassium-stimulated hyperaldosteronism on the human cardiovascular system, we conducted a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study in 25 healthy normotensive men, where 4 weeks treatment with a potassium supplement (90 mmol/day) was compared with 4 weeks on placebo. Read More

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Gestational age at birth and sleep duration in early childhood in three population-based cohorts.

Sleep Med X 2019 Dec 16;1:100002. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Psychology, Education & Child Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Both preterm and post-term births have been associated with neonatal morbidity and mortality, including adverse impact on neurodevelopment. Important neural maturational processes take place during sleep in newborns, but findings on gestational duration and sleep in early childhood are contradictory and often derive from small clinical samples. We studied the association of gestational age at birth with sleep duration in early childhood in three population-based cohorts. Read More

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December 2019