3,875 results match your criteria assessed leptin

Blood Biomarkers Reflect the Effects of Obesity and Inflammation on the Human Breast Transcriptome.

Carcinogenesis 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Retired, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.

Obesity is a risk factor for the development of post-menopausal breast cancer. Breast white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, which is commonly found in women with excess body fat, is also associated with increased breast cancer risk. Both local and systemic effects are likely to be important for explaining the link between excess body fat, adipose inflammation and breast cancer. Read More

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Chronic Isolation Stress Affects Central Neuroendocrine Signaling Leading to a Metabolically Active Microenvironment in a Mouse Model of Breast Cancer.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 9;15:660738. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Center for Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.

Social isolation is a powerful stressor capable of affecting brain plasticity and function. In the case of breast cancer, previous data indicate that stressful experiences may contribute to a worse prognosis, activating neuroendocrine and metabolism pathways, although the mechanisms underlying these effects are still poorly understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that chronic isolation stress (IS) may boost hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, leading to changes in the hypothalamic expression of genes modulating both mood and metabolism in an animal model of breast cancer. Read More

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Prolonged Chronic Consumption of a High Fat with Sucrose Diet Alters the Morphology of the Small Intestine.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 6;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Biotechnological and Applied Sciences, University of L'Aquila, 67100 L'Aquila, Italy.

(1) The high-fat diet (HFD) of western countries has dramatic effect on the health of several organs, including the digestive tract, leading to the accumulation of fats that can also trigger a chronic inflammatory process, such as that which occurs in non-alcohol steatohepatitis. The effects of a HFD on the small intestine, the organ involved in the absorption of this class of nutrients, are still poorly investigated. (2) To address this aspect, we administered a combined HFD with sucrose (HFD w/Suc, fat: 58% Kcal) regimen (18 months) to mice and investigated the morphological and molecular changes that occurred in the wall of proximal tract of the small intestine compared to the intestine of mice fed with a standard diet (SD) (fat: 18% Kcal). Read More

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Retroperitoneal adipose tissue denervation improves cardiometabolic and autonomic dysfunction in a high fat diet model.

Life Sci 2021 Jul 21;283:119841. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Physiology, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Sympathetic vasomotor overactivity is a major feature leading to the cardiovascular dysfunction related to obesity. Considering that the retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (rWAT) is an important fat visceral depot and receives intense sympathetic and afferent innervations, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects evoked by bilateral rWAT denervation in obese rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with HFD for 8 consecutive weeks and rWAT denervation was performed at the 6th week. Read More

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Qing-Luo-Yin Alleviated Monocytes/Macrophages-Mediated Inflammation in Rats with Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis by Disrupting Their Interaction with (Pre)-Adipocytes Through PPAR-γ Signaling.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 16;15:3105-3118. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College (Yijishan Hospital), Wuhu, 241000, People's Republic of China.

Background: The Chinese herbal formula Qing-Luo-Yin (QLY) has been successfully used in rheumatoid arthritis treatment for decades. It exhibits notable immune and metabolism regulatory properties. Thereby, we investigated its effects on the interplay between (pre)-adipocytes and monocytes/macrophages under adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) circumstances. Read More

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Leptin Receptor Blockade Attenuates Hypertension, but Does Not Affect Ventilatory Response to Hypoxia in a Model of Polygenic Obesity.

Front Physiol 2021 2;12:688375. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Background: Obesity can cause hypertension and exacerbates sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Leptin is an adipocyte-produced hormone, which increases metabolic rate, suppresses appetite, modulates control of breathing, and increases blood pressure. Obese individuals with high circulating levels of leptin are resistant to metabolic and respiratory effects of leptin, but they appear to be sensitive to hypertensive effects of this hormone. Read More

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Sodium/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide as target therapy for liver fibrosis.

Gut 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Liver Unit, Hadassah-Hebrew University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel.

Objective: Sodium/ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) is a membrane transporter affecting the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids (BAs). We aimed to evaluate NTCP's roles in humans and animal models of liver fibrosis (LF).

Design: Primary hepatic stellate cells (pHSCs) isolated from livers biopsies of patients with LF with different fibrosis grading were stained for NTCP. Read More

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A Food Supplement with Antioxidative Santa Herba Extract Modulates Energy Metabolism and Contributes to Weight Management.

J Med Food 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Mibelle Group Biochemistry, Aargau, Switzerland.

The plant Santa herba () contains high flavonoids, thus potentially exerting beneficial effects in context of obesity, often accompanied by inflammation and metabolic imbalance. The study assessed the impact of Santa herba on oxidative stress, energy metabolism, weight reduction, and eating behavior, combining models with clinical data. Santa herba binding of the adenosine receptor A2A (ADORA2A) was assessed using a radioligand binding assay. Read More

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Role of adiponectin in non-diabetic patients with rheumatoid arthritis undergoing anti-IL-6 therapy.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Research Group on Genetic Epidemiology and Atherosclerosis in Systemic Diseases and in Metabolic Bone Diseases of the Musculoskeletal System, IDIVAL, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla; School of Medicine, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain.

Objectives: Adiponectin is an adipokine that plays a relevant role in the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), a complication that increases the risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Accordingly, we assessed for the first time the short-term effect of anti-IL-6 receptor tocilizumab (TCZ) administration on adiponectin serum levels in RA patients and explored the potential association of adiponectin levels with MetS features, other CV risk factors and demographic and clinical characteristics of these patients.

Methods: Adiponectin serum levels were evaluated in 50 non-diabetic RA patients, undergoing TCZ treatment, immediately prior to (pre-infusion) and 60 minutes after the end of a TCZ intravenous infusion (post-infusion). Read More

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Effect of Almond Consumption on Metabolic Risk Factors-Glucose Metabolism, Hyperinsulinemia, Selected Markers of Inflammation: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Adolescents and Young Adults.

Front Nutr 2021 24;8:668622. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Kasturba Health Society Medical Research Centre, Mumbai, India.

A large percentage of the Indian population has diabetes or is at risk of pre-diabetes. Almond consumption has shown benefits on cardiometabolic risk factors in adults. This study explored the effect of almond consumption on determinants of metabolic dysfunction-blood glucose, lipids, insulin and selected inflammatory markers in adolescents and young adults aged 16-25 years from Mumbai city. Read More

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Effects of different lipid emulsions on serum adipokines, inflammatory markers and mortality in critically ill patients with sepsis: A prospective observational cohort study.

Clin Nutr 2021 Jun 12;40(7):4569-4578. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey.

Background & Aims: Intravenous lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition may cause different metabolic responses and immune effects in critically ill patients with sepsis. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different lipid emulsions on changes in concentrations of adipokine and cytokine and their relationship with mortality in patients.

Methods: Patients enrolled in this prospective, single-center, observational cohort study, were estimated to require more than ten days of parenteral nutrition. Read More

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Relationships of Bone Mineral Variables with Body Composition, Blood Hormones and Training Volume in Adolescent Female Athletes with Different Loading Patterns.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 18;18(12). Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Institute of Sport Sciences and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, 50090 Tartu, Estonia.

The aim of this investigation was to determine the relationships of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and content (BMC) with body composition, blood hormone and training load variables in adolescent female athletes with different loading patterns. The participants were 73 healthy adolescent females (14-18 years), who were divided into three groups: rhythmic gymnasts (RG; = 33), swimmers (SW; = 20) and untrained controls (UC; = 20). Bone mineral and body compositional variables were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), estradiol and leptin were analyzed from blood samples. Read More

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The Hunger Games: Homeostatic State-Dependent Fluctuations in Disinhibition Measured with a Novel Gamified Test Battery.

Nutrients 2021 Jun 10;13(6). Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.

Food homeostatic states (hunger and satiety) influence the cognitive systems regulating impulsive responses, but the direction and specific mechanisms involved in this effect remain elusive. We examined how fasting, and satiety, affect cognitive mechanisms underpinning disinhibition using a novel framework and a gamified test-battery. Thirty-four participants completed the test-battery measuring three cognitive facets of disinhibition: attentional control, information gathering and monitoring of feedback, across two experimental sessions: one after overnight fasting and another after a standardised meal. Read More

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The Capacity of Holstein-Friesian and Simmental Cows to Correct a Negative Energy Balance in Relation to Their Performance Parameters, Course of Lactation, and Selected Milk Components.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jun 4;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Faculty of Agrobioengineering and Animal Sciences, University of Natural Sciences and Humanities in Siedlce, 08-110 Siedlce, Poland.

A significant factor in improving the performance of dairy cows is their physiological ability to correct a negative energy balance (NEB). This study, using Simmental (SIM) and Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows, aimed to assess changes in NEB (non-esterified fatty acid; body condition score; and C16:0, C18:0, and C18:1) and its effect on the metabolic efficiency of the liver (β-hydroxybutyrate and urea). The effects of NEB on daily yield, production at peak lactation and its duration, and changes in selected milk components were assessed during complete lactation. Read More

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The association between body composition, leptin levels and glucose dysregulation in youth with cystic fibrosis.

J Cyst Fibros 2021 Jun 25. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, St. Louis, MO. USA.

Background: Optimization of nutritional status is recommended in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) given the association between lower body mass index (BMI) and poor clinical outcomes. However, higher BMI and body fat correlate with glucose impairment and higher leptin levels in the general population. Differences in body composition and leptin levels between the categories of glucose tolerance were assessed in youth with CF and healthy controls. Read More

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TRPC1/5-Ca 3 Complex Mediates Leptin-Induced Excitability in Hypothalamic Neurons.

Front Neurosci 2021 11;15:679078. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Cell and Molecular Physiology Department and Neuroscience Division of the Cardiovascular Research Institute, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, United States.

Leptin regulates hypothalamic POMC (pro-opiomelanocortin) neurons by inducing TRPC (Transient Receptor Potential Cation) channel-mediate membrane depolarization. The role of TRPC channels in POMC neuron excitability is clearly established; however, it remains unknown whether their activity alone is sufficient to trigger excitability. Here we show that the right-shift voltage induced by the leptin-induced TRPC channel-mediated depolarization of the resting membrane potential brings T-type channels into the active window current range, resulting in an increase of the steady state T-type calcium current from 40 to 70% resulting in increased intrinsic excitability of POMC neurons. Read More

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Potential sex differences in human milk leptin and their association with asthma and wheeze phenotypes: Results of the Ulm Birth Cohorts.

Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Pediatric Epidemiology, Department of Pediatrics, Medical Faculty, Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.

Background: The hormone leptin has been suggested to play a role in the respiratory and immune systems. Evidence on sex-specific concentrations of leptin in human milk and sex-specific associations with the development of asthma and wheeze has been put forward but is still scarce.

Objective: To investigate whether male and female infants receive different levels of leptin through human milk and whether leptin is implicated in the development of asthma and wheeze in a sex-dependent manner using data from the two Ulm Birth Cohort studies. Read More

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Reduction of impulsivity in patients receiving deep transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment for obesity.

Endocrine 2021 Jun 25. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: Aims of the present study were to investigate a wide array of psychological symptoms through validated psychometric tests, before and after 5 weeks of deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (dTMS) in individuals with obesity, and to identify possible relationships with neuroendocrine parameters.

Methods: Forty-five patients with obesity (33 F, 12 M; age 48.8 ± 9. Read More

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Effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors on appetite markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Jul 18;31(8):2507-2511. Epub 2021 May 18.

High Point University Fred Wilson School of Pharmacy, One University Parkway, High Point, NC, 27268, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Glycosuria induced by sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors leads to weight loss and improved diabetes control, but a significant disparity exists between observed and expected weight loss with these medications, hindering clinical effects. This study investigated whether this discrepancy could be explained by compensatory increases in appetite and associated alterations in appetite-regulating hormones.

Methods And Results: This was a prospective single-center observational pilot study. Read More

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ApoA2-256T > C polymorphism interacts with Healthy Eating Index, Dietary Quality Index-International and Dietary Phytochemical Index to affect biochemical markers among type 2 diabetic patients.

Br J Nutr 2021 Jun 25:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Several investigations revealed the association between ApoA2 concentration and lipid profile, inflammation and oxidative stress markers. Dietary habits also play a major role in the health status of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to investigate the interaction of ApoA2-256T > C with dietary indexes on ghrelin and leptin hormones together with biochemical markers among individuals with T2DM. Read More

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Inflammatory Markers Profile in Older Adolescents During Treatment with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors.

J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas, USA.

This study aimed to investigate the serum levels of inflammatory markers in adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) using selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. This was an 8-month observational study, involving 30 adolescents with and 38 without (control) MDD diagnosis. Demographic (age and gender) and anthropometric data (weight, height, and calculated body mass index [BMI] score) were collected. Read More

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Effectiveness of physical exercise on the cardiovascular system in breast cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Complement Ther Clin Pract 2021 Jun 9;44:101426. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Nursing Department, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

Objective: The primary purpose of this study is to structure the available evidence relating to physical exercise programs and their impact on patients' cardiovascular system during the convalescence for breast cancer.

Methods: We searched six English databases and four Chinese databases from inception to May 19, 2021. Two reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data. Read More

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Adipokines, Weight Gain and Metabolic and Inflammatory Markers after Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation: ACTG A5260s.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Background: The adipokines leptin and adiponectin, produced primarily by adipose tissue, have diverse endocrine and immunologic effects, and circulating levels reflect adipocyte lipid content, local inflammation, and tissue composition. We assessed relationships between changes in regional fat depots, leptin and adiponectin levels, and metabolic and inflammatory markers over 96 weeks in the ACTG A5260s metabolic substudy of the A5257 randomized trial of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine plus atazanavir-ritonavir, darunavir-ritonavir, or raltegravir among treatment-naïve persons with HIV (PWH).

Methods: Fat depots were measured using dual-energy absorptiometry and abdominal CT imaging at treatment initiation and 96 weeks later. Read More

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Association of serum levels of inflammatory markers and adipokines with joint symptoms and structures in participants with knee osteoarthritis.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.

Objective: To investigate the longitudinal associations of serum inflammatory markers and adipokines with joint symptoms and structures in participants with knee osteoarthritis (OA).

Methods: Two hundred participants (46.5% female, mean age 63. Read More

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Evaluation of the combined glucose-insulin and intravenous glucose tolerance tests for insulin dysregulation diagnosis in donkeys.

Equine Vet J 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain.

Background: Insulin dysregulation (ID) and donkey metabolic syndrome (DMS) are common in this species. Contrary to horses, diagnostic guidelines compiling insulin cut-offs values and dynamic testing interpretations have not been reported for this species.

Objectives: To evaluate resting serum insulin concentrations, the combined glucose-insulin test (CGIT) and the glucose intravenous tolerance test (IVGTT) for the diagnosis of DMS with ID suspicion. Read More

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The role of age in the physiological adaptations and psychological responses in bikini-physique competitor contest preparation: a case series.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2021 Jun 9;18(1):45. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Kinesiology, Exercise Physiology and Biochemistry Lab, Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, TX, 78412, USA.

The increased popularity of the bikini-physique competitions has not translated to greater research identifying the influence of age on adaptations during contest preparation. The purpose of this case series was to observe how age may influence the adaptations normally seen during preparation and the exploration of newer protocols to address adaptations more relative to the judging standards. Over a 16-week pre-contest preparation, a 32-y bikini competitor (BC) and 44-y master's bikini competitor (MBC) visited the laboratory bi-weekly to observe changes in body fat mass (BF), lean body mass (LBM), bone mineral density (BMD), total body water (TBW); exploratory measures of deltoid cross-sectional area (Delt), gluteus maximus muscle thickness (GM), and subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness (SAT); reproductive hormones estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), and energy balance hormones triiodothyronine (T), leptin and ghrelin; hydration status during contest preparation and the week of competition; resting metabolic rate (RMR); psychometric data related to perceived anxiety, stress, and body image were assessed. Read More

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Effect of metformin versus placebo on metabolic factors in the MA.32 randomized breast cancer trial.

NPJ Breast Cancer 2021 Jun 8;7(1):74. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Metformin may exert anticancer effects through indirect (mediated by metabolic changes) or direct mechanisms. The goal was to examine metformin impact on metabolic factors in non-diabetic subjects and determine whether this impact varies by baseline BMI, insulin, and rs11212617 SNP in CCTG MA.32, a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized adjuvant breast cancer (BC) trial. Read More

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Associations of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and PFAS mixtures with adipokines in midlife women.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2021 Jun 2;235:113777. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) exposure have been associated with obesity and related comorbidities, possibly through disrupting signaling pathways of adipokines. Both leptin and adiponectin can modulate metabolic processes. However, the effects of PFAS on adipokines are not well understood. Read More

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Effects of a novel polyphenol-rich plant extract on body composition, inflammation, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis in obese mice.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Parasitology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background/objectives: The worldwide prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is reaching epidemic proportions that urge the development of new management strategies. Totum-63 is a novel, plant-based polyphenol-rich active principle that has been shown to reduce body weight, fasting glycemia, glucose intolerance, and fatty liver index in obese subjects with prediabetes. Here, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanism(s) of Totum-63 on metabolic homeostasis in insulin-resistant obese mice. Read More

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Less airway inflammation and goblet cell metaplasia in an IL-33-induced asthma model of leptin-deficient obese mice.

Respir Res 2021 Jun 1;22(1):166. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, 162-8666, Japan.

Background: Obesity-associated asthma is a phenotype of severe asthma. Late-onset, non-eosinophilic and female-dominant phenotype is highly symptomatic and difficult to treat. Leptin, an adipokine, exerts an immunomodulatory effect. Read More

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