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Challenges for FAIR-compliant description and comparison of crop phenotype data with standardized controlled vocabularies.

Database (Oxford) 2021 May;2021

Southern Cross Plant Science, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia.

Crop phenotypic data underpin many pre-breeding efforts to characterize variation within germplasm collections. Although there has been an increase in the global capacity for accumulating and comparing such data, a lack of consistency in the systematic description of metadata often limits integration and sharing. We therefore aimed to understand some of the challenges facing findable, accesible, interoperable and reusable (FAIR) curation and annotation of phenotypic data from minor and underutilized crops. Read More

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Feasibility, efficacy, and safety of ethanol infusion into the vein of Marshall for atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Heart Center, the First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

Background: Contemporary radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) approaches for atrial fibrillation (AF) have reached an efficacy "ceiling". Ethanol infusion into the vein of Marshall (EI-VOM) has shown potential in preliminary studies. Data on EI-VOM are largely limited to small single-center reports, and clinical benefits and risks have not been systematically examined. Read More

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Short-term Outcomes from a Cluster Randomized Evaluation of Adherence Clubs as Part of Differentiated HIV Care in South Africa.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Global Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Health Economics and Epidemiology Research Office, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA National Department of Health, Pretoria, South Africa The World Bank Group, Washington DC, USA.

Background: Differentiated care has been proposed to improve HIV treatment outcomes. In June 2016, South Africa's National Department of Health in collaboration with researchers began an evaluation of its National Adherence Guidelines for Chronic Diseases (AGL) which was being rolled-out by NDOH to public sector health facilities.

Methods: The evaluation has a cluster-randomized design with 12 intervention and 12 control facilities in 4 provinces. Read More

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Transnational evaluation of the Sympathy for Violent Radicalization Scale: Measuring population attitudes toward violent radicalization in two countries.

Transcult Psychiatry 2021 May 14:13634615211000550. Epub 2021 May 14.

McGill University.

Countering violent radicalization is a priority in many countries, prompting research that assesses attitudes and beliefs about violent radicalization in the general population. The majority of violent radicalization assessments have been developed among specific populations, with limited investigation into the generalizability and cross-cultural applicability of measurement tools. A transcultural investigation raises questions about the implicit assumptions and norms that inform instrument development. Read More

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Stopping disease-modifying therapy in relapsing and progressive multiple sclerosis.

Curr Opin Neurol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Germany Brain and Mind Centre, University of Sydney, Camperdown Department of Neurology, Medical University of Vienna, Wien, Austria Mellen Center Multiple Sclerosis Treatment and Research, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA Università Vita Salute San Raffaele, Multiple Sclerosis Centre, Hospital of Gallarate, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: To assess the reasons for considering discontinuation of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs)in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Relevant aspects of the natural history, pathology, and immunology are analyzed.

Recent Findings: A number of retrospective observational studies in aggregate indicate that stopping DMTs may be attempted in older individuals with stable disease. Read More

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T2*-weighted MRI produces viable fetal "Black-Bone" contrast with significant benefits when compared to current sequences.

Br J Radiol 2021 May 14:20200940. Epub 2021 May 14.

Sheffield Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, UK.

Objectives: Fetal "black bone" MRI could be useful in the diagnosis of various skeletal conditions during pregnancy without exposure to ionising radiation. Previously suggested Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging (SWI) is not available in the suggested form on all scanners leading to long imaging times that are susceptible to motion artefacts. We aimed to assess if an optimised T2*-weighted GRE sequence can provide viable "black bone" contrast and compared it to other sequences in the literature. Read More

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Applications of behavioral science to biodiversity management in agricultural landscapes: conceptual mapping and a California case study.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 May 14;193(Suppl 1):270. Epub 2021 May 14.

Gund Institute for Environment, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, 05405, USA.

The plot-level decisions of land managers (i.e., farmers, ranchers, and forest owners) influence landscape-scale environmental outcomes for biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. Read More

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The impact of soil erosion on soil-related ecosystem services: development and testing a scenario-based assessment approach.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 May 14;193(Suppl 1):274. Epub 2021 May 14.

Institute of Physical Geography and Landscape Ecology, Leibniz University Hannover, Schneiderberg 50, 30167, Hannover, Germany.

The ecosystem service (ES) approach usually addresses soil erosion as the regulating service control of erosion rates or soil retention. In addition to the assessment of this regulating ES, mitigated impacts on soil-related ES by preventing soil erosion can be assessed. This study presents a scenario-based approach for the assessment of the impact of soil erosion on soil-related ES. Read More

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Inclusion of Albumin in the Initial Resuscitation of Adult Patients with Medical Sepsis or Septic Shock: A Propensity Score Matched Analysis.

Shock 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Introduction: The impact of albumin resuscitation on sepsis outcomes is debated, particularly in the initial phase of resuscitation. We aimed to investigate the association between albumin use in the initial six hours of resuscitation and subsequent outcomes in adult septic patients.

Methods: This single-center, retrospective, propensity score-matched cohort study included adult patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) with sepsis or septic shock from January 1, 2006, to May 4, 2018, at a tertiary referral hospital. Read More

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