17,015 results match your criteria assembly processes

Water flow and temperature drove epiphytic microbial community shift: Insight into nutrient removal in constructed wetlands from microbial assemblage and co-occurrence patterns.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Apr 7;332:125134. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Zhengzhou 450003, China.

The impacts of water flow and low temperature on nutrient removal and underlying ecological mechanism of epiphytic microbial community in constructed wetlands remain to be fully illustrated. In this study, low temperature inhibited the decrease of TN, NH-N, TP, and COD concentrations in water, but water flow decreased NH-N and COD concentrations strikingly. The relative conductivity, soluble sugar, and protein of M. Read More

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Spatiotemporal Oscillation in Confined Epithelial Motion upon Fluid-to-Solid Transition.

ACS Nano 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Innovative Center for Flexible Devices (iFLEX), Max Planck-NTU Joint Lab for Artificial Senses, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Singapore.

Fluid-to-solid phase transition in multicellular assembly is crucial in many developmental biological processes, such as embryogenesis and morphogenesis. However, biomechanical studies in this area are limited, and little is known about factors governing the transition and how cell behaviors are regulated. Due to different stresses present, cells could behave distinctively depending on the nature of tissue. Read More

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Mechanism Across Scales: A Holistic Modeling Framework Integrating Laboratory and Field Studies for Microbial Ecology.

Front Microbiol 2021 24;12:642422. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Division of Environmental Genomics and Systems Biology, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, United States.

Over the last century, leaps in technology for imaging, sampling, detection, high-throughput sequencing, and -omics analyses have revolutionized microbial ecology to enable rapid acquisition of extensive datasets for microbial communities across the ever-increasing temporal and spatial scales. The present challenge is capitalizing on our enhanced abilities of observation and integrating diverse data types from different scales, resolutions, and disciplines to reach a causal and mechanistic understanding of how microbial communities transform and respond to perturbations in the environment. This type of causal and mechanistic understanding will make predictions of microbial community behavior more robust and actionable in addressing microbially mediated global problems. Read More

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The daily gene transcription cycle in mouse retina.

Exp Eye Res 2021 Apr 7:108565. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Aier School of Ophthalmology, Central South University, Changsha, China; Aier Eye Institute, Changsha, China; CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Many physiological retinal processes, such as outer segment disk shedding and visual sensitivity, exhibit a daily rhythm. However, the detailed transcriptome dynamics and related biological processes of the retina are not fully understood. Retinal tissues were collected from C57BL/6J male mice housed in a 12h light/12h dark (LD) cycle for 4 weeks, at Zeitgeber time (ZT) 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20. Read More

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Global diversity and biogeography of the mycobiome.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Genome Center, University of California, Davis, CA, United States.

Seagrasses are marine flowering plants that provide critical ecosystem services in coastal environments worldwide. Marine fungi are often overlooked in microbiome and seagrass studies, despite terrestrial fungi having critical functional roles as decomposers, pathogens or endophytes in global ecosystems. Here we characterize the distribution of fungi associated with the seagrass, using leaves, roots, and rhizosphere sediment from 16 locations across its full biogeographic range. Read More

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Fragile-Tough Mechanical Reversion of Silk Materials via Tuning Supramolecular Assembly.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155, United States.

Regenerated silk nanofibers are interesting as protein-based material building blocks due to their unique structure and biological origin. Here, a new strategy based on control of supramolecular assembly was developed to regulate interactions among silk nanofibers by changing the solvent, achieving tough mechanical features for silk films. Formic acid was used to replace water related to charge repulsion of silk nanofibers in solution, inducing interactions among the nanofibers. Read More

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Reassessing the Use of Undecanoic Acid as a Therapeutic Strategy for Treating Fungal Infections.

Mycopathologia 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Genetics, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, USP, Ribeirão Preto, SP, 14049-900, Brazil.

Treating fungal infections is challenging and frequently requires long-term courses of antifungal drugs. Considering the limited number of existing antifungal drugs, it is crucial to evaluate the possibility of repositioning drugs with antifungal properties and to revisit older antifungals for applications in combined therapy, which could widen the range of therapeutic possibilities. Undecanoic acid is a saturated medium-chain fatty acid with known antifungal effects; however, its antifungal properties have not been extensively explored. Read More

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Tuning the Nanoaggregates of Sialylated Biohybrid Photosensitizers for Intracellular Activation of the Photodynamic Response.

Chemistry 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Universidad Autonoma de Madrid-Cantoblanco Campus: Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Chemistry, SPAIN.

In the endeavor of extending the clinical use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of superficial cancers and other neoplastic diseases, deeper knowledge and control on the subcellular processes that determine the response of photosensitizers (PS) are needed. Recent strategies in this direction involve the use of activatable and nanostructured PS. Herein both capacities have been tuned in two dendritic zinc (II) phthalocyanine (ZnPc) derivatives, either asymmetrically or symmetrically substituted with 3 and 12 copies of the carbohydrate sialic acid (SA), respectively. Read More

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Trypanosome KKIP1 Dynamically Links the Inner Kinetochore to a Kinetoplastid Outer Kinetochore Complex.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 23;11:641174. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

Kinetochores perform an essential role in eukaryotes, coupling chromosomes to the mitotic spindle. In model organisms they are composed of a centromere-proximal inner kinetochore and an outer kinetochore network that binds to microtubules. In spite of universal function, the composition of kinetochores in extant eukaryotes differs greatly. Read More

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Memory and superposition in a superspin glass.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7743. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Uppsala University, Box 35, 751 03, Uppsala, Sweden.

The non-equilibrium dynamics of the superspin glass state of a dense assembly of ~ 2 nm MnFeO nanoparticles was investigated by means of magnetization, ac susceptibility and Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements and compared to the results of Monte Carlo simulations for a mesoscopic model that includes particles morphology and interparticle interactions. The zero-field cooled (ZFC), thermoremanent (TRM), and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) were recorded after specific cooling protocols and compared to those of archetypal spin glasses and their dimensionality. The system is found to display glassy magnetic features. Read More

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lncRNA C2dat2 facilitates autophagy and apoptosis via the miR-30d-5p/DDIT4/mTOR axis in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Apr 4;13. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Henan Provincial Engineering Laboratory of Insects Bio-Reactor, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang 473000, China.

Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) is an important pathophysiological process of ischemic stroke associated with various physiological and pathological processes, including autophagy and apoptosis. In this study, we examined the role and mechanism of long noncoding RNA CAMK2D-associated transcript 2 (C2dat2) in regulating CIRI in vivo and in vitro. C2dat2 up-regulation facilitated neuronal autophagy and apoptosis induced by CIRI. Read More

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Au-Containing Coordination Polymers Based on Polyphosphorus Ligand Complexes.

Inorg Chem 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg, Germany.

Whereas the self-assembly of pentaphosphaferrocenes [CpFe(η-P)] (Cp = Cp*, Cp, and Cp) with Cu and Ag salts has been well-studied in the past, the coordination chemistry toward Au complexes has been left untouched so far. Herein, the results of the self-assembly processes of [CpFe(η-P)] with Au salts of different anions (GaCl, SbF, and Al(OC(CF)) (TEF)) are reported. Next to a variety of molecular coordination products, the first coordination polymers based on polyphosphorus ligand complexes and Au salts are also obtained. Read More

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Succession of Dung-Inhabiting Beetles and Flies Reflects the Succession of Dung-Emitted Volatile Compounds.

J Chem Ecol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Institute of Entomology, Branisovska 31, 370 05, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.

Chemical cues, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are often essential for insects to locate food. Relative to the volume of studies on the role of VOCs in insect-plant relationships, the role of VOCs emitted by dung and carrion in mediating the behavior of insect decomposers is understudied. Such relationships may provide a mechanistic understanding of the temporal axis of community assembly processes in decomposing insect communities. Read More

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Single-Photon Near Infrared Responsiveness From Molecular to Supramolecular Levels via Platination of Pentacenes.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

University of Science and Technology of China, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, 96 Jinzhai Road, 230026, Hefei, CHINA.

Near-infrared (NIR) responsiveness is important for various applications. Currently, single-photon NIR-responsive systems are rare compared to those achieved by two-photon absorption and triplet-triplet annihilation processes. Supramolecular stacking of photo-responsive chromophores results in the decreased efficiency due to the space confining effects. Read More

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Structure-function of anticoagulant TIX-5, the inhibitor of Factor Xa-mediated FV activation.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine, Amsterdam Infection and Immunity Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: The prothrombinase complex consists of factors Xa (FXa) and Va (FVa) on an anionic phospholipid surface and converts prothrombin into thrombin. Both coagulation factors require activation prior to complex assembly. We recently identified TIX-5, a unique anticoagulant tick protein that specifically inhibits FXa-mediated activation of FV. Read More

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Livestock Manure Type Affects Microbial Community Composition and Assembly During Composting.

Front Microbiol 2021 22;12:621126. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab of Solid Organic Waste Utilization, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Solid Organic Wastes, Educational Ministry Engineering Center of Resource-saving Fertilizers, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Composting is an environmentally friendly way to turn plant and animal wastes into organic fertilizers. However, it is unclear to what extent the source of animal waste products (such as manure) affects the physicochemical and microbiological properties of compost. Here, we experimentally tested how the type of livestock manure of herbivores (sheep and cattle) and omnivores (pig and chicken) influences the bacterial and fungal communities and physicochemical properties of compost. Read More

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The draft genome of the specialist flea beetle Altica viridicyanea (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

BMC Genomics 2021 Apr 7;22(1):243. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Background: Altica (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a highly diverse and taxonomically challenging flea beetle genus that has been used to address questions related to host plant specialization, reproductive isolation, and ecological speciation. To further evolutionary studies in this interesting group, here we present a draft genome of a representative specialist, Altica viridicyanea, the first Alticinae genome reported thus far.

Results: The genome is 864. Read More

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Drosophila TNFRs Grindelwald and Wengen bind Eiger with different affinities and promote distinct cellular functions.

Nat Commun 2021 04 6;12(1):2070. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

The Drosophila tumour necrosis factor (TNF) ligand-receptor system consists of a unique ligand, Eiger (Egr), and two receptors, Grindelwald (Grnd) and Wengen (Wgn), and therefore provides a simple system for exploring the interplay between ligand and receptors, and the requirement for Grnd and Wgn in TNF/Egr-mediated processes. Here, we report the crystallographic structure of the extracellular domain (ECD) of Grnd in complex with Egr, a high-affinity hetero-hexameric assembly reminiscent of human TNF:TNFR complexes. We show that ectopic expression of Egr results in internalisation of Egr:Grnd complexes in vesicles, a step preceding and strictly required for Egr-induced apoptosis. Read More

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Increased functional diversity warns of ecological transition in the Arctic.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 Apr 7;288(1948):20210054. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Norwegian College of Fishery Science, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø, Norway.

As temperatures rise, motile species start to redistribute to more suitable areas, potentially affecting the persistence of several resident species and altering biodiversity and ecosystem functions. In the Barents Sea, a hotspot for global warming, marine fish from boreal regions have been increasingly found in the more exclusive Arctic region. Here, we show that this shift in species distribution is increasing species richness and evenness, and even more so, the functional diversity of the Arctic. Read More

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CoCoNet: An Efficient Deep Learning Tool for Viral Metagenome Binning.

Bioinformatics 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Information and Computer Sciences, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, Honolulu, 96822, USA.

Motivation: Metagenomic approaches hold the potential to characterize microbial communities and unravel the intricate link between the microbiome and biological processes. Assembly is one of the most critical steps in metagenomics experiments. It consists of transforming overlapping DNA sequencing reads into sufficiently accurate representations of the community's genomes. Read More

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Role of Cholesterol and Lipid Rafts in Cancer Signaling: A Promising Therapeutic Opportunity?

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 19;9:622908. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Center for Gender-Specific Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità [Italian National Institute of Health], Rome, Italy.

Cholesterol is a lipid molecule that plays an essential role in a number of biological processes, both physiological and pathological. It is an essential structural constituent of cell membranes, and it is fundamental for biosynthesis, integrity, and functions of biological membranes, including membrane trafficking and signaling. Moreover, cholesterol is the major lipid component of lipid rafts, a sort of lipid-based structures that regulate the assembly and functioning of numerous cell signaling pathways, including those related to cancer, such as tumor cell growth, adhesion, migration, invasion, and apoptosis. Read More

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Burden of rare variants in synaptic genes in patients with severe tinnitus: An exome based extreme phenotype study.

EBioMedicine 2021 Apr 1;66:103309. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Otology & Neurotology Group CTS495, Department of Genomic Medicine, GENYO-Centre for Genomics and Oncological Research-Pfizer/University of Granada/ Junta de Andalucía, PTS, Granada, Spain; Department of Otolaryngology, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria, ibs.Granada, Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain; Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology, University of Granada, Granada, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: tinnitus is a heterogeneous condition associated with audiological and/or mental disorders. Chronic, severe tinnitus is reported in 1% of the population and it shows a relevant heritability, according to twins, adoptees and familial aggregation studies. The genetic contribution to severe tinnitus is unknown since large genomic studies include individuals with self-reported tinnitus and large heterogeneity in the phenotype. Read More

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Microbial community and abiotic effects on aquatic bacterial communities in north temperate lakes.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 27;781:146771. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Canada; Department of Integrative Biology, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

The aquatic bacterial community (BC) plays a vital role in determining the nature and rate of ecosystem function. However, the biotic and abiotic factors influencing BC structure and function are largely unknown. Hence, the current study characterizes the impact of biotic and abiotic factors on aquatic bacterial biodiversity to determine whether the dominant effects are biotic or abiotic by partitioning their relative effects across temperate Canadian lakes. Read More

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Characterization of paramyosin protein structure and gene expression during myogenesis in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas).

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Apr 1;255:110594. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Paramyosin is a key component of thick filaments in invertebrate muscles. In this study, we isolated the full length cDNA of paramyosin from Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), and determined its pattern of expression during myogenesis. The full length paramyosin (CgPM) cDNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 2586 bp encoding a 861-amino acid protein. Read More

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Conserved Structural Motifs of Two Distant IAV Subtypes in Genomic Segment 5 RNA.

Viruses 2021 03 22;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Noskowskiego 12/14, 61-704 Poznan, Poland.

The functionality of RNA is fully dependent on its structure. For the influenza A virus (IAV), there are confirmed structural motifs mediating processes which are important for the viral replication cycle, including genome assembly and viral packaging. Although the RNA of strains originating from distant IAV subtypes might fold differently, some structural motifs are conserved, and thus, are functionally important. Read More

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Supramolecular Structuring of Hyaluronan-Lactose-Modified Chitosan Matrix: Towards High-Performance Biopolymers with Excellent Biodegradation.

Biomolecules 2021 Mar 5;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Istituto di Ricerche Chimiche e Biochimiche G. Ronzoni, Carbohydrate Science Department, 20133 Milan, Italy.

Non-covalent interactions in supramolecular chemistry provide useful systems to understand biological processes, and self-assembly systems are suitable assets to build-up innovative products for biomedical applications. In this field, polyelectrolyte complexes are interesting, especially when polysaccharides are involved, due to their non-toxicity and bio-absorbability. In this work, we investigated a polyelectrolyte formed by hyaluronic acid (HA), a negatively charged linear polysaccharide, with Chitlac (Ch), a positively charged lactose-modified chitosan. Read More

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Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of (Hemiptera: Alydidae) to Characterize Wing Formation across All Developmental Stages.

Insects 2021 Mar 5;12(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Institute of Entomology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China.

(Hemiptera: Alydidae) is a major agricultural pest in East Asia that causes considerable economic losses to the soybean crop each year. However, the molecular mechanisms governing the growth and development of have not been fully elucidated. In this study, the Illumina HiSeq6000 platform was employed to perform de novo transcriptome assembly and determine the gene expression profiles of this species across all developmental stages, including eggs, first-, second-, third-, fourth-, and fifth-instar nymphs, and adults. Read More

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Kinetics of Guided Growth of Horizontal GaN Nanowires on Flat and Faceted Sapphire Surfaces.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 3;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel.

The bottom-up assembly of nanowires facilitates the control of their dimensions, structure, orientation and physical properties. Surface-guided growth of planar nanowires has been shown to enable their assembly and alignment on substrates during growth, thus eliminating the need for additional post-growth processes. However, accurate control and understanding of the growth of the planar nanowires were achieved only recently, and only for ZnSe and ZnS nanowires. Read More

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Luminescence from Droplet-Etched GaAs Quantum Dots at and Close to Room Temperature.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 10;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Center for Hybrid Nanostructures (CHyN), University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg, Germany.

Epitaxially grown quantum dots (QDs) are established as quantum emitters for quantum information technology, but their operation under ambient conditions remains a challenge. Therefore, we study photoluminescence (PL) emission at and close to room temperature from self-assembled strain-free GaAs quantum dots (QDs) in refilled AlGaAs nanoholes on (001)GaAs substrate. Two major obstacles for room temperature operation are observed. Read More

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Constructing Large 2D Lattices Out of DNA-Tiles.

Molecules 2021 Mar 10;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Nanoscience Center, Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä, Finland.

The predictable nature of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) interactions enables assembly of DNA into almost any arbitrary shape with programmable features of nanometer precision. The recent progress of DNA nanotechnology has allowed production of an even wider gamut of possible shapes with high-yield and error-free assembly processes. Most of these structures are, however, limited in size to a nanometer scale. Read More

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