6,505 results match your criteria aspects phenomenon


Modeling mothering: the development of an experimental system in neurobiology.

Authors:
Bican Polat

Hist Philos Life Sci 2021 Aug 3;43(3):94. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Tsinghua-Michigan Society of Fellows, Tsinghua University, HeEr Building, 120, Haidian, Beijing, 100084, China.

This article explores the development of a rat model of mother-infant relationships from its origins in the psychosomatic investigations of the mid-1960s to its elaboration into a theoretical system in neurobiology. I reconstruct the research trajectory of a group of neurobiologists in the United States, with a focus on the experimental practices they adopted while building this animal model. Providing a microhistory of this decade-long undertaking, I show that what drove the development of the model in practice was a serendipitous finding about infants' response to maternal separation. Read More

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# Me Too: Global Progress in Tackling Continued Custodial Violence Against Women: The 10-Year Anniversary of the Bangkok Rules.

Trauma Violence Abuse 2021 Aug 3:15248380211036067. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Faculty of Health and Social Work, Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

On any given day, almost 11 million people globally are deprived of their liberty. In 2020, the global female population was estimated to be 741,000, an increase of 105,000 since 2010. In order to investigate progress in the adoption of the Bangkok Rules since 2010, we conducted a legal realist assessment based on a global scoping exercise of empirical research and United Nations (UN) reporting, using detailed MESH terms across university and UN databases. Read More

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Oocyte quality and aging.

JBRA Assist Reprod 2021 Aug 2;0(0). Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Anatomical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

It is well known that female reproduction ability decreases during the forth decade of life due to age-related changes in oocyte quality and quantity; although the number of women trying to conceive has today increased remarkably between the ages of 36 to 44. The causes of reproductive aging and physiological aspects of this phenomenon are still elusive. With increase in the women's age, during Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) we have perceived a significant decline in the number and quality of retrieved oocytes, as well as in ovarian follicle reserves. Read More

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Neural Network Optimal Routing Algorithm Based on Genetic Ant Colony in IPv6 Environment.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2021 13;2021:3115704. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Guangzhou Xinhua University, Guangzhou, China.

The traditional IPv6 routing algorithm has problems such as network congestion, excessive energy consumption of nodes, and shortening the life cycle of the network. In response to this phenomenon, we proposed a routing optimization algorithm based on genetic ant colony in IPv6 environment. The algorithm analyzes and studies the genetic algorithm and the ant colony algorithm systematically. Read More

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Attriters and Bilinguals: What's in a Name?

Front Psychol 2021 15;12:558228. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Centre for Cognition and Decision Making, Institute for Cognitive Neuroscience, HSE University, Moscow, Russia.

The use of language as a universal tool for communication and interaction is the backbone of human society. General sociocultural milieu and specific contextual factors can strongly influence various aspects of linguistic experience, including language acquisition and use and the respective internal neurolinguistic processes. This is particularly relevant in the case of bilingualism, which encompasses a diverse set of linguistic experiences, greatly influenced by societal, cultural, educational, and personal factors. Read More

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Viral, inflammatory, and reservoir characteristics of posttreatment controllers.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Alfred Hospital and Monash University Department of Infectious Diseases, Monash Medical Centre Department of Infectious Diseases, The University of Melbourne at The Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity Victorian Infectious Diseases Service, Royal Melbourne Hospital at the Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Australia Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Arhus, Denmark.

Purpose Of Review: To provide an overview of studies to date that have identified posttreatment controllers (PTCs) and to explore current evidence around clinical characteristics, immune effector function, and inflammatory and viral reservoir characteristics that may underlie the control mechanism.

Recent Findings: PTCs are broadly defined as individuals capable of maintaining control of HIV replication after cessation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). While starting ART early after HIV infection is associated with PTC, genetic disposition or CD8+ T-cell function do not appear to explain this phenomenon, but these features have not been exhaustively analyzed in PTCs. Read More

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Scientific inertia in animal-based research in biomedicine.

Authors:
Simon Lohse

Stud Hist Philos Sci 2021 Jul 29;89:41-51. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Institute for History of Medicine and Science Studies, University of Lübeck, Königstrasse 42, 23552 Lübeck, Germany; Centre for Ethics and Law in the Life Sciences, Leibniz University Hannover, Otto-Brenner-Str. 1, 30159 Hannover, Germany. Electronic address:

Despite aspirations to substitute animal experimentation with alternative methods and recent progress in the area of non-animal approaches, such as organoïds and organ(s)-on-a-chip technologies, there is no extensive replacement of animal-based research in biomedicine. In this paper, I will analyse this state of affairs with reference to key institutional and socio-epistemic barriers for the development and use of non-animal approaches in the context of biomedical research in Europe. I will argue that there exist several factors that inhibit change in this context. Read More

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Organic Codes: A Unifying Concept for Life.

Acta Biotheor 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Departamento de Filosofia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brazil.

Although the knowledge about biological systems has advanced exponentially in recent decades, it is surprising to realize that the very definition of Life keeps presenting theoretical challenges. Even if several lines of reasoning seek to identify the essence of life phenomenon, most of these thoughts contain fundamental problem in their basic conceptual structure. Most concepts fail to identify either necessary or sufficient features to define life. Read More

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Elder abuse in the oldest old: prevalence, risk factors and consequences.

Z Gerontol Geriatr 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Lehrstuhl für Rehabilitationswissenschaftliche Gerontologie, Humanwissenschaftliche Fakultät, Universität zu Köln, Köln, Germany.

Background: Experiences of abuse in relationships with an expectation of trust are a common phenomenon among older people and is called elder abuse (EA). This can take various forms, such as physical, verbal, emotional, psychological, financial, sexual abuse or neglect. Due to their high vulnerability and difficulties in receiving support, people aged over 80 years old have been pointed out as a group that needs special focus in research. Read More

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Histone H2A.X phosphorylation and Caspase-Initiated Chromatin Condensation in late-stage erythropoiesis.

Epigenetics Chromatin 2021 Jul 30;14(1):37. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Center for Pediatric Biomedical Research, Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA.

Background: Condensation of chromatin prior to enucleation is an essential component of terminal erythroid maturation, and defects in this process are associated with inefficient erythropoiesis and anemia. However, the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are not well understood. Here, we describe a potential role for the histone variant H2A. Read More

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Glutamate Electropolymerization on Carbon Increases Analytical Sensitivity to Dopamine and Serotonin: An Auspicious Phenomenon in Mice?

Anal Chem 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, 29208 United States.

Carbon is the material of choice for electroanalysis of biological systems, being particularly applicable to neurotransmitter analysis as carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMs). CFMs are most often applied to dopamine detection; however, the scope of CFM analysis has rapidly expanded over the last decade with our laboratory's focus being on improving serotonin detection at CFMs, which we achieved in the past Nafion modification. We began this present work by seeking to optimize this modification to gain increased analytical sensitivity toward serotonin under the assumption that exposure of bare carbon to the environment rapidly deteriorates analytical performance. Read More

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[PROBLEMS OF COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF THE SPREAD OF THE COVID-19 INFODEMIA].

Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med 2021 Jun;29(Special Issue):689-693

N. A. Kosygin Russian State University (Technologies. Design. Art), 117997, Moscow, Russia,

COVID-19 is a crisis that has radically changed the world, as illustrated by the social, psychological, and economic consequences of the spread of infection. This pandemic is framed by endless streams of misinformation and fake news, which have their own consequences, and spread even more distorted and misleading information. Significant part of this misinformation concerns conspiracy theories of all kinds, as well as drugs and treatments that, although approved for other indications, may have potential efficacy in preventing or for treating COVID-19. Read More

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A stability perspective of bio-inspired UAVs performing dynamic soaring optimally.

Bioinspir Biomim 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Air University, Aerospace & Aviation Campus, Air University, Aerospace & Aviation Campus, Kamra, 44200, PAKISTAN.

Dynamic soaring phenomenon, exhibited by soaring birds, has long been a biological inspiration for the aerospace and control engineering communities. If this fascinating phenomenon, which allows soaring birds to perform almost un-powered flights using wind shear, can be mimicked by Unmanned-Aerial-Vehicles (UAVs), then UAVs performance have a substantial potential to enhance technologically and economically as well. Even though there have been considerable amount of research covering the modeling, optimization, control and simulation aspects of different UAVs performing dynamic soaring, there is little to non conclusive work analyzing the stability of such UAVs about the soaring orbits. Read More

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Deciphering and engineering tissue folding: a mechanical perspective.

Acta Biomater 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Institute for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China; Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education of China, School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China; Shun Hing Institute of Advanced Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR, China; Hong Kong Branch of CAS Center for Excellence in Animal Evolution and Genetics, Hong Kong SAR, China. Electronic address:

The folding of tissues/organs into complex shapes is a common phenomenon that occurs in organisms such as animals and plants, and is both structurally and functionally important. Deciphering the process of tissue folding and applying this knowledge to engineer folded systems would significantly advance the field of tissue engineering. Although early studies focused on investigating the biochemical signaling events that occur during the folding process, the physical or mechanical aspects of the process have received increasing attention in recent years. Read More

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Genetics of autosomal mosaic chromosomal alteration (mCA).

J Hum Genet 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Laboratory for Statistical and Translational Genetics, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Japan.

Mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs) are frequently observed in cancer cells and are regarded as one of the common features of cancers. Strikingly, accumulating studies demonstrated that mCAs are also prevalent in elderly individuals without cancer, implying mCA could be a feature of aging and not necessarily a cancerous state. However, the genetic basis of mCA has been mostly unknown. Read More

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Human EEG and Recurrent Neural Networks Exhibit Common Temporal Dynamics During Speech Recognition.

Front Syst Neurosci 2021 8;15:617605. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, Department of Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, Canada.

Recent deep-learning artificial neural networks have shown remarkable success in recognizing natural human speech, however the reasons for their success are not entirely understood. Success of these methods might be because state-of-the-art networks use recurrent layers or dilated convolutional layers that enable the network to use a time-dependent feature space. The importance of time-dependent features in human cortical mechanisms of speech perception, measured by electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG), have also been of particular recent interest. Read More

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Problems of Pathogenesis and Pathogenetic Therapy of COVID-19 from the Perspective of the General Theory of Pathological Systems (General Pathological Processes).

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 15;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Institute of Immunology and Physiology, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 620049 Ekaterinburg, Russia.

The COVID-19 pandemic examines not only the state of actual health care but also the state of fundamental medicine in various countries. Pro-inflammatory processes extend far beyond the classical concepts of inflammation. They manifest themselves in a variety of ways, beginning with extreme physiology, then allostasis at low-grade inflammation, and finally the shockogenic phenomenon of "inflammatory systemic microcirculation". Read More

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Understanding In Vitro Tissue Culture-Induced Variation Phenomenon in Microspore System.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 14;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute-National Research Institute, Radzików, 05-870 Błonie, Poland.

tissue culture plant regeneration is a complicated process that requires stressful conditions affecting the cell functioning at multiple levels, including signaling pathways, transcriptome functioning, the interaction between cellular organelles (retro-, anterograde), compounds methylation, biochemical cycles, and DNA mutations. Unfortunately, the network linking all these aspects is not well understood, and the available knowledge is not systemized. Moreover, some aspects of the phenomenon are poorly studied. Read More

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Contribution of Apaf-1 to the pathogenesis of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.

Biochimie 2021 Jul 21;190:91-110. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Deregulation of apoptosis is associated with various pathologies, such as neurodegenerative disorders at one end of the spectrum and cancer at the other end. Generally speaking, differentiated cells like cardiomyocytes, skeletal myocytes and neurons exhibit low levels of Apaf-1 (Apoptotic protease activating factor 1) protein suggesting that down-regulation of Apaf-1 is an important event contributing to the resistance of these cells to apoptosis. Nonetheless, upregulation of Apaf-1 has not emerged as a common phenomenon in pathologies associated with enhanced neuronal cell death, i. Read More

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Neural mechanisms underlying the Rubber Hand Illusion: A systematic review of related neurophysiological studies.

Brain Behav 2021 Jul 21:e02124. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Klinik, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria.

Introduction: Many researchers took advantage of the well-established rubber hand illusion (RHI) paradigm to explore the link between the sense of body ownership and the different brain structures and networks. Here, we aimed to review the studies that have investigated this phenomenon by means of neurophysiological techniques.

Methods: The MEDLINE, accessed by Pubmed and EMBASE electronic databases, was searched using the medical subject headings: "Rubber hand illusion" AND "Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)" OR "Evoked potentials (EP)" OR "Event related potentials (ERP)" OR "Electroencephalography (EEG)". Read More

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Aging: the experience of nurses working in a hospital.

Rev Bras Enferm 2021 14;74(3):e20201187. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Universidade de São Paulo. São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objectives: to understand the experience of aging in the perspective of nurses working in a hospital environment.

Methods: descriptive study with a qualitative approach, with interviews based on six guiding questions analyzed through Martín Heidegger's perspective on Phenomenology.

Results: eleven nurses with a mean age of 46. Read More

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Freely chosen cadence during ergometer cycling is dependent on pedalling history.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Sport Sciences-Performance and Technology, Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Niels Jernes Vej 12, 9220, Aalborg, Denmark.

Purpose: History dependence can refer to the fact that parts of the human physiology (e.g., one or a group of muscles, or the nervous system) as well as functional aspects of the human (e. Read More

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Study on the Mechanism of the Reversible Color Change of Polyacrylic Acid Modified Gold Nanoparticles Responding to pH.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 1;14(13). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Engineering Research Center of Historical and Cultural Heritage Protection, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China.

In view of various explanations regarding the pH response of the nanocomposite of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified with polyacrylic acid (PAA) molecules in reported literature, in this work, AuNPs with a size of 20 nm saturatedly loaded with PAA molecules (AuNPs-PAAs) were used to investigate the following aspects of this issue. We investigated the effects of pH on the stability of AuNPs-PAAs in the presence of salt, CTAB, poly (sodium styrenesulfonate) (PSS), ethanol, and free PAA, respectively. Common techniques were undertaken to evaluate the stability, including UV-Vis spectroscopy, Zeta potential analysis, and TEM. Read More

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Children should be seen and also heard: an explorative qualitative study into the influences on children's choice of footwear, their perception of comfort and the language they use to describe footwear experiences.

J Foot Ankle Res 2021 Jul 16;14(1):49. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

University of Salford School of Health and Society, Brian Blatchford Building, Frederick Road Campus, Greater Manchester, M6 6PU, Salford, England.

Background: Footwear has an essential role including protection of the feet, overall performance, foot health and potentially, supporting normal development of the foot. In addition to these physical aspects which may influence choice of footwear design, there are psychological influences on what a person chooses to wear. The concept of footwear 'comfort' spans physical and psychological perceptions of comfort in adults. Read More

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'Everything is as before, but nothing is as it was'-A phenomenological-hermeneutic study of meaningfulness in adult patients with refractory epilepsy after interdisciplinary epilepsy rehabilitation.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 Jul 13;122:108168. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Research Unit of Nursing and Healthcare, Institute of Public Health Health, Aarhus University, Department of Public Health - Department of Science in Nursing, Campus Emdrup, Tuborgvej 164, bygning B8, 1. sal, 2400 Copenhagen NV, Denmark. Electronic address:

Background: Interdisciplinary Rehabilitation aimed at adults with refractory epilepsy (RE) establishes scientific evidence of higher health-related QoL, including improved self-worth and increased self-awareness as outcomes. Yet, there is very little research-based knowledge of how life transforms itself after the rehabilitation program from patients' perspectives.

Aim: The aim of this study was to identify and describe how - from the patient perspectives - life transforms itself after rehabilitation among adults with RE, focusing on the meaningfulness of interdisciplinary rehabilitation. Read More

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The critical role of B4GALT4 in promoting microtubule spindle assembly in HCC through the regulation of PLK1 and RHAMM expression.

J Cell Physiol 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Biochemistry, Key Laboratory for Molecular Enzymology and Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase (B4GALT)-family glycosyltransferases are involved in multiple biological processes promoting cancer progression, regulating the dynamic network of cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis, and are associated with metastasis. However, their roles in the dysregulation of expressions and functions in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. Herein, bioinformatic approaches have been applied to investigate their expression profiles, and to obtain correlations between gene expressions and clinicopathological parameters as well as downstream target genes in HCC. Read More

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Picking the right metaphors for addressing microbial systems: economic theory helps understanding biological complexity.

Int Microbiol 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Systems Biology Department, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología-CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid, Spain.

Any descriptive language is necessarily metaphoric and interpretative. Two somewhat overlapping-but not identical-languages have been thoroughly employed in the last decade to address the issue of regulatory complexity in biological systems: the terminology of network theory and the jargon of electric circuitry. These approaches have found many formal equivalences between the layout of extant genetic circuits and the architecture of man-made counterparts. Read More

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Submission to the Australian Senate Select Committee on Job Security on the Impact of Insecure or Precarious Employment on the Economy, Wages, Social Cohesion, and Workplace Rights and Conditions.

New Solut 2021 Jul 16:10482911211032946. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

The Australian Senate announced a Select Committee in December of 2020 "to inquire into and report on the impact of insecure or precarious employment on the economy, wages, social cohesion and workplace rights and conditions." This "Document" is a submission to the Australian Senate from independent Australian researchers focusing on the role of perceived job (in)security in this context, acknowledging that it only briefly addresses the role of unemployment, precarious employment, and other aspects of the broader phenomenon of insecure work. Submissions closed in March of 2021, and the Australian Senate is due to report its findings on 30 November 2021. Read More

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A new era of radiation resistance bacteria in bioremediation and production of bioactive compounds with therapeutic potential and other aspects: An in-perspective review.

J Environ Radioact 2021 Jul 12;237:106696. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700032, India. Electronic address:

Microorganisms that survive in extreme environmental conditions are known as 'extremophiles'. Recently, extremophiles draw an impression in biotechnology/pharmaceutical researches/industries because of their novel molecules, known as 'extremolytes'. The intriguing phenomenon of microbial radiation resistance probably arose independently throughout their evolution of selective pressures (e. Read More

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A Review on Li+/H+ Exchange in Garnet Solid Electrolytes: From Instability against Humidity to Sustainable Processing in Water.

ChemSusChem 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

RWTH Aachen: Rheinisch-Westfalische Technische Hochschule Aachen, ISEA, GERMANY.

Garnet-based Li-ion conductors are one of the most promising oxide-ceramic solid electrolytes for next-generation Li batteries. However, they undergo a Li + /H + exchange (LHX) reaction with most solvents used in component manufacturing routes and even with moisture in ambient air. These protonated garnets show a lower ionic conductivity and even if only the surface is degraded, this protonated layer hinders the Li-ion exchange with e. Read More

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