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Ropivacaine-Loaded Poloxamer Binary Hydrogels for Prolonged Regional Anesthesia: Structural Aspects, Biocompatibility, and Pharmacological Evaluation.

Biomed Res Int 2021 16;2021:7300098. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Human and Natural Sciences Center, Federal University of ABC, Santo André, SP, Brazil.

This study reports the development of thermosensitive hydrogels for delivering ropivacaine (RVC), a wide clinically used local anesthetic. For this purpose, poloxamer- (PL-) based hydrogels were synthesized for evaluating the influence of polymer concentration, hydrophilic-lipophilic balances, and binary system formation on biopharmaceutical properties and pharmacological performance. Transition temperatures were shifted, and rheological analysis revealed a viscoelastic behavior with enhanced elastic/viscous modulus relationship ('/ = 1. Read More

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September 2021

Osteoblast-Specific Wnt Secretion is Required for Skeletal Homeostasis and Loading-Induced Bone Formation in Adult Mice.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Musculoskeletal Research Center, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, US.

Wnt signaling is critical to many aspects of skeletal regulation, but the importance of Wnt ligands in the bone anabolic response to mechanical loading is not well established. Recent transcriptome profiling studies by our lab and others show that mechanical loading potently induces genes encoding Wnt ligands, including Wnt1 and Wnt7b. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that mechanical loading stimulates adult bone formation by inducing Wnt ligand expression. Read More

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September 2021

Knockin' on Egg's Door: Maternal Control of Egg Activation That Influences Cortical Granule Exocytosis in Animal Species.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 3;9:704867. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Laboratorio Fisiología de la Reproducción, Departamento de Biología y Química, Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Católica del Maule, Talca, Chile.

Fertilization by multiple sperm leads to lethal chromosomal number abnormalities, failed embryo development, and miscarriage. In some vertebrate and invertebrate eggs, the so-called cortical reaction contributes to their activation and prevents polyspermy during fertilization. This process involves biogenesis, redistribution, and subsequent accumulation of cortical granules (CGs) at the female gamete cortex during oogenesis. Read More

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September 2021

A bacteria-resistant and self-healing spray dressing based on lyotropic liquid crystals to treat infected post-operative wounds.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou 511443, Guangdong, P. R. China.

The delayed healing of infected post-operative wounds has turned into a worldwide medical problem. In the clinical treatment, effective bacterial clearance and promoted wound healing were considered as two crucial aspects. However, the effect of current dressings with antibacterial activity was limited due to the declined efficacy against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and poor mechanical property during skin extension and compression movement. Read More

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September 2021

Ultrafast gelation of multifunctional hydrogel/composite based on self-catalytic Fe/Tannic acid-cellulose nanofibers.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Aug 18;606(Pt 2):1457-1468. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Multifunctional hydrogels with transparency, ultraviolet (UV)-blocking, stretchable, self-healing, adhesive, antioxidant and antibacterial properties are promising materials for biomedical and relevant applications. However, preparation of these hydrogels at ambient environment without stimuli is still a challenge. Here, a series of hydrogels possessing ultrashort gelation time (~30 s) at room or cold temperature were fabricated based on self-catalytic Fe/Tannic acid-cellulose nanofiber (Fe/TA-CNF). Read More

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Recent advances in microneedles-based drug delivery device in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

J Control Release 2021 Sep 1;338:394-409. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, 110062, India. Electronic address:

Microneedles are unique, novel and an effective approach designed to deliver therapeutic agents and immunobiologicals in several diseases. These tiny needle patches are designed to load vaccine, small or large drug molecule, heavy molecular weighted proteins, genes, antibodies, nanoparticles and many more. These nanoparticles loaded microneedles deliver drugs deep within the skin near underlying neutrophils, langerhans and dendritic cells and induces required immunological response. Read More

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September 2021

Approaches for ear-targeted delivery systems in neurosensory disorders to avoid chronic hearing loss mediated neurological diseases.

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2021 09 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Maulana Azad University, Jodhpur, 342802, Rajasthan, India.

Background & Objective: Hearing loss is a common audio-vestibular-related neurosensory disability of inner ears, in which patients exhibit clinical symptoms of dizziness, gait unsteadiness, and oscillopsia, at an initial stage. While, if such disorders are untreated for a prolonged duration then the progression of disease into a chronic state significantly decreases GABA level as well as an alteration in the neurotransmission of CNS systems. Hence, to control the progression of disease into a chronic state, timely and targeted delivery of the drug into the site of action in the ear is now attracting the interest of neurologists for effective and safe treatment of such disorders. Read More

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September 2021

Drug Delivery by Ultrasound-Responsive Nanocarriers for Cancer Treatment.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Jul 26;13(8). Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Faculty of Medicine, Rudolf-Boehm-Institute for Pharmacology and Toxicology, Clinical Pharmacology, Leipzig University, 04107 Leipzig, Germany.

Conventional cancer chemotherapies often exhibit insufficient therapeutic outcomes and dose-limiting toxicity. Therefore, there is a need for novel therapeutics and formulations with higher efficacy, improved safety, and more favorable toxicological profiles. This has promoted the development of nanomedicines, including systems for drug delivery, but also for imaging and diagnostics. Read More

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Fish biodiversity and assemblages along the altitudinal gradients of tropical mountainous forest streams.

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 19;11(1):16922. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Research and Development Department, Sarawak Energy Berhad, 93050, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia.

Knowledge of the fundamental aspects of ecology such as the patterns of fish species distribution and biodiversity in the forest streams is the first and basic step to develop effective conservation strategies. Yet, studies on altitudinal changes of fish composition and assemblages in Bornean forest streams are scarce despite being one of the hotspots of biodiversity conservation. Hence, surveys on freshwater fish composition along the altitudinal gradients of the Baleh River Basin in Sarawak, Borneo were conducted from April 2014 to August 2015. Read More

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Biodegradable Antimicrobial Agent/Analgesic/Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Loaded Nanofibrous Fixators for Bone Fracture Repair.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 11;16:5357-5370. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Bone and Joint Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan, 33305, Taiwan.

Purpose: Postoperative infection and pain management are of great concern to orthopedic surgeons. Although there are several protocols available to deal with these aspects, they are fraught with complications, such as cartilage damage, cardiovascular and neurological intoxication, and systemic adverse responses. Therefore, it is necessary to develop safe and effective perioperative protocols. Read More

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High spatial and temporal resolution Ca imaging of myocardial strips from human, pig and rat.

Nat Protoc 2021 Aug 16. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Vascular Pharmacology Group, Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Ca handling within cardiac myocytes underpins coordinated contractile function within the beating heart. This protocol enables high spatial and temporal Ca imaging of ex vivo multicellular myocardial strips. The endocardial surface is retained, and strips of 150-300-µm thickness are dissected, loaded with Ca indicators and mounted within 1. Read More

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Optimization of immunization procedure for SWCNTs-based subunit vaccine with mannose modification against spring viraemia of carp virus in common carp.

J Fish Dis 2021 Aug 12. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Immersion vaccination of single-walled carbon nanotubes loaded with mannose-modified glycoprotein (SWCNTs-MG) vaccine has been proved to be effective in preventing spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). Immunization procedure has immense consequence on the immune effect of the immersion vaccine. However, immunization procedure optimization for SWCNTs-MG vaccine against SVCV has not been reported. Read More

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Distress in the time of COVID-19: Understanding the distinction between COVID-19 specific mental distress and depression among United States adults.

J Affect Disord 2021 11 30;294:949-956. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 624 N. Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, many Americans have experienced mental distress, which may be partially characterized by a rise in mental illnesses. However, COVID-19 specific psychological distress may also be separate from diagnosable conditions, a distinction that has not been well established in the context of the pandemic.

Methods: Data came from an online survey of US adults collected in March 2020. Read More

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November 2021

Lignocellulose-based free-standing hybrid electrode with natural vessels-retained, hierarchically pores-constructed and active materials-loaded for high-performance hybrid oxide supercapacitor.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Sep 31;187:903-910. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China; Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center of Efficient Processing and Utilization of Forest Resources, China; International Innovation Center for Forest Chemicals and Materials, China; Jiangsu Engineering Research Center of Fast-growing Trees and Agri-fiber Materials, Nanjing 210037, China. Electronic address:

Lignocellulose including cellulose, lignin, and hemicellulose could be extracted from wood, and has been used to prepare carbon electrode. However, complicated extraction greatly increases preparation cost. To achieve maximum utilization of lignocellulose and avoid complicated extraction, wood with porous structure and good mechanical strength is used as carbon precursor. Read More

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September 2021

Antimicrobial Activity of Curcumin in Nanoformulations: A Comprehensive Review.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 1;22(13). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, São Paulo State University (Unesp), Araraquara 14800-000, Brazil.

Curcumin (CUR) is a natural substance extracted from turmeric that has antimicrobial properties. Due to its ability to absorb light in the blue spectrum, CUR is also used as a photosensitizer (PS) in antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT). However, CUR is hydrophobic, unstable in solutions, and has low bioavailability, which hinders its clinical use. Read More

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Biofuels and biorefineries: Development, application and future perspectives emphasizing the environmental and economic aspects.

J Environ Manage 2021 Nov 16;297:113268. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Environmental & IT Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The fossil fuel utilization adversely affected the environmental health due to the rising emission levels of greenhouse gases. Consequently, the challenges of climate change loaded great stress on renewable energy sources. It is noted that extreme consumption of fossil fuels increased the earth temperature by 1. Read More

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November 2021

Study on the Mechanism of the Reversible Color Change of Polyacrylic Acid Modified Gold Nanoparticles Responding to pH.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 1;14(13). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Engineering Research Center of Historical and Cultural Heritage Protection, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China.

In view of various explanations regarding the pH response of the nanocomposite of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified with polyacrylic acid (PAA) molecules in reported literature, in this work, AuNPs with a size of 20 nm saturatedly loaded with PAA molecules (AuNPs-PAAs) were used to investigate the following aspects of this issue. We investigated the effects of pH on the stability of AuNPs-PAAs in the presence of salt, CTAB, poly (sodium styrenesulfonate) (PSS), ethanol, and free PAA, respectively. Common techniques were undertaken to evaluate the stability, including UV-Vis spectroscopy, Zeta potential analysis, and TEM. Read More

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[Simultaneous determination of 30 antibiotics in soil by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

Se Pu 2021 Aug;39(8):878-888

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

The complexity of the soil matrix, as well as the wide spectrum and trace levels of antibiotic residues in soil, make highly sensitive instrumental methods, efficient purification and enrichment methods, and simultaneous determination of multiple antibiotics key and challenging aspects in the analysis of antibiotics in soil. In this study, a solid phase extraction-ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 30 antibiotics (grouped into seven categories: sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, macrolides, -lactams, amphenicols, and lincosamides) in soil samples. In the UHPLC-MS/MS experiment, florfenicol and chloramphenicol were analyzed in the negative ionization multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, and the other 28 target analytes were analyzed in the positive MRM mode. Read More

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Melatonin-Loaded Nanocarriers: New Horizons for Therapeutic Applications.

Molecules 2021 Jun 10;26(12). Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Cell Systems and Anatomy, UT Health, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA.

The use of nanosized particles has emerged to facilitate selective applications in medicine. Drug-delivery systems represent novel opportunities to provide stricter, focused, and fine-tuned therapy, enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of chemical agents at the molecular level while reducing their toxic effects. Melatonin (-acetyl-5-methoxytriptamine) is a small indoleamine secreted essentially by the pineal gland during darkness, but also produced by most cells in a non-circadian manner from which it is not released into the blood. Read More

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Multi-organ targeting of HIV-1 viral reservoirs with etravirine loaded nanostructured lipid carrier: An in-vivo proof of concept.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 Sep 21;164:105916. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Center for Novel Drug Delivery Systems, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, N. P. Marg, Matunga (E), Mumbai 400019, India. Electronic address:

The inadequate bioavailability and toxicity potential of antiretroviral therapy limit their effectiveness in the complete eradication of HIV from viral reservoirs. The penetration of these drugs into the brain is challenging because of the unfavorable physicochemical properties required to cross the membranes, limiting the transport of the drugs. Thus, in the current study, the authors report a nanocarrier-based drug delivery of a highly hydrophobic drug to overcome the existing limitations of the conventional therapies. Read More

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September 2021

Ruthenium-Nanoparticle-Loaded Hollow Carbon Spheres as Nanoreactors for Hydrogenation of Levulinic Acid: Explicitly Recognizing the Void-Confinement Effect.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 09 13;60(38):20786-20794. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

School of Science, Tibet University, Lhasa, Tibet, 850000, P. R. China.

As a typical class of man-made nanoreactors, metal-loaded hollow carbon nanostructures (MHC nanoreactors) exhibit competitive potentials in the heterogeneous catalysis due to their tailorable microenvironment effects, in which the void-confinement effect is one of the most fundamental functions in boosting the catalytic performance. Herein this paper, Ru-loaded hollow carbon spheres are employed as nanoreactors with a crucial biomass hydrogenation process, levulinic acid (LA) hydrogenation into γ-valerolactone, as the probe reaction to further recognize the forming mechanism of this pivotal effect. We demonstrated that the void-confinement effect of the selected MHC nanoreactors is essentially driven by an integrating action of electronic metal-support interaction, reactant enrichment and diffusion, which are mainly ascribed to peculiar properties of hollow nanoreactors both in electronic and structural aspects, respectively. Read More

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September 2021

Polymer-Infiltrated Nanoparticle Films Using Capillarity-Based Techniques: Toward Multifunctional Coatings and Membranes.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2021 06;12:411-437

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA; email:

Polymer-infiltrated nanoparticle films (PINFs) are a new class of nanocomposites that offer synergistic properties and functionality derived from unusually high fractions of nanomaterials. Recently, two versatile techniques,capillary rise infiltration (CaRI) and solvent-driven infiltration of polymer (SIP), have been introduced that exploit capillary forces in films of densely packed nanoparticles. In CaRI, a highly loaded PINF is produced by thermally induced wicking of polymer melt into the nanoparticle packing pores. Read More

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Highly efficient CD4+ T cell targeting and genetic recombination using engineered CD4+ cell-homing mRNA-LNPs.

Mol Ther 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Nucleoside-modified messenger RNA (mRNA)-lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are the basis for the first two EUA (Emergency Use Authorization) COVID-19 vaccines. The use of nucleoside-modified mRNA as a pharmacological agent opens immense opportunities for therapeutic, prophylactic and diagnostic molecular interventions. In particular, mRNA-based drugs may specifically modulate immune cells, such as T lymphocytes, for immunotherapy of oncologic, infectious and other conditions. Read More

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The mechanism of action of the SSB interactome reveals it is the first OB-fold family of genome guardians in prokaryotes.

Piero R Bianco

Protein Sci 2021 Sep 14;30(9):1757-1775. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.

The single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) is essential to all aspects of DNA metabolism in bacteria. This protein performs two distinct, but closely intertwined and indispensable functions in the cell. SSB binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and at least 20 partner proteins resulting in their regulation. Read More

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September 2021

Increasing the stability of the spring loaded inverted pendulum model of running with a wobbling mass.

J Biomech 2021 06 15;123:110527. Epub 2021 May 15.

Biomechanics Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-3408, USA.

Human running can be simulated using a simple model called the spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP). The SLIP model predicts some aspects of running including the self-stabilizing properties of running. In human locomotion energy is dissipated due to the passive motion of the soft tissue. Read More

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Localized Enzyme-Assisted Self-Assembly in the Presence of Hyaluronic Acid for Hybrid Supramolecular Hydrogel Coating.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 May 29;13(11). Epub 2021 May 29.

Institut Charles Sadron (UPR22), Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, 23 rue du Loess, CEDEX 2, BP 84047, 67034 Strasbourg, France.

Hydrogel coating is highly suitable in biomaterial design. It provides biocompatibility and avoids protein adsorption leading to inflammation and rejection of implants. Moreover, hydrogels can be loaded with biologically active compounds. Read More

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A Comprehensive Portal for Clinical and Translational Data Warehouses.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2021 May;281:462-466

Berlin Institute of Health at Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Medical Informatics Group, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany.

Data-driven methods in biomedical research can help to obtain new insights into the development, progression and therapy of diseases. Clinical and translational data warehouses such as Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) and tranSMART are important solutions for this. From the well-known FAIR data principles, which are used to address the aspects of findability, accessibility, interoperability and reusability. Read More

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In vivo and in vitro Evaluation of in situ Gel Formulation of Pemirolast Potassium in Allergic Conjunctivitis.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 18;15:2099-2107. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated Medical School, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Background: To establish a novel delivery system of pemirolast potassium-loaded gellan gum in situ gel in allergic conjunctivitis therapy.

Methods: The prepared in situ gels were studied in the following aspects: in vitro gelation, in vitro release, stability, viscosity measurement, in vivo tear kinetics and pharmacodynamics.

Results: In this study, the results showed that the viscosity of the in situ gels significantly increased when the preparation was in contact with simulated tear fluid and it also exhibited good stability in a period of three months. Read More

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Why Stress Matters: An Introduction.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2299:159-169

Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, MN, USA.

Fibroblasts and myofibroblasts are found throughout mechanically loaded tissues, where they take primary responsibility for generating and maintaining the extracellular matrix scaffold upon which organ structure and function depends. They are thus tasked with creating the appropriate mechanical environment in which cells and tissues function optimally, and constantly adapting this environment as needed in response to changing environmental cues. To carry out these functions, fibroblasts must not only deposit and resorb the extracellular matrix, they must adhere to and sense its physical characteristics, and exert the forces necessary to shape, distort, and remodel it as desired. Read More

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Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus p12 Is Required for Histone Loading onto Retroviral DNAs.

J Virol 2021 07 12;95(15):e0049521. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA.

During retrovirus infection, a histone-free DNA copy of the viral RNA genome is synthesized and rapidly loaded with nucleosomes upon nuclear entry. The potential role of viral accessory proteins in histone loading onto retroviral DNAs has not been extensively investigated. The p12 protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MMLV) is a virion protein that is critical for tethering the incoming viral DNA to host chromatin in the early stages of infection. Read More

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