2,819,477 results match your criteria article reviews


Outcomes for various dural graft materials after posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty for Chiari malformation type I: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Neurosurg 2021 Apr 9:1-14. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Departments of1Neurological Surgery and.

Objective: Posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty (PFDD) is often used for Chiari malformation type I (CM-I), but outcomes associated with different dural graft materials are not well characterized. In this meta-analysis, the authors examined complication rates and outcomes after PFDD for CM-I for autografts and four types of nonautologous grafts.

Methods: A literature search of numerous electronic databases (Ovid Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Health Technology Assessment Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, and ClinicalTrials. Read More

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Clinical outcomes of nonoperatively managed degenerative cervical myelopathy: an ambispective longitudinal cohort study in 117 patients.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Apr 9:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

1Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto.

Objective: Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) is among the most common pathologies affecting the spinal cord but its natural history is poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to investigate functional outcomes in patients with DCM who were managed nonoperatively as well as the utility of quantitative clinical measures and MRI to detect deterioration.

Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed DCM or recurrent myelopathic symptoms after previous surgery who were initially managed nonoperatively were included. Read More

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Oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy: How strong a risk factor for venous thromboembolism?

Thromb Res 2021 Mar 25;202:134-138. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Exogenous hormone therapies, such as combined oral contraceptives (COC) and hormone replacement therapy (HRT), cause blood hypercoagulability and are a risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). There is controversy on how strong this "provoking" risk factor is, and how other risk factors may synergise VTE risk. We aim to review the latest literature on the risk of initial and recurrent VTE with COC and HRT use to provide guidance for decision-making about duration of anticoagulation, and guide future research efforts. Read More

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Pharmacologic and hormonal treatments for menopausal sleep disturbances: A network meta-analysis of 43 randomized controlled trials and 32,271 menopausal women.

Sleep Med Rev 2021 Mar 11;57:101469. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

This network meta-analysis aimed at investigating efficacy/tolerability of pharmacologic/hormonal interventions for menopausal sleep disturbances. Major databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining pharmacologic or hormonal interventions with either placebo or active controlled designs. Primary outcomes were improvements in sleep disturbance severity/tolerability (i. Read More

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Prevalence of clinical signs and symptoms of the masticatory system and their associations in children with sleep bruxism: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sleep Med Rev 2021 Mar 12;57:101468. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil.

Sleep bruxism (SB) is a behavior of central origin that is related to different factors. This systematic review aimed to determine the prevalence of clinical signs and symptoms of the masticatory system and their association in children with SB. A structured search in ten databases were taken. Read More

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Suspension torture and its physical sequelae.

J Forensic Leg Med 2021 Apr 1;80:102155. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

DIGNITY - the Danish Institute Against Torture, Bryggervangen 55, 2100, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

Suspension torture is one of the most common and widespread methods of torture. The objective of the study is to conduct a systematic literature review and produce an overview of suspension torture and its health implications, thus improving the diagnosis of suspension torture victims and documentation of their injuries. The review includes the prevalence, geographical distribution and description of variations of suspension torture. Read More

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Restless legs syndrome among subjects having chronic liver disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sleep Med Rev 2021 Mar 11;58:101463. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Neurology, John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Sleep disturbances are commonly reported in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). Changes in quality of sleep in patients with CLD could be related to multiple factors viz., elevated levels of tryptophan, histamine, and increased turnover of dopamine in caudate-putamen and cingulate cortex. Read More

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Diffusion weighted imaging in acute ischemic stroke: A review of its interpretation pitfalls and advanced diffusion imaging application.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Apr 3;425:117435. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Neurology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is a widely used imaging technique to evaluate patients with stroke. It can detect brain ischemia within minutes of stroke onset. However, DWI has few potential pitfalls that should be recognized during interpretation. Read More

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Developments in solution-state NMR yield broader and deeper views of the dynamic ensembles of nucleic acids.

Curr Opin Struct Biol 2021 Apr 6;70:16-25. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Biochemistry, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA; Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Nucleic acids do not fold into a single conformation, and dynamic ensembles are needed to describe their propensities to cycle between different conformations when performing cellular functions. We review recent advances in solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods and their integration with computational techniques that are improving the ability to probe the dynamic ensembles of DNA and RNA. These include computational approaches for predicting chemical shifts from structure and generating conformational libraries from sequence, measurements of exact nuclear Overhauser effects, development of new probes to study chemical exchange using relaxation dispersion, faster and more sensitive real-time NMR techniques, and new NMR approaches to tackle large nucleic acid assemblies. Read More

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The effects of maintenance cardiac rehabilitation: A systematic review and Meta-analysis, with a focus on sex.

Heart Lung 2021 Apr 6;50(4):504-524. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Faculty of Health, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada; KITE-Toronto Rehabilitation Institute & Peter Munk Cardiac Centre, University Health Network, University of Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Phase III/IV cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is recommended to promote maintenance of benefits achieved during Phase II; there has been no meta-analysis to test this to date. This study determined the effects of maintenance CR on any outcome, with consideration of sex. Seven databases were searched from inception-January 2020. Read More

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DNA damage response and repair in osteosarcoma: Defects, regulation and therapeutic implications.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2021 Mar 24;102:103105. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Molecular Medicine Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone malignancy in children and adolescents which has the survival rate of 20% in its advanced stages. Osteosarcomas are mostly resistance to our common treatments. DNA damage response (DDR) is a specialized multistep process containing abundant proteins which are necessary for the survival of any cell and organism. Read More

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Anterograde transport of α-herpesviruses in neuronal axons.

Virology 2021 Mar 4;559:65-73. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Molecular Microbiology & Immunology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, 97239, USA. Electronic address:

α-herpesviruses have been very successful, principally because they establish lifelong latency in sensory ganglia. An essential piece of the lifecycle of α-herpesviruses involves the capacity to travel from sensory neurons to epithelial tissues following virus reactivation from latency, a process known as anterograde transport. Virus particles formed in neuron cell bodies hitchhike on kinesin motors that run along microtubules, the length of axons. Read More

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Nutritional determinants and COVID-19 outcomes of older patients with COVID-19: A systematic review.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2021 Mar 31;95:104411. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Nursing, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.

Background: Malnutrition among older people is one of the serious public health problem worldwide. Nutritional status and levels of nutrients of older patients with COVID-19 effect on COVID-19 outcomes. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the prevalence of malnutrition and levels of nutrients associated with outcomes of the older patients with COVID-19. Read More

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Rating scales and biomarkers for CAG-repeat spinocerebellar ataxias: Implications for therapy development.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Apr 1;424:117417. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Neurology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; Initiative for Columbia Ataxia and Tremor, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a group of dominantly-inherited cerebellar ataxias, among which CAG expansion-related SCAs are most common. These diseases have very high penetrance with defined disease progression, and emerging therapies are being developed to provide either symptomatic or disease-modifying benefits. In clinical trial design, it is crucial to incorporate biomarkers to test target engagement or track disease progression in response to therapies, especially in rare diseases such as SCAs. Read More

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Effect of intrapartum oxygen on the rate of cesarean delivery: a meta-analysis: Condensation: Intrapartum oxygen administration does not change rate of cesarean delivery or other maternal or fetal outcomes.

Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2021 Apr 6:100374. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Maternal supplemental oxygen is often used intrapartum, with other fetal resuscitative maneuvers, for non-reassuring fetal heart rate monitoring (NRFHRM).

Objective: To determine if maternal intrapartum administration of oxygen altered the rate of cesarean delivery (CD) when compared to room air.

Study Design: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Read More

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Pretreatment and determination methods for benzimidazoles: An update since 2005.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Mar 16;1644:462068. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Shenyang, 110122, China. Electronic address:

Benzimidazoles, commonly used as pesticides and veterinary drugs, have posed a threat to human health and the environment due to unreasonable use and lack of valid regulation. Therefore, an up-to-date and comprehensive summary of the pretreatment and analytical approaches in different substrates is urgently needed. The present review consequently updates and covers various newly developed pretreatment methods (e. Read More

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Emerging nanotaxanes for cancer therapy.

Biomaterials 2021 Apr 1;272:120790. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

College of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine and Anhui Academy of Chinese Medicine, Hefei, 230012, China; Engineering Technology Research Center of Modernized Pharmaceutics, Education Office of Anhui Province, Hefei, 230012, China. Electronic address:

The clinical application of taxane (including paclitaxel, docetaxel, and cabazitaxel)-based formulations is significantly impeded by their off-target distribution, unsatisfactory release, and acquired resistance/metastasis. Recent decades have witnessed a dramatic progress in the development of high-efficiency, low-toxicity nanotaxanes via the use of novel biomaterials and nanoparticulate drug delivery systems (nano-DDSs). Thus, in this review, the achievements of nanotaxanes-targeted delivery and stimuli-responsive nano-DDSs-in preclinical or clinical trials have been outlined. Read More

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Heteromerization of Dopaminergic Receptors in the Brain: Pharmacological Implications.

Authors:
Desye Misganaw

Pharmacol Res 2021 Apr 6:105600. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Pharmacology and Toxicology unit, Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Science, Wollo University, P.O. Box 1145, Dessie, Ethiopia.

Dopamine exerts its physiological effects through two subtypes of receptors, i.e. the receptors of the D family (D and D) and the D family (D, D3R, and D), which differ in their pattern of distribution, affinity, and signaling. Read More

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Photodynamic Therapy for Treating Staphylococcus aureus Infections.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Apr 6:102285. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Laboratorio de Microbiología Celular, Instituto de Investigación e Innovación en Salud, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Central de Chile, Lord Cochrane 418, 8330546, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address:

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive spherical bacterium that causes various infections that can be superficial or become life-threatening. Besides, S. aureus represents a major producer of healthcare-associated infections. Read More

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Focused Role of Nanoparticles Against COVID-19: Diagnosis and Treatment.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Apr 6:102287. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Pulau, Pinang, Malaysia.

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)) has witnessed a rapid and global proliferation since its early identification in patients with severe pneumonia in Wuhan, China. As of 27th May 2020, 2019-nCoV cases have risen to >5 million, with confirmed deaths of 350,000. However, Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) diagnostic and treatment measures are yet to be fully unraveled, given the novelty of this particular coronavirus. Read More

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Understanding Neural Flexibility From a Multifaceted Definition.

Neuroimage 2021 Apr 6:118027. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

School of Computing, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE4 5TG, UK; School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK; Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China. Electronic address:

Flexibility is a hallmark of human intelligence. Emerging studies have proposed several flexibility measurements at the level of individual regions, to produce a brain map of neural flexibility. However, flexibility is usually inferred from separate components of brain activity (i. Read More

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Management of BRAF-mutant metastatic colorectal cancer: a review of treatment options and evidence-based guidelines.

Ann Oncol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Vall d'Hebron Hospital Campus, Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology, UVIC-UCC, IOB-Quiron, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is still a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and worldwide, despite recent improvements in cancer management. CRC, like many malignancies, is a heterogeneous disease, with subtypes characterized by genetic alterations. One common mutation in CRC is in the BRAF gene (most commonly V600E substitution). Read More

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Impact of high-intensity interval training on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, physical fitness, and metabolic parameters in older adults: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Apr 6:111345. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

School of Sport Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) can effectively increase peak oxygen consumption, body composition, physical fitness, and health-related characteristics of adults; however, its impact in the older population remains highly debated. This review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, physical fitness, and health-related outcomes in older adults. Four electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Medline, and Web of Science) were searched (until July 2020) for randomized trials comparing the effect of HIIT on physical fitness, metabolic parameters, and cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults. Read More

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Regulators and signalling in insect antimicrobial innate immunity: Functional molecules and cellular pathways.

Cell Signal 2021 Apr 6:110003. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Entomology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, 12613 Giza, Egypt. Electronic address:

Insects possess an immune system that protects them from attacks by various pathogenic microorganisms that would otherwise threaten their survival. Immune mechanisms may deal directly with the pathogens by eliminating them from the host organism or disarm them by suppressing the synthesis of toxins and virulence factors that promote the invasion and destructive action of the intruder within the host. Insects have been established as outstanding models for studying immune system regulation because innate immunity can be explored as an integrated system at the level of the whole organism. Read More

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Citation of Prior Systematic Reviews in Reports of Randomized Controlled Trials Published in Dental Speciality Journals.

J Dent 2021 Apr 6:103658. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Dental School/Medical Faculty, University of Bern, Freiburgstrasse 7, CH-3010, Bern, Switzerland.

Objectives: To assess the extent to which reports of dental Randomised Clinical Trials (RCTs) cite prior systematic reviews (SR) to explain the rationale or justification of the trial. Study characteristics that predicated the citation of SR in the RCT report were explored.

Methods: An electronic database search was undertaken to identify dental RCTs published between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2019. Read More

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Near-infrared photoimmunoTherapy (NIR-PIT) for the local control of solid cancers: challenges and potentials for human applications.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2021 Apr 6:103325. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Wellcome/EPSRC Centre for Interventional & Surgical Sciences, University College London, London, UK; Department of Specialist Neonatal and Pediatric Surgery, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. Electronic address:

Near-infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a novel cancer-targeted treatment effected by a chemical conjugation between a photosensitiser (e.g. the NIR phthalocyanine dye IRDye700DX) and a cancer-targeting moiety (e. Read More

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The role of monoamine oxidase enzymes in the pathophysiology of neurological disorders.

J Chem Neuroanat 2021 Apr 6:101957. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Anthropology and School of Biomedical Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, OH, USA; Brain Health Research Institute, Kent State University, Kent, OH, USA.

Although it has been nearly 100 years since the first description of monoamine oxidase, we are still learning about its role in the healthy brain and how it is altered in various disease states. The present review provides a survey of our current understanding of monoamine oxidases, with a focus on their contributions to neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental, and neurodegenerative disease. Important species differences in monoamine oxidase function and development in the brain are highlighted. Read More

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Psychosocial issues in isolated and confined extreme environments.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Psychology, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

PALINKAS, L.A., and P. Read More

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Neuropsychological spectrum in early PD: insights from controlled and automatic behavioural regulation.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

HM CINAC (Centro Integral en Neurociencias), University Hospital HM Puerta del Sur, CEU San Pablo University, Spain; Network Center for Biomedical Research on Neurodegenerative Diseases, Carlos III Institute, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Initial changes in Parkinson's disease (PD) are marked by loss of automatic movements and decline of some cognitive functions. Yet, the exact profile and extent of cognitive impairments in early stages of PD as well as their mechanisms related to automatic motor dysfunction remain unclear. Our objective was to examine the neuropsychological changes in early PD and their association to automatic and controlled modes of behavioural control. Read More

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Evaluating the Evidence for Expectation Suppression in the Visual System.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Institute of Psychology, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany.

Reports of expectation suppression have shaped the development of influential predictive coding-based theories of visual perception. However recent work has highlighted confounding factors that may mimic or inflate expectation suppression effects. In this review, we describe four confounds that are prevalent across experiments that tested for expectation suppression: effects of surprise, attention, stimulus repetition and adaptation, and stimulus novelty. Read More

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