564,993 results match your criteria article introduction

Unification of functional annotation descriptions using text mining.

Biol Chem 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Bioinformatics Core, Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine, University of Luxembourg, 4362, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.

A common approach to genome annotation involves the use of homology-based tools for the prediction of the functional role of proteins. The quality of functional annotations is dependent on the reference data used, as such, choosing the appropriate sources is crucial. Unfortunately, no single reference data source can be universally considered the gold standard, thus using multiple references could potentially increase annotation quality and coverage. Read More

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Gender Disparity in Surgical Society Leadership and Annual Meeting Programs.

J Surg Res 2021 May 10;266:69-76. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; Stanford-Surgery Policy Improvement Research & Education Center, Department of Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; Vascular Surgery Section, Department of Surgery, Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Palo Alto, California. Electronic address:

Introduction: Prior work suggests women surgical role models attract more female medical students into surgical training. We investigate recent trends of women in surgical society leadership and national conference moderator and plenary speaker roles.

Methods: Gender distribution was surveyed at 15 major surgical societies and 14 conferences from 2014 to 2018 using publicly reported data. Read More

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Ultrasound evaluation of the placenta in healthy and placental syndrome pregnancies: A systematic review.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 May 4;262:45-56. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC+), the Netherlands.

Introduction: An antepartum screening method to determine normal and abnormal placental function is desirable in the prevention of maternal and fetal pregnancy complications. Placental appearance can easily be obtained and evaluated using 2D ultrasonography, but surprisingly little is known about the change in placental appearance during gestation. Aim of this systematic review was to describe the antepartum placental appearance in placenta syndrome (PS) pregnancies, and to compare this to the appearance in healthy pregnancies. Read More

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The battle to increase tobacco taxes: Lessons from Philippines and Ukraine.

Soc Sci Med 2021 May 7;279:114001. Epub 2021 May 7.

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Institute for Global Tobacco Control, 2213 McElderry Street, Fourth Floor, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Introduction: While increasing taxes on tobacco is one of the most effective tobacco control measures, its adoption has been slow compared to other tobacco control policies. Given this, there is an urgent need to better understand the political and economic dynamics that lead to its adoption despite immense tobacco industry opposition. The primary aim of this study is to explore the process, actors, and determinants that helped lead to the successful passage of the 2012 Sin Tax Reform Law in the Philippines and the 2017 seven-year plan for tobacco tax increases in Ukraine. Read More

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Can the combination of TasP and PrEP eliminate HIV among MSM in British Columbia, Canada?

Epidemics 2021 Apr 6;35:100461. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Introduction: In British Columbia (BC), the HIV epidemic continues to disproportionally affect the gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). In this study, we aimed to evaluate how Treatment as Prevention (TasP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), if used in combination, could lead to HIV elimination in BC among MSM.

Methods: Considering the heterogeneity in HIV transmission risk, we developed a compartmental model stratified by age and risk-taking behaviour for the HIV epidemic among MSM in BC, informed by clinical, behavioural and epidemiological data. Read More

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Combination of deep speaker embeddings for diarisation.

Neural Netw 2021 Apr 21;141:372-384. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ, UK. Electronic address:

Significant progress has recently been made in speaker diarisation after the introduction of d-vectors as speaker embeddings extracted from neural network (NN) speaker classifiers for clustering speech segments. To extract better-performing and more robust speaker embeddings, this paper proposes a c-vector method by combining multiple sets of complementary d-vectors derived from systems with different NN components. Three structures are used to implement the c-vectors, namely 2D self-attentive, gated additive, and bilinear pooling structures, relying on attention mechanisms, a gating mechanism, and a low-rank bilinear pooling mechanism respectively. Read More

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"A decade's worth of work in a matter of days": The journey to telehealth for the whole population in Australia.

Int J Med Inform 2021 May 7;151:104483. Epub 2021 May 7.

Australian Government Department of Health, Australia.

Introduction: Internationally the COVID-19 pandemic has triggered a dramatic and unprecedented shift in telehealth uptake as a means of protecting healthcare consumers and providers through remote consultation modes. Early in the pandemic, Australia implemented a comprehensive and responsive set of policy measures to support telehealth. Initially targeted at protecting vulnerable individuals, including health professionals, this rapidly expanded to a "whole population" approach as the pandemic evolved. Read More

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Procurement, commissioning and QA of AI based solutions: An MPE's perspective on introducing AI in clinical practice.

Phys Med 2021 May 10;83:257-263. Epub 2021 May 10.

University Hospitals of the KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Purpose: In this study, we propose a framework to help the MPE take up a unique and important role at the introduction of AI solutions in clinical practice, and more in particular at procurement, acceptance, commissioning and QA.

Material And Methods: The steps for the introduction of Medical Radiological Equipment in a hospital setting were extrapolated to AI tools. Literature review and in-house experience was added to prepare similar, yet dedicated test methods. Read More

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Effects of permanent cardiac pacing on ventricular repolarization when compared to cardioneuroablation.

J Electrocardiol 2021 Apr 21;67:13-18. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Kansas City Heart Rhythm Institute and Research Foundation, Overland Park, KS, USA.

Introduction: The impact of cardioneuroablation (CNA) on ventricular repolarization by using corrected QT interval (QTc) measurements has been recently demonstrated. The effects of cardiac pacing (CP) on ventricular repolarization have not been studied in patients with vasovagal syncope (VVS). We sought to compare ventricular repolarization effects of CNA (group 1) with CP (group 2) in patients with VVS. Read More

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MXene@Ag-based ratiometric electrochemical sensing strategy for effective detection of carbendazim in vegetable samples.

Food Chem 2021 May 4;360:130006. Epub 2021 May 4.

Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Chemical Utilization of Plant Resources of Nanchang, College of Science, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, PR China. Electronic address:

In this paper, a novel ratiometric electrochemical sensor for carbendazim (CBZ) detection was constructed by a composite of MXene@Ag nanoclusters and amino-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MXene@AgNCs/NH-MWCNTs). The Ag nanoclusters (AgNCs) embedded in the MXene not only could inhibit the aggregation of MXene flakes and enhance the electrocatalytic ability, but also serve as an internal reference probe for the ratiometric electrochemical detection. Moreover, the introduction of NH-MWCNTs can further improve the electrochemical signals of CBZ and Ag, resulting in the enhanced signal amplification and higher sensitivity. Read More

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Sarcopenia is independently associated with parietal atrophy in older adults.

Exp Gerontol 2021 May 10:111402. Epub 2021 May 10.

Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Division of Neurology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Pharmacy, Tajen University, Pingtung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Introduction: As populations age, sarcopenia becomes a major health problem among adults aged 65 years and older. However, little information is available about the relationship between sarcopenia and brain structure abnormalities. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between sarcopenia and brain atrophy in older adults and relationships with regional brain areas. Read More

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Performance- and cost-benefit analysis of an influenza point-of-care test compared to laboratory-based multiplex RT-PCR in the emergency department.

Am J Infect Control 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Epidemiology and Infection Prevention, Regional Public Health Laboratory Kennemerland, Haarlem, the Netherlands.. Electronic address:

Introduction: Influenza poses a heavy burden on emergency departments (ED) and hospital wards. Fast and reliable bedside tests are invaluable in obtaining indications for (cohort) droplet isolation precautions and improving patient flow. We performed a cost-benefit analysis comparing influenza point-of-care testing (POCT) to laboratory-based multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Read More

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Pea cell wall integrity controls the starch and protein digestion properties in the INFOGEST in vitro simulation.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Food Science and Engineering, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Green Processing of Natural Products and Product Safety, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China; SCUT-Zhuhai Institute of Modern Industrial Innovation, Zhuhai 519175, China; Overseas Expertise Introduction Center for Discipline Innovation of Food Nutrition and Human Health (111 Center), Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

The cell wall microstructure has been recognized to modulate the digestibility and bioaccessibility of nutrients in whole pulse foods, while the role of cell wall integrity is unclarified in the hydrolysis of intracellular nutrients during human gastrointestinal transit. Intact pea cells were isolated to prepare a series of cell wall integrity subjected to cooking and followed by the in vitro hydrolysis of starch and protein properties using the INFOGEST 2.0 in vitro simulation. Read More

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A novel volume based cone beam computed tomography periapical index.

J Endod 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Dentistry and Oral Health, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia.

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variations in volume of periapical lesions scored using cone beam computed tomography periapical index (CBCTPAI) and develop a new volume based periapical index.

Methods: Cone beam computed tomography images were obtained from InteleViewer. Teeth with a periapical radiolucency or with a history of endodontic treatment were included in this study. Read More

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Deciphering the glioblastoma phenotype by Computed Tomography radiomics.

Radiother Oncol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Radiation Oncology (Maastro), GROW School for Oncology, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant primary brain tumour which has, despite extensive treatment, a median overall survival of 15 months. Radiomics is the high-throughput extraction of large amounts of image features from radiographic images, which allows capturing the tumour phenotype in 3D and in a non-invasive way. In this study we assess the prognostic value of CT radiomics for overall survival in patients with a GBM. Read More

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Does Burnout Exist in Academic Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in the United States?

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Associate Professor of Surgery and Pediatrics, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine; Chief, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Information regarding burnout in academic oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMSs) in the United States (US) does not exist. The purpose of this project was to answer the following question: "Does burnout exist in academic OMSs in the United States?"

Materials And Methods: A 15-question anonymous survey was created based on Expanded Physician Well-Being Index (WBI, MedEd Web Solutions). Survey was sent electronically to fellows of the American Academy of Craniomaxillofacial Surgeons (AACMS) consisting of demographics, professional obligations, wellness indicators (burnout, emotional hardening, depression, anxiety, fatigue, overwhelmed), and overall quality of life statements. Read More

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Resistance Mechanisms to Programmed Cell Death Protein 1 and Programmed Death Ligand 1 inhibitors.

Expert Opin Biol Ther 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: In the past few years, administrating monoclonal humanized antibodies, namely checkpoint inhibitors, against programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), and its ligand (PD-L1), has yielded reassuring tumor regression rates. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors disrupt the engagement of PD-1 on T-cells and their ligands on tumor or other target cells and reactivate the tumor-specific T infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), which are mostly in a state of anergy before the PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. However, a limited number of patients initially respond, and the others show a primary (innate) resistance. Read More

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Adverse childhood experience in patients with psoriasis.

Trends Psychiatry Psychother 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Mackenzie Evangelical School of Medicine Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil.

Introduction: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to the occurrence of autoimmune diseases in adults, including psoriasis.

Aim: To study the prevalence of ACEs in psoriasis patients comparing it with general population.

Methods: Three hundred and eighteen individuals were included (104 psoriasis patients and 214 controls). Read More

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Body mass index in early adulthood and dementia in late life: Findings from a pooled cohort.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Departments of Psychiatry, Neurology, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Introduction: To examine the independent association of body mass index (BMI) in early adulthood with dementia incidence among men and women.

Methods: We studied 5104 older adults from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) study. We imputed early adulthood and midlife BMI using a pooled parent cohort with complete adult lifespan coverage and previously established methods. Read More

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Interaction of amyloid and tau on cortical microstructure in cognitively unimpaired adults.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Wisconsin Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Introduction: Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI), a multi-compartment diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) model, may be useful for detecting early cortical microstructural alterations in Alzheimer's disease prior to cognitive impairment.

Methods: Using neuroimaging (NODDI and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker data (measured using Elecsys® CSF immunoassays) from 219 cognitively unimpaired participants, we tested the main and interactive effects of CSF amyloid beta (Aβ) /Aβ and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) on cortical NODDI metrics and cortical thickness, controlling for age, sex, and apolipoprotein E ε4.

Results: We observed a significant CSF Aβ /Aβ × p-tau interaction on cortical neurite density index (NDI), but not orientation dispersion index or cortical thickness. Read More

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Longitudinal CSF proteomics identifies NPTX2 as a prognostic biomarker of Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Introduction: Biomarkers that reflect pathologic processes affecting neuronal function during preclinical and early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are needed to aid drug development.

Methods: A targeted, stable isotope, quantitative mass spectrometry-based investigation of longitudinal changes in concentrations of previously identified candidate biomarkers was performed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants who were classified as cognitively normal (CN; n = 76) or with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 111) at baseline.

Results: Of the candidate biomarkers, the CSF concentration of neuronal pentraxin 2 (NPTX2), a protein involved in synaptic function, exhibited rates of change that were significantly different between three comparison groups (i. Read More

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Harmonizing neuropsychological assessment for mild neurocognitive disorders in Europe.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.

Introduction: Harmonized neuropsychological assessment for neurocognitive disorders, an international priority for valid and reliable diagnostic procedures, has been achieved only in specific countries or research contexts.

Methods: To harmonize the assessment of mild cognitive impairment in Europe, a workshop (Geneva, May 2018) convened stakeholders, methodologists, academic, and non-academic clinicians and experts from European, US, and Australian harmonization initiatives.

Results: With formal presentations and thematic working-groups we defined a standard battery consistent with the U. Read More

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Easy 3D scanning technology for anatomy education using a free cellphone app.

Clin Anat 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tulane Center for Clinical Neurosciences, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought difficult times to anatomy educators and medical/dental students. Under normal circumstances, gross anatomy classes give students opportunities to touch and observe human bones and cadaveric tissues, thus enhancing their understanding; such morphology is difficult to learn from textbooks alone. As many studies have shown, three-dimensional (3D) technologies used in online lectures can serve as alternatives to real specimens for providing knowledge of anatomy. Read More

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Evaluation of a smoking cessation patient decision aid that integrates information about e-cigarettes.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Family Medicine and Population Health, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond.

Introduction: Smokers increasingly use e-cigarettes to try to quit smoking, even more than recommended cessation methods. However, few smokers discuss the range of cessation options with their physicians. Decision aids can inform smokers about smoking cessation options, including evidence about e-cigarettes, and encourage smokers to engage in shared decision making with their physician. Read More

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Time consumption for non-conveyed patients within emergency medical services (EMS): A one-year prospective descriptive and comparative study in a region of Sweden.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251686. Epub 2021 May 13.

University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.

Introduction: Over time, ambulance assignments have increased in number both nationally and internationally, and a substantial proportion of patients encountered by emergency medical services are assessed as not being in need of services. Non-conveying patients has become a way for emergency medical services clinicians to meet this increasing workload. It has been shown that ambulances can be made available sooner if patients are non-conveyed, but there is no previous research describing the factors that influence the non-conveyance time. Read More

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How early is too early? Challenges in ART initiation and engaging in HIV care under Treat All in Rwanda-A qualitative study.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251645. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America.

Introduction: HIV treatment guidelines recommend that all people living with HIV (PLWH) initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) as soon as possible after diagnosis (Treat All). As Treat All is more widely implemented, an increasing proportion of PLWH are likely to initiate ART when they are asymptomatic, and they may view the relative benefits and risks of ART differently than those initiating at more advanced disease stages. To date, patient perspectives of initiating care under Treat All in sub-Saharan Africa have not been well described. Read More

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Applying time series analyses on continuous accelerometry data-A clinical example in older adults with and without cognitive impairment.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251544. Epub 2021 May 13.

Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Berlin, Germany.

Introduction: Many clinical studies reporting accelerometry data use sum score measures such as percentage of time spent in moderate to vigorous activity which do not provide insight into differences in activity patterns over 24 hours, and thus do not adequately depict circadian activity patterns. Here, we present an improved functional data analysis approach to model activity patterns and circadian rhythms from accelerometer data. As a use case, we demonstrated its application in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and age-matched healthy older volunteers (HOV). Read More

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Validating controlled attenuation parameter in the assessment of hepatic steatosis in living liver donors.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251487. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Liver & Small Bowel Transplantation & Hepatobiliary-Pancreatic Surgery, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Introduction: Hepatic steatosis (HS) negatively impacts transplant outcomes in living liver donors. To date, liver biopsy is preferred for HS evaluation. This study aims to evaluate the measurement of controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) as a diagnostic tool of HS in living liver donors. Read More

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Surgical treatment for cryptoglandular and Crohn's perianal fistulas: Protocol of an umbrella review.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251460. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Anorectal Surgery, Shuguang Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Introduction: A high prevalence of cryptoglandular and Crohn's perianal fistulas has been reported worldwide, and several surgical options are available for the management of anal fistula, with varying clinical efficacy. However, currently, the available evidence for the effectiveness of these surgical approaches are lacking and of concern in terms of the credibility and strength. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the credibility of the published systematic reviews and meta-analyses that assess the efficacy and safety of the surgical options for cryptoglandular and Crohn's perianal fistulas through an umbrella review. Read More

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Effectiveness of thermal screening in detection of COVID-19 among truck drivers at Mutukula Land Point of Entry, Uganda.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251150. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of National Health Laboratory and Diagnostic Services, Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda.

Introduction: Despite the limited evidence for its effectiveness, thermal screening at points of entry has increasingly become a standard protocol in numerous parts of the globe in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We sought to determine the effectiveness of thermal screening as a key step in diagnosing COVID-19 in a resource-limited setting.

Materials And Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study based on a review of body temperature and Xpert Xpress SARS CoV-2 test results records for truck drivers entering Uganda through Mutukula between 15th May and 30th July 2020. Read More

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