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Ensure an "Ultrasound Window" on the Patient's Neck to Evaluate Cerebral Blood Flow!

Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Pediatric Anesthesiology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) does not provide information about changes in oxygenation in whole-brain areas. Although the branching vessels of the aortic arch are not always easy to identify using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), the blood flow status of cervical arteries can always be assessed by applying an ultrasound probe via the "ultrasound window" on the patient's neck, which can be ensured by devising alternative insertion approaches of the central venous catheter. This method is very simple but compensates for the limitations of the combination of NIRS and TEE, especially during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass management using selective cerebral perfusion. Read More

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Indoleamine-2,3-Dioxygenase Activates Wnt/β-Catenin Inducing Kidney Fibrosis after Acute Kidney Injury.

Gerontology 2021 Jun 15:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Nephrology, Sir Run Run Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Introduction: As disorder of tryptophan metabolism is common in CKD, the rate-limiting enzyme of tryptophan, indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), has been reported to be involved in CKD, while the accurate mechanism remains unknown. This study was designed to explore correlations between IDO and kidney fibrosis after ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI).

Methods: Wild-type (WT) mice and IDO knockout (IDO-/-) mice were divided into the sham group and acute kidney injury (AKI) group. Read More

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Online detection of movement during natural and self-initiated reach-and-grasp actions from EEG signals.

J Neural Eng 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Institute of Neural Engineering, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 16/IV, Graz, Steiermark, 8010, AUSTRIA.

Movement intention detection using electroencephalography (EEG) is a challenging but important component of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) for people with motor disabilities. Objective​: The goal of this study is to exploit low-frequency time-domain EEG signals, concretely movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs), to perform asynchronous online detection of movement. The experimental paradigm must be easily transferable to people without any residual upper-limb movement function. Read More

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Multimaterial bioprinting towards the fabrication of biomimetic tissues and organs.

Biofabrication 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

UCLA, 570 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, California, 90095, UNITED STATES.

Tissue reconstruction requires the utilization of multiple biomaterials and cell types to replicate the delicate and complex structure of native tissues. Various three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting techniques have been developed to fabricate customized tissue structures; however, there are still significant challenges, such as vascularization, mechanical stability of printed constructs, and fabrication of gradient structures to be addressed for the creation of biomimetic and complex tissue constructs. One approach to address these challenges is to develop multimaterial 3D bioprinting techniques that can integrate various types of biomaterials and bioprinting capabilities towards the fabrication of more complex structures. Read More

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Analytical performance of the Xpert MTB/XDR® assay for tuberculosis and expanded resistance detection.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Apr 20;101(1):115397. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

FIND, Geneva, Switzerland; Division of Tropical Medicine, Center of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

In a manufacturer-independent laboratory validation study, the Xpert MTB/XDR® assay demonstrated equivalent limit of detection to Xpert MTB/RIF®, detected 100% of tested resistance mutations and showed some utility for resistance detection in strain mixtures. The Xpert MTB/XDR assay is a reliable, sensitive assay for tuberculosis and expanded resistance detection. Read More

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Convolutional neural networks to identify malformations of cortical development: A feasibility study.

Seizure 2021 May 31;91:81-90. Epub 2021 May 31.

Division of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA USA.

Objective: To develop and test a deep learning model to automatically detect malformations of cortical development (MCD).

Methods: We trained a deep learning model to distinguish between diffuse cortical malformation (CM), periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH), and normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We trained 4 different convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures. Read More

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Alteration of brain structural connectivity in progression of Parkinson's disease: A connectome-wide network analysis.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Jun 6;31:102715. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Neurobiology, Neurology and Geriatrics, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disease, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Pinpointing the brain dysconnectivity in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (iRBD) can facilitate preventing the conversion of Parkinson's disease (PD) from prodromal phase. Recent neuroimage investigations reported disruptive brain white matter connectivity in both iRBD and PD, respectively. However, the intrinsic process of the human brain structural network evolving from iRBD to PD still remains largely unknown. Read More

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Fatal necrotizing fasciitis in illegal abortion and the negligence tort.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2021 Jun 7;53:101927. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research, Pondicherry 605006, India; Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research, Karaikal, India.

The present paper is a case-based review on rare complications of illegal abortion, i.e., necrotizing fasciitis missed early by the treating gynecologists which landed up into a negligence tort against the physicians. Read More

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Synergistic adsorption and degradation of sulfamethoxazole from synthetic urine by hickory-sawdust-derived biochar: The critical role of the aromatic structure.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 9;418:126366. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA, 70504, USA; Energy Institute of Louisiana, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA, 70504, USA. Electronic address:

This study investigated the adsorptive removal and subsequent degradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) from a synthetic urine by biochar (BC). The BCs used in this study were prepared using two different feedstocks with different temperatures. Element analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results suggested that the aromaticity of one of the BCs, 700HSBC was significantly different from the 700PSBC although both of them were prepared at the same temperature (700 °C) with similar pore size distributions and specific surface areas. Read More

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An investigation into time-variant subsidence potentials using inclusive multiple modelling strategies.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 12;294:112949. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, East Azerbaijan, Iran. Electronic address:

Groundwater over-abstraction due to the absence of an effective management plan is often one of the main reasons for land subsidence in aquifer areas. This paper investigates this environmental problem at Salmas plain, Iran, by using the ALPRIFT framework, an acronym of a set of seven general-purpose data layers, introduced recently by the authors. It is capable of mapping Subsidence Vulnerability Indices (SVI) and the paper investigates an innovation to transform it into Time-variant SVI (TSVI) mapping capabilities through a three module strategy: Module 1: maps SVI; Module 2: develops a predictive model for Groundwater Levels (GWL); Module 3: combines both modules to produces TSVI maps. Read More

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Refining the shit flow diagram using the capacity-building approach - Method and demonstration in a south Indian town.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 12;294:112971. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas (CTARA), Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IITB), India.

In cities of the Global South, faecal sludge management (FSM) has arisen as an acceptable and economical alternative for managing excreta. Shit flow diagram (SFD) has emerged as the preferred tool for the planning and advocacy of FSM services. Besides context-specific challenges, FSM planning, especially the use of SFD is impeded by the lack of data related to on-site sanitation systems (OSSs) and lack of capacity at the local level. Read More

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Influencing factors of observed speed and rule compliance of speed-pedelec riders in high volume cycling areas: Implications for safety and legislation.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Jun 12;159:106239. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

CARRS -Q, Centre for Accident Research and Road Safety - Queensland, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Speed pedelecs (s-pedelecs) are electric bicycles offering pedal assistance up to 45 km/h. S-pedelecs may contribute to a more efficient and green traffic system. However, their potential to reach high speeds has raised road safety concerns. Read More

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The usefulness of ultrasound before induction of labor.

Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2021 Jun 12:100423. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Obstetric Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna and IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria S.Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna, Italy.

The indications for induction of labor have been consistently on the rise. These indications are mainly medical (maternal or fetal), social or indications that are related to convenience or maternal preferences. With the increase in prevalence of these indications, the incidence rates of induction of labor are expected to continue to rise. Read More

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Voxel-to-voxel predictive models reveal unexpected structure in unexplained variance.

Neuroimage 2021 Jun 12:118266. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA. Electronic address:

Encoding models based on deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN) predict BOLD responses to natural scenes in the human visual system more accurately than many other currently available models. However, DCNN-based encoding models fail to predict a significant amount of variance in the activity of most voxels in all visual areas. This failure could reflect limitations in the data (e. Read More

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Reproductive toxicity due to herbicide exposure in freshwater organisms.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Jun 12:109103. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Institute of Animal Molecular Biotechnology and Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Excessively used pesticides in agricultural areas are spilled into aquatic environments, wherein they are suspended or sedimented. Owing to climate change, herbicides are the fastest growing sector of the pesticide industry and are detected in surface water, groundwater, and sediments near agricultural areas. In freshwater, organisms, including mussels, snails, frogs, and fish, are exposed to various types and concentrations of herbicides. Read More

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Reconstituted mRNA Covid-19 vaccines may maintain stability after continuous movement.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Laboratory of Neuropharmacology-Neurophar, Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain; Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Objectives: There is an urgent need to ameliorate the possibilities to transport the reconstituted mRNA vaccines from the centralized preparation centers to the vaccination sites to improve the COVID-19 vaccination campaigns. We have analyzed Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccine integrity under different movement conditions to provide information that may improve the distribution of vaccines to the target population.

Methods: Syringes of reconstituted Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna COVID-19 vaccines were prepared in a laminar flow chamber to be subjected to a stability analysis in order to evaluate the impact of movement conditions on mRNA integrity. Read More

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Reduced TMS-evoked fast oscillations in the motor cortex predict the severity of positive symptoms in first-episode psychosis.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2021 Jun 12:110387. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States of America. Electronic address:

Accumulating evidence points to neurophysiological abnormalities of the motor cortex in Schizophrenia (SCZ). However, whether these abnormalities represent a core biological feature of psychosis rather than a superimposed neurodegenerative process is yet to be defined, as it is their putative relationship with clinical symptoms. in this study, we used Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation coupled with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) to probe the intrinsic oscillatory properties of motor (Brodmann Area 4, BA4) and non-motor (posterior parietal, BA7) cortical areas in twenty-three first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and thirteen age and gender-matched healthy comparison (HC) subjects. Read More

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Motive Control of Unconscious Inference: The Limbic Base of Adaptive Bayes.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Brain Electrophysiology Laboratory Company, University of Oregon, United States.

Current computational models of neocortical processing, described as predictive coding theory, are providing new ways of understanding Helmholtz's classical insight that perception cannot proceed in a data-driven fashion, but instead requires unconscious inference based on prior experience. Predictive coding is a Bayesian process, in which the operations at each lower level of the cortical hierarchy are predicted by prior projections of expectancies from a higher level, and are then updated by error-correction with lower level evidence. To generalize the predictive coding model to the human neocortex as a whole requires aligning the Bayesian negotiation of prior expectancies with sensory and motor evidence not only within the connectional architecture of the neocortex (primary sensory/motor, unimodal association areas, and heteromodal association areas) but also with the limbic cortex that forms the base for the adaptive control of the heteromodal areas and thereby the cerebral hemisphere as a whole. Read More

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Discontinued alcohol consumption elicits withdrawal symptoms in honeybees.

Biol Lett 2021 Jun 16;17(6):20210182. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sławkowska 17, 31-016 Kraków, Poland.

The honeybee continues to be developed as a model species in many research areas, including studies related to the effects of alcohol. Here, we investigate whether workers display one of the key features of alcoholism, namely withdrawal symptoms. We show that workers fed for a prolonged time on food spiked with ethanol, after discontinuation of access to such food, exhibited a marked increase in the consumption of ethanol and a slight increase in mortality. Read More

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Landfast ice: a major driver of reproductive success in a polar seabird.

Biol Lett 2021 Jun 16;17(6):20210097. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Centre d'Études Biologiques de Chizé (CEBC), CNRS UMR 7372, 79360 Villiers en Bois, France.

In a fast-changing world, polar ecosystems are threatened by climate variability. Understanding the roles of fine-scale processes, and linear and nonlinear effects of climate factors on the demography of polar species is crucial for anticipating the future state of these fragile ecosystems. While the effects of sea ice on polar marine top predators are increasingly being studied, little is known about the impacts of landfast ice (LFI) on this species community. Read More

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Subcuticular sutures versus staples for skin closure after primary hip arthroplasty.

Acta Orthop Belg 2021 Mar;87(1):55-64

High-quality and cost-effective health care are highly recommended especially in joint replacement surgeries, particularly in total hip arthroplasty. Therefore, it is indispensable for orthopaedic surgeons to spot the potential areas of quality improvement. Evaluating the efficacy of the different ways of skin closure is an unacknowledged topic. Read More

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Nonsurgical reshaping of the nose, chin and jawline: A retrospective analysis using experience-based eligibility criteria.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

InFormaMedica Day Clinic, Palermo, Italy.

Background: Nonsurgical reshaping of the nose, chin and jawline with hyaluronic acid fillers is becoming increasingly popular. Appropriate patient selection is essential.

Objectives: To assess the safety and efficacy of nonsurgical treatment of these facial areas using experience-based eligibility criteria and injection of the high G' filler, VYC-25L. Read More

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Alopecia areata severity index (AASI): a reliable scoring system to assess the severity of alopecia areata on face and scalp- a pilot study.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Dermatologist JK Medical Services, Department of Health and Family Welfare, Kashmir.

Background: All scoring systems used in Alopecia Areata (AA) focus mainly on scalp and cannot assess the severity or treatment response when AA involves the beard hair, eyebrows or eyelashes.

Aim: This study describes and assesses the reliability of a new scoring system 'Alopecia Areata Severity Index' (AASI) for measuring the severity of AA of scalp, beard and upper face.

Methods: Scalp hair, beard hair, upper face (eyebrows and eyelashes) were individually assessed and the severity of AA was scored from 0 to 100 (0-50 in case of upper face). Read More

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A new method for broad-scale modeling and projection of plant assemblages under climatic, biotic, and environmental cofiltering.

Conserv Biol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Environmental Science Center, Qatar University, Doha, P.O. Box 2713, Qatar.

There is increasing interest in broad-scale analysis, modeling, and prediction of the distribution and composition of plant species assemblages under climatic, environmental, and biotic filtering, particularly for conservation purposes. We devised a method (broad-scale analysis & modeling of plant assemblages under climatic-biotic-environmental co-filtering, BAM-PACC) for reliably predicting the impact of climate change on arbitrarily large assemblages of plant communities, while also considering competing biotic and abiotic factors. When applied to a large set of plant communities in the Swiss Alps, BAM-PACC explained presences/absences of 175 plant species in 608 plots with >87% cross-validated accuracy, predicted decreases in α, β, and γ diversity by 2040 under both moderate and extreme climate scenarios, and identified plant species likely to be favored/disfavored by climate change. Read More

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Low-density aspen seedling establishment is widespread following recent wildfires in the western U.S.

Ecology 2021 Jun 15:e03436. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Wildland Resources and Ecology Center, Utah State University, Logan, UT, 84321, USA.

Sexual regeneration is increasingly recognized as an important regeneration pathway for aspen in the western U.S., a region previously thought to be too dry for seedling establishment except for during unusually wet periods. Read More

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Biogeographic regionalization by spatial and environmental components: Numerical proposal.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0253152. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Departamento de Botánica, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, Mexico.

Regionalization through the analysis of species groups offers important advantages in conservation biology, compared to the single taxon approach in areas of high species richness. We use a systematic framework for biogeographic regionalization at a regional scale based on species turnover and environmental drivers (climate variables and soil properties) mainly of herbaceous plant species richness. To identify phytogeographic regions in the Balsas Depression (BD), we use Asteraceae species, a family widely distributed in Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest (SDTF) and the most diverse of the vascular plants in Mexico. Read More

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Cases and distribution of visceral leishmaniasis in western São Paulo: A neglected disease in this region of Brazil.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 15;15(6):e0009411. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Pós-Graduation, Environment and Regional Development Program, Oeste Paulista University, Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil.

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide. In 2019, 97% of the total numbers of cases in Latin America were reported in Brazil. In São Paulo state, currently 17. Read More

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Correlation between reported dengue illness history and seropositivity in rural Thailand.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 15;15(6):e0009459. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, United States of America.

In the latest World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation for Dengvaxia implementation, either serological testing or a person's history of prior dengue illness may be used as supporting evidence to identify dengue virus (DENV)-immune individuals eligible for vaccination, in areas with limited capacity for laboratory confirmation. This analysis aimed to estimate the concordance between self-reported dengue illness histories and seropositivity in a prospective cohort study for dengue virus infection in Kamphaeng Phet province, a dengue-endemic area in northern Thailand. The study enrolled 2,076 subjects from 516 multigenerational families, with a median age of 30. Read More

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End-users' involvement in the development of serious games for healthcare professions education: a systematic descriptive review.

JMIR Serious Games 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Faculty of Nursing, Université de Montréal, Montreal, CA.

Background: Based on ethical and methodological arguments, numerous calls have been made to increase end-users' involvement in serious game (SG) development. Involving end-users is considered a way to give them power and control over an educational software designed for them. It can also help identify areas for improvement in SG design and improve its efficacy on targeted learning outcomes. Read More

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A Knowledge Distillation Ensemble Framework for Predicting Short and Long-term Hospitalisation Outcomes from Electronic Health Records Data.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Jun 15;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

The ability to perform accurate prognosis of patients is crucial for proactive clinical decision making, informed resource management and personalised care. Existing outcome prediction models suffer from a low recall of infrequent positive outcomes. We present a highly-scalable and robust machine learning framework to automatically predict adversity represented by mortality and ICU admission from time-series vital signs and laboratory results obtained within the first 24 hours of hospital admission. Read More

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