719,321 results match your criteria areas

Role of Participatory Health Informatics in Detecting and Managing Pandemics: Literature Review.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Institute for Medical Informatics, Bern University of Applied Sciences, Bern, Switzerland.

Objectives: Using participatory health informatics (PHI) to detect disease outbreaks or learn about pandemics has gained interest in recent years. However, the role of PHI in understanding and managing pandemics, citizens' role in this context, and which methods are relevant for collecting and processing data are still unclear, as is which types of data are relevant. This paper aims to clarify these issues and explore the role of PHI in managing and detecting pandemics. Read More

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Investigating the Scientific 'Infodemic' Phenomenon Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Medical Informatics, Amsterdam University Medical Center - University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: The study aims at understanding the structural characteristics and content features of COVID-19 literature and public health data from the perspective of the 'Language and Meaning in Biomedicine' Working Group (LaMB WG) of IMIA. The LaMB WG has interest in conceptual characteristics, transparency, comparability, and reusability of medical information, both in science and practice.

Methods: A set of methods were used (i) investigating the overall speed and dynamics of COVID-19 publications; (ii) characterizing the concepts of COVID-19 (text mining, visualizing a semantic map of related concepts); (iii) assessing (re)usability and combinability of data sets and paper collections (as textual data sets), and checking if information is Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable (FAIR). Read More

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Drawing Reproducible Conclusions from Observational Clinical Data with OHDSI.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Observational Health Data Sciences and Informatics, New York, New York, USA.

Objective: The current observational research literature shows extensive publication bias and contradiction. The Observational Health Data Sciences and Informatics (OHDSI) initiative seeks to improve research reproducibility through open science.

Methods: OHDSI has created an international federated data source of electronic health records and administrative claims that covers nearly 10% of the world's population. Read More

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Five-Year Trends in Reported National Football League Injuries.

Clin J Sport Med 2021 May;31(3):289-294

Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.

Objective: To determine the incidence of all-cause injury and concussion in the National Football League (NFL) over a 5-season time span (2012-2016).

Design: Prospective descriptive epidemiological study.

Setting: National Football League Injury Report data from 2012 to 2016. Read More

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Telehealth Approaches to Improve Opioid Use Care in Pregnancy.

Lorie M Harper

Clin Obstet Gynecol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Women's Health, University of Texas at Austin, Dell Medical School, Austin, Texas.

Although pharmacotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for opioid use disorder, the US faces a shortage of qualified pharmacotherapy providers, even in high-need areas. Telemedicine is a promising method of increasing the availability of opioid use disorder treatments, but several barriers must first be addressed before implementation. This article presents a case study of using telemedicine to provide pharmacotherapy in pregnancy, examines the barriers to providing pharmacotherapy via telemedicine, and proposes solutions to overcome these barriers. Read More

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Public values and plurality in health priority setting: What to do when people disagree and why we should care about reasons as well as choices.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Apr 2;277:113892. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Yunus Centre for Social Business and Health, Glasgow Caledonian University, Scotland, UK.

Context: 'What does 'The Public' think?' is a question often posed by researchers and policy makers, and public values are regularly invoked to justify policy decisions. Over time there has been a participatory turn in the social and health sciences, including health technology assessment and priority setting in health, towards citizen participation such that public policies reflect public values. It is one thing to agree that public values are important, however, and another to agree on how public values should be elicited, deliberated upon and integrated into decision-making. Read More

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Understanding the impact of an intergenerational arts and health project: a study into the psychological well-being of participants, carers and artists.

Public Health 2021 Apr 18;194:121-126. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

School of Media and Performance, University of Bedfordshire, Bedford, UK.

Objectives: There is growing interest in arts practices in relation to public health, including their potential to support psychological well-being. This study sought to understand the impact of Hear and Now, an intergenerational arts and health project, upon indicators of psychological well-being among all groups involved: young people, older people with a diagnosis of dementia and their carers and partners and the project's artistic team.

Study Design: This was a descriptive exploratory qualitative study, using focus groups and observation as data collection methods. Read More

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WIKIBrainStem: an online atlas to manually segment the human brainstem at the mesoscopic scale from ultrahigh field MRI.

Neuroimage 2021 Apr 18:118080. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

UMR 1253, iBrain, Université de Tours, Inserm, Tours, France; CHRU de Tours, Tours, France. Electronic address:

The brainstem is one of the most densely packed areas of the central nervous system in terms of gray, but also white, matter structures and, therefore, is a highly functional hub. It has mainly been studied by the means of histological techniques, which requires several hundreds of slices with a loss of the 3D coherence of the whole specimen. Access to the inner structure of the brainstem is possible using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), but this method has a limited spatial resolution and contrast in vivo. Read More

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Ingestion of contaminated kelps by the herbivore Tetrapygus niger: Negative effects on food intake, growth, fertility, and early development.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Apr 18;167:112365. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Departamento de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Investigación Marina Quintay (CIMARQ), Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad Andres Bello, Quintay, Chile; Center of Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), Santiago, Chile; Instituto Milenio en Socio-Ecología Costera (SECOS), Santiago, Chile. Electronic address:

Macrocystis pyrifera reaches distant areas after detachment, accumulate heavy metals, and serve as trophic subsidy. In this context, effects on both adults and larvae of Tetrapygus niger fed with polluted kelps were determined by assessing growth, fertility, and early larval development. Results revealed that sea urchins fed with polluted kelps from highly impacted zone (HIZ) showed a lower growth (3. Read More

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Implementation of a novel antimicrobial stewardship strategy for rural facilities utilising telehealth.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2021 Apr 18:106346. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Queensland Statewide Antimicrobial Stewardship Program, Queensland Health, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

A significant portion of healthcare takes place in small hospitals, and many are located in rural and regional areas. Facilities in these regions frequently do not have adequate resources to implement an on-site Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP) and there is limited data relating to their implementation and effectiveness. We present an innovative model of providing specialist telehealth antimicrobial stewardship service, utilising a centralised service namely the Queensland Statewide Antimicrobial Stewardship Program, to a rural Hospital and Health Service (HHS). Read More

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Auditory cues facilitate object movement processing in human extrastriate visual cortex during simulated self-motion: A pilot study.

Brain Res 2021 Apr 18:147489. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, USA; Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Visual segregation of moving objects is a considerable computational challenge when the observer moves through space. Recent psychophysical studies suggest that directionally congruent, moving auditory cues can substantially improve parsing object motion in such settings, but the exact brain mechanisms and visual processing stages that mediate these effects are still incompletely known. Here, we utilized multivariate pattern analyses (MVPA) of MRI-informed magnetoencephalography (MEG) source estimates to examine how crossmodal auditory cues facilitate motion detection during the observer's self-motion. Read More

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AIE conjugated polymers for fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapy.

ChemMedChem 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, CHINA.

Accurate diagnosis and treatment have been extensively developed in the field of biomedicine, which puts forward higher requirements for the development of biomedical materials with high efficiency and selectivity. Among them, aggregation-induced emission (AIE) conjugated polymers have stood out in recent years owing to their unique properties, such as intense solid emission, high light-harvesting ability, efficient energy transfer, and high 1 O 2 generation ability, which empower them effectively biomedical functions in fluorescence imaging (FL), photodynamic therapy (PDT), FL guided PDT, two-photon excited photodynamic therapy (2PE-PDT), etc . In this review, we highlight recent progress in AIE conjugated polymers and their applications in anticancer and antibacterial areas based on FL and PDT, and summarize the mechanism of color-tuned fluorescent emission and efficient 1 O 2 generation ability compared with small molecular photosensitizer. Read More

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Repair Bond Strength of High-viscosity Glass-ionomer Cements Using Resin Composite Bonded with Light- and Self-cured Adhesive Systems.

Oper Dent 2021 Jan;46(1):45-53

Clinical Relevance: High-viscosity glass-ionomer cements (HVGICs) used with atraumatic restorative treatment can be repaired with light- or self-cured adhesive systems; however, the repair bond strength of two-step, self-etching and one-step adhesives in the light-cure mode surpass one-step self-cure adhesives. Working on a feasible self-cure approach in the absence of such in rural areas as well as in war zones is of prime importance.

Summary: Read More

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January 2021

Retrospective Evaluation Of The Accuracy Of Five Different Severity Scores To Predict The Mortality In Burns Patients.

J Burn Care Res 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Plastic Surgery Division, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo.

Background: Patients with great clinical impairment, due to extensive burns, need to be admitted to intensive care units, in these treatment sites, indices are used to classify the severity of patients. The aim of the study was to compare the accuracy of the FLAMES score in relation to the Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), the Simplified Acute Physiologic Score II (SAPS II), the Logistic Organ Dysfunction System (LODS) and the Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI) applied to the severe burn patient facing mortality in an ICU of a reference center for burns in Brazil.

Methods: A retrospective study conducted in ICU comparing the accuracy the APACHE II, SAPS II, LODS, ABSI and FLAMES instruments were applied to all the selected medical records. Read More

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Mesophotic fish communities of the ancient coastline in Western Australia.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(4):e0250427. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre, Australian Institute of Marine Science, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, Australia.

Marine diversity across the Australian continental shelf is shaped by characteristic benthic habitats which are determined by geomorphic features such as paleoshorelines. In north-western Australia there has been little attention on the fish communities that inhabit an ancient coastline at ~125 m depth (the designated AC125), which is specified as a key ecological feature (KEF) of the region and is thought to comprise hard substrate and support enhanced diversity. We investigated drivers of fish species richness and assemblage composition spanning six degrees of latitude along sections of the ancient coastline, categorised as 'on' and 'off' the AC125 based on depth, across a range of habitats and seafloor complexity (~60-180 m depth). Read More

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Testing Late Bronze Age mobility in southern Sweden in the light of a new multi-proxy strontium isotope baseline of Scania.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(4):e0250279. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The Bronze Age of Sweden's southernmost region, Scania, is complex and intriguing. One could say that Scania represented in many ways a gateway for people, ideas and material culture connecting continental Europe with Sweden. Shedding light on the dynamics of human mobility in this region requires an in depth understanding of the local archaeological contexts across time. Read More

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A comparison of the performance on extrinsic and intrinsic cartographic visualizations through correctness, response time and cognitive processing.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(4):e0250164. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Information and Library Studies, Faculty of Arts, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

The aim of this study was to compare the performance of two bivariate visualizations by measuring response correctness (error rate) and response time, and to identify the differences in cognitive processes involved in map-reading tasks by using eye-tracking methods. The present study is based on our previous research and the hypothesis that the use of different visualization methods may lead to significant cognitive-processing differences. We applied extrinsic and intrinsic visualizations in the study. Read More

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Categorisation of culturable bioaerosols in a fruit juice manufacturing facility.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(4):e0242969. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Centre for Applied Food Sustainability and Biotechnology (CAFSaB), Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences, Central University of Technology, Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

Bioaerosols are defined as aerosols that comprise particles of biological origin or activity that may affect living organisms through infectivity, allergenicity, toxicity, or through pharmacological or other processes. Interest in bioaerosol exposure has increased over the last few decades. Exposure to bioaerosols may cause three major problems in the food industry, namely: (i) contamination of food (spoilage); (ii) allergic reactions in individual consumers; or (iii) infection by means of pathogenic microorganisms present in the aerosol. Read More

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Population density and basic reproductive number of COVID-19 across United States counties.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(4):e0249271. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Global Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States of America.

The basic reproductive number (R0) is a function of contact rates among individuals, transmission probability, and duration of infectiousness. We sought to determine the association between population density and R0 of SARS-CoV-2 across U.S. Read More

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Usability and Clinical Evaluation of Self-Sampling for SARS-CoV-2 Diagnostic Testing Using Nasal and Saliva Specimens in South Africa: Study Protocol.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, The George Washington University, Washington DC, USA, Washington, US.

Background: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a coronavirus novel discovered in December 2019 and is currently the cause of a global pandemic. A critical aspect of fighting this pandemic is by obtaining accurate and timeous test results so that positive identified cases can be isolated to reduce the spread. Research has shown that saliva is a promising candidate for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics because collection is minimally invasive and can reliably be self-administered. Read More

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A Survey of Deep Learning on CPUs: Opportunities and Co-Optimizations.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Apr 21;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

CPU is a powerful, pervasive, and indispensable platform for running deep learning (DL) workloads in systems ranging from mobile to extreme-end servers. In this article, we present a survey of techniques for optimizing DL applications on CPUs. We include the methods proposed for both inference and training and those offered in the context of mobile, desktop/server, and distributed systems. Read More

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An updated safety review of the drug treatments for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

Expert Opin Drug Saf 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

UOC Pneumologia, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Roma, Italy.

Introduction: The approval of antifibrotic agents nintedanib and pirfenidone revolutionized the management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). These treatments showed acceptable tolerability in randomized clinical trials, however they have been associated to a spectrum of potential side effects which require careful assessment of risks and benefits in the individual patient before commencing and during antifibrotic therapy.

Areas Covered: the accrued evidence on safety of nintedanib and pirfenidone is summarized, from the first randomized clinical trials to the open-label extension studies and post-marketing clinical experiences which helped clarify the long-term tolerability of these drugs. Read More

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Factors and mechanisms contributing to the development of preschool wheezing disorders.

Expert Rev Respir Med 2021 Apr 21:1-16. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Inflammation, Repair & Development Section, National Heart & Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Introduction: Half of all children will experience an episode of wheezing by their sixth birthday and acute episodes of wheezing in preschool children account for the majority of all childhood hospital admissions for wheeze. Recurrent preschool wheezing associates with early loss of lung function and a life-long impact on lung health.

Areas Covered: We reviewed the literature on PubMed from August 2010-2020 focussing on factors associated with wheeze inception and persistence, paying specific attention to mechanistic studies that have investigated the impact of early life exposures in shaping immune responses in children with underlying susceptibility to wheezing. Read More

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A Resident-Driven Mobile Evaluation System Can Be Used to Augment Traditional Surgery Rotation Evaluations.

Am Surg 2021 Apr 21:31348211011130. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Division of Trauma and Surgical Critical Care, Department of Surgery, 12286Rutgers - New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA.

Background: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires residents to receive milestone-based evaluations in key areas. Shortcomings of the traditional evaluation system (TES) are a low completion rate and delay in completion. We hypothesized that adoption of a mobile evaluation system (MES) would increase the number of evaluations completed and improve their timeliness. Read More

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National Maintenance Cost for Precision Diagnostics Under the Verifying Accurate Leading-Edge In Vitro Clinical Test Development (VALID) Act of 2020.

JCO Oncol Pract 2021 Apr 21:OP2000862. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Pathology, Center for Integrated Diagnostics, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Purpose: The proposed legislation Verifying Accurate and Leading-edge In vitro clinical test Development (VALID) clarifies the US Food and Drug Administration's authority to regulate laboratory-developed tests. Many stakeholders have pointed out that the lack of direct US Food and Drug Administration oversight has led to erroneous results that have serious patient consequences-in particular for patients with cancer. is a key provision proposed in VALID to navigate the balance between safety, patient access, and innovation; however, the maintenance cost of the proposed framework implementation is unclear. Read More

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Diagnostic KASP Markers of Wheat Broad-spectrum Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes Pm21, PmV and Pm12 Developed for High Throughput Marker-assisted Selection.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Yantai University, No.30, Qingquan Road, Yantai, Shandong, China, 264005;

Wheat powdery mildew is a devastating disease that seriously threatens yield worldwide. Utilization of host resistance is considered an effective strategy to minimize powdery mildew damage. Pm21, PmV, and Pm12 confer broad-spectrum resistance to wheat powdery mildew in China, of which Pm21 and PmV are allelic genes derived from the 6VS chromosome of Dasypyrum villosum, and Pm12 is derived from the 6SS chromosome of Aegilops speltoides and most likely orthologous to the former two genes. Read More

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Fungicide Mitigates Fusarium Head Blight in Durum Wheat when Applied as Late as the End of Flowering in Western Canada.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

University of Saskatchewan College of Agriculture and Bioresources, 98627, Plant Sciences, 51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, S7N 5A8;

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most important diseases of durum, spring and winter wheat in Canada. Growers rely on an integrated strategy to manage the disease, including fungicide application at the current recommendation of early to 50% anthesis (BBCH61-65). This study evaluated the effect of fungicide-application timing and seeding rates of durum wheat on FHB. Read More

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Solution Dynamics of Hybrid Anderson-Evans Polyoxometalates.

Inorg Chem 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Chemistry, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200F, 3001 Leuven, Belgium.

Understanding the stability and speciation of metal-oxo clusters in solution is essential for many of their applications in different areas. In particular, hybrid organic-inorganic polyoxometalates (HPOMs) have been attracting increasing attention as they combine the complementary properties of organic ligands and metal-oxygen nanoclusters. Nevertheless, the speciation and solution behavior of HPOMs have been scarcely investigated. Read More

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Stimuli-Induced Reversible Proton Transfer for Stimuli-Responsive Materials and Devices.

Acc Chem Res 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

State Key Lab of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, P. R. China.

ConspectusStimuli-responsive materials have a great potential in various novel photoelectric devices, such as self-adaptive adjustment devices, intelligent detection, molecular computers with information storage capability, camouflage and anticounterfeiting display, various energy-saving displays, and others. However, progress in related areas has been relatively slow because of the lack of high-performance smart materials and the limitations of available reaction mechanisms currently. To address these problems fundamentally, new mechanisms need to be designed and developed, and learning from nature is an effective and intelligent method to achieve this long-awaited target, such as mimicking of proton transfer processes in nature at the molecular/supramolecular level. Read More

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State health disparities research in Rural America: Gaps and future directions in an era of COVID-19.

J Rural Health 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Purpose: In an era of the COVID-19 pandemic, improving health outcomes for diverse rural communities requires collective and sustained actions across transdisciplinary researchers, intersectoral partners, multilevel government action, and authentic engagement with those who carry the burden-rural communities.

Methods: Drawing from an analysis of transcriptions and documents from a national workshop on the "State of Rural Health Disparities: Research Gaps and Recommendations," this brief report underscores the gaps and priorities for future strategies for tackling persistent rural health inequities.

Findings: Four overarching recommendations were provided by national thought leaders in rural health: (1) create mechanisms to allow the rural research community time to build sustainable community-based participatory relationships; (2) support innovative research designs and approaches relevant to rural settings; (3) sustain effective interventions relevant to unique challenges in rural areas; and (4) recognize and identify the diversity within and across rural populations and adapt culturally and language-appropriate approaches. Read More

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