Environ Int 2021 Sep 21;157:106851. Epub 2021 Sep 21.
River Engineering and Urban Drainage Research Centre (REDAC), Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia. Electronic address:
The present work has been oriented to the qualitative and quantitative assessments of the aftermath effects of 2014 flood tragedy on the organic, inorganic and microbial contaminants in the floodwater, with a particular emphasis on their relative health risks and microbial infectious hazards to the flood-affected population, using average daily dose, hazard quotient, hazard index (HI), cancer risk (CR) and quantitative microbial risk assessment. Statistical comparison of the organic and inorganic contents was performed using the paired t-tests, while the predominant socio-demographic profiles and health attributes of the respondents to flood-induced health risks (HI) were verified by the chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis. Among all, Fe, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cd, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, estriol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, estrone, β-estradiol and bisphenol A were detected at the study area after flooding. Read More