536 results match your criteria arctic char


Antibiotic resistance in mucosal bacteria from high Arctic migratory salmonids.

Environ Microbiol Rep 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

College of the Sciences and Mathematics, West Chester University, West Chester, Pennsylvania, USA.

Two related salmonids, Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) sampled from the high Arctic region of Nunavut, Canada are anadromous fish, migrating annually from the same ice-covered freshwater waterbodies to spend summers in the marine waters of the Arctic Ocean. Microbiota associated with the skin-associated mucus undergo community change coincident with migration, and irrespective of this turnover, antibiotic resistance was detected in mixed bacterial cultures initiated with mucus samples. Although as expected most bacteria were unculturable, however, 5/7 isolates showed susceptibility to a panel of five common antibiotics. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Temperature effects on the contractile performance and efficiency of oxidative muscle from a eury- vs. stenothermal salmonid.

J Exp Biol 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4, Canada.

We compared the thermal sensitivity of oxidative muscle function between the eurythermal Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and the more stenothermal Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus; which prefers cooler waters). Power output was measured in red skeletal muscle strips and myocardial trabeculae, and efficiency (net work/energy consumed) was measured for trabeculae, from cold (6oC) and warm (15oC) acclimated fish at temperatures from 2-26oC. The mass-specific net power produced by char red muscle was greater than in salmon, by 2-5 fold depending on test temperature. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Muscular microsporidian infection in Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus from two lakes in Nunavik, Quebec, Canada.

Dis Aquat Organ 2021 May 27;144:209-220. Epub 2021 May 27.

Centre québécois sur la santé des animaux sauvages / Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative, Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, St. Hyacinthe, Quebec J2S 2M2, Canada.

Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus is an important cultural and subsistence resource for Inuit communities. Muscular infections by microsporidia were diagnosed for the first time in Arctic char originating from 2 different lakes in Nunavik (Quebec, Canada). The consumption of these infected fish was associated with digestive tract disorders in people. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Conspecific migration and environmental setting determine parasite infracommunities of non-migratory individual fish.

Parasitology 2021 May 24:1-10. Epub 2021 May 24.

Natural History Museum of Geneva, Route de Malagnou 1, Geneva1208, Switzerland.

Parasite infracommunities tend to be stochastic in nature, although environmental characteristics such as the type of water source in streams and host traits can have an effect on the biotic assemblages and by extension the parasite fauna. We examined the effect of water source and the rate of adult fish migration on the metazoan parasite infracommunities of conspecific juvenile brown trout, Salmo trutta L. among streams flowing into Lake Lucerne (Switzerland). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cranial Mandibular Fibrosis Syndrome in Adult Farmed Rainbow Trout .

Pathogens 2021 Apr 30;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

International Centre of Excellence for Aquatic Animal Health, Cefas Weymouth Laboratory, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 8UB, UK.

An unusual condition affecting market size rainbow trout was investigated. This condition was prevalent for several years at low levels but affected a large proportion of stock during 2018 and 2019. Chronic fibrosis affecting cranial tissues and the jaw was observed in samples collected in 2018. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Investigating the morphological and genetic divergence of arctic char ( populations in lakes of arctic Alaska.

Ecol Evol 2021 Apr 5;11(7):3040-3057. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Watershed Sciences and the Ecology Center Utah State University Logan UT USA.

Polymorphism facilitates coexistence of divergent morphs (e.g., phenotypes) of the same species by minimizing intraspecific competition, especially when resources are limiting. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Remodeling of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) lipidome under a stimulated scenario of Arctic warming.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jul 2;27(14):3282-3298. Epub 2021 May 2.

Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.

Arctic warming associated with global climate change poses a significant threat to populations of wildlife in the Arctic. Since lipids play a vital role in adaptation of organisms to variations in temperature, high-resolution mass-spectrometry-based lipidomics can provide insights into adaptive responses of organisms to a warmer environment in the Arctic and help to illustrate potential novel roles of lipids in the process of thermal adaption. In this study, we studied an ecologically and economically important species-Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus)-with a detailed multi-tissue analysis of the lipidome in response to chronic shifts in temperature using a validated lipidomics workflow. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Piscine Orthoreovirus (PRV)-3, but Not PRV-2, Cross-Protects against PRV-1 and Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation in Atlantic Salmon.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Mar 6;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Fish Health, Norwegian Veterinary Institute, 0454 Oslo, Norway.

Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), caused by infection with (PRV-1), is a common disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (). Both an inactivated whole virus vaccine and a DNA vaccine have previously been tested experimentally against HSMI and demonstrated to give partial but not full protection. To understand the mechanisms involved in protection against HSMI and evaluate the potential of live attenuated vaccine strategies, we set up a cross-protection experiment using PRV genotypes not associated with disease development in Atlantic salmon. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Keeping close to the river, shore and surface: the first marine migration of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) post-smolts.

J Fish Biol 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Akvaplan-niva AS, Alta, Norway.

Acoustic telemetry was utilized to track 49 brown trout (Salmo trutta) and 37 Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) first-time migrants of wild origin [post-smolts; mean L (fork length): 169 and 172 mm] in a large fjord in northern Norway. The S. trutta were registered at sea for more than twice the time of the S. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Among-individual diet variation within a lake trout ecotype: Lack of stability of niche use.

Ecol Evol 2021 Feb 19;11(3):1457-1475. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Center for Systems Integration and Sustainability Michigan State University East Lansing MI USA.

In a polyphenic species, differences in resource use are expected among ecotypes, and homogeneity in resource use is expected within an ecotype. Yet, using a broad resource spectrum has been identified as a strategy for fishes living in unproductive northern environments, where food is patchily distributed and ephemeral. We investigated whether specialization of trophic resources by individuals occurred within the generalist piscivore ecotype of lake trout from Great Bear Lake, Canada, reflective of a form of diversity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

The thermal acclimation potential of maximum heart rate and cardiac heat tolerance in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), a northern cold-water specialist.

J Therm Biol 2021 Jan 14;95:102816. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, #4200 - 6270, University Blvd, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada; Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, 2357 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada.

Increasing heart rate (ƒ) is a central, if not primary mechanism used by fishes to support their elevated tissue oxygen consumption during acute warming. Thermal acclimation can adjust this acute response to improve cardiac performance and heat tolerance under the prevailing temperatures. We predict that such acclimation will be particularly important in regions undergoing rapid environmental change such as the Arctic. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Expression of DNA repair genes in arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) from Bjørnøya in the Norwegian Arctic.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Mar 8;210:111846. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Department of Biology, Høgskoleringen 5, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway. Electronic address:

High levels of organochlorines (OCs) have been measured in arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) from Lake Ellasjøen on Bjørnøya, Norway (74.30°N, 19.0°E). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Identification of Arctic Food Fish Species for Anthropogenic Contaminant Testing Using Geography and Genetics.

Foods 2020 Dec 8;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada.

The identification of food fish bearing anthropogenic contaminants is one of many priorities for Indigenous peoples living in the Arctic. Mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), and persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are of concern, and these are reported, in some cases for the first time, for fish sampled in and around King William Island, located in Nunavut, Canada. More than 500 salmonids, comprising Arctic char, lake trout, lake whitefish, and ciscoes, were assayed for contaminants. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Proof of concept: visual categorization of carotenoid pigmentation in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L) can predict stress response.

J Fish Biol 2021 Apr 12;98(4):1192-1195. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.

Carotenoid pigmentation in Salvelinus alpinus has been connected to stress responsiveness in earlier studies. This has, however, only been tested with time-consuming image analysis from photos. Here, we used quick visual categorization of carotenoid pigmentation to investigate the stress responsiveness of the extreme groups. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Repeatable individual variation in migration timing in two anadromous salmonids and ecological consequences.

Ecol Evol 2020 Oct 24;10(20):11727-11738. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA) Trondheim Norway.

Consistent individual differences in behavior have been demonstrated for many animals, but there are few studies of consequences of such repeated behavior in the wild. We tested consistency in migration timing to and from the sea among anadromous Arctic char () and brown trout (), using data from a study period of about 25 years, including more than 27,000 uniquely Carlin-tagged individuals that migrated to sea for feeding in the spring and returned to the river in late summer for up to 13 successive years. Consistency was found between individuals across time in timing of the seaward migration. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

Cytogenetic investigation of Arctic char × brook trout F, F and backcross hybrids revealed remnants of the chromosomal rearrangements.

J Appl Genet 2021 Feb 31;62(1):151-164. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Department of Marine Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Oceanography and Geography, Institute of Oceanography University of Gdansk, al. Marszalka Józefa Pilsudskiego 46, 81-378, Gdynia, Poland.

Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) hybridize and their offspring is viable and fertile. This may be a real treat for the native European stocks of Arctic char which gene pools might be unintendedly contaminated with the genetic elements of brook trout. On the other hand, hybrids of these two species are appreciated by customers and have some potential for the aquaculture. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Validation of dried blood spot sampling for determining trophic positions of Arctic char using nitrogen stable isotope analyses of amino acids.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2021 Jan;35(2):e8992

Water and Environmental Research Center, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, USA.

Rationale: Dried blood spots (DBSs) are gaining popularity for biomarker analyses in ecological research due to their advantages for use in field-based research and in remote settings; however, many DBS biomarkers remain unvalidated. We validated the application of compound-specific stable nitrogen isotope analyses of amino acids (CSIA-AAs) to field-prepared DBSs for determining trophic positions of wild-caught Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus).

Methods: Whole blood and muscle from Arctic char were collected, and DBSs were created in the field. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Diet influences on growth and mercury concentrations of two salmonid species from lakes in the eastern Canadian Arctic.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jan 13;268(Pt B):115820. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Environment and Climate Change Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, ON, L7S 1A1, Canada.

Diet, age, and growth rate influences on fish mercury concentrations were investigated for Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in lakes of the eastern Canadian Arctic. We hypothesized that faster-growing fish have lower mercury concentrations because of growth dilution, a process whereby more efficient growth dilutes a fish's mercury burden. Using datasets of 57 brook trout and 133 Arctic char, linear regression modelling showed fish age and diet indices were the dominant explanatory variables of muscle mercury concentrations for both species. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

The biology and feeding ecology of Arctic charr in the Kerguelen Islands.

J Fish Biol 2021 Feb 24;98(2):526-536. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Subsequent to their introduction in the 1950s, Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus have been able to establish a self-sustaining population that has adapted to the unique conditions of the sub-Antarctic Kerguelen Islands. Here, 48 individuals (198-415 mm) were caught with gillnets and their basic biology and feeding ecology were examined using stable isotope analysis. The Lac des Fougères population split use of littoral and pelagic resources evenly, although larger fish relied more heavily on littoral production and appear to follow the size-dependent life history habitat template seen in many Scandinavian lakes where smaller sized individuals occupy the pelagic zone and larger individuals dominate the littoral habitat. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Trophic structure of apex fish communities in closed versus leaky lakes of arctic Alaska.

Oecologia 2020 Nov 15;194(3):491-504. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Watershed Sciences, The Ecology Center, Utah State University, 5210 Old Main Hill, Logan, UT, 84322-5210, USA.

Despite low species diversity and primary production, trophic structure (e.g., top predator species, predator size) is surprisingly variable among Arctic lakes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Longitudinal survey of Flavobacterium species in Icelandic salmonid fish farms.

Dis Aquat Organ 2020 Sep 17;141:15-24. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Institute for Experimental Pathology at Keldur, 112 Reykjavik, Iceland.

Flavobacterium species cause significant disease in salmonid farming worldwide, typically seen as mortality in sac fry and later as necrosis and ulceration in fingerlings and fry. In this study, we sampled Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus from 5 Icelandic fish farms in 2014 and 2017, where flavobacteria were suspected to cause disease. The objective of the study was to identify and characterise the bacteria by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene and multilocus sequence type housekeeping genes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Limited genetic parallelism underlies recent, repeated incipient speciation in geographically proximate populations of an Arctic fish (Salvelinus alpinus).

Mol Ecol 2020 11 3;29(22):4280-4294. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada.

The genetic underpinnings of incipient speciation, including the genomic mechanisms which contribute to morphological and ecological differentiation and reproductive isolation, remain poorly understood. The repeated evolution of consistently, phenotypically distinct morphs of Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) within the Quaternary period offer an ideal model to study the repeatability of evolution at the genomic level. Sympatric morphs of Arctic Charr are found across this species' circumpolar distribution. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

A seasonal comparison of trace metal concentrations in the tissues of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in Northern Québec, Canada.

Ecotoxicology 2020 Nov 13;29(9):1327-1346. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada.

Ecotoxicological research detailing trace metal contamination and seasonal variation in the tissues of northern fishes such as Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) has been poorly represented in the literature beyond examination of mercury. In an effort to address this, anadromous Arctic charr were collected from the Deception River watershed in the late summer and post-winter season, before quantifying seasonal and organotropic variations in dorsal muscle and liver concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc. Potential linkages with biological variables (fork length, age, and somatic condition) and indicators of feeding behavior (δC and δN) were also assessed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Impacts of ontogenetic dietary shifts on the food-transmitted intestinal parasite communities of two lake salmonids.

Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2020 Aug 10;12:155-164. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Muninbakken 21, 9019, Tromsø, Norway.

Ontogenetic dietary shifts are common in fish and often impact trophically transmitted parasite communities. How parasite species composition and relative abundances change among size classes, and at what rate these changes occur, is rarely examined. Hosts with a broad trophic niche are potentially exposed to a large variety of parasite species. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Seasonal variation of total mercury and condition indices of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in Northern Québec, Canada.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Oct 15;738:139450. Epub 2020 May 15.

University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L 3G1.

The winter ecology of anadromous Arctic charr, an important fish species for Indigenous populations, has remained poorly detailed in the literature beyond descriptions of seasonal fasting and resulting declines in condition. However, prolonged periods of reduced feeding can have significant consequences for other variables, such as tissue contaminant levels. To more thoroughly detail seasonal changes, biological information (fork length, total weight, age, sex, somatic condition), stable isotopes (δ13C, % carbon, δ15N, % nitrogen), dorsal muscle % lipid, caloric densities, and total mercury (THg) concentrations were assessed in anadromous Arctic charr collected from Deception Bay, Canada, during the summer and over-wintering periods. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

Advanced vacuolation indicates propagation of various salmonid alphavirus type 2 isolates in Acholeplasma-infected BF-2 cells.

Dis Aquat Organ 2020 Jun 4;139:189-197. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Clinical Division of Fish Medicine, University of Veterinary Medicine, 1210 Vienna, Austria.

During previous routine inspections of bluegill fry (BF-2) and rainbow trout gonad (RTG-2) cells incubated with organ samples from asymptomatic Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, a distinctive, reproducible cytopathic effect (CPE) appeared. The striking CPE, involving progressive vacuolation turning into slowly proceeding pyknotic degeneration, was originally attributed exclusively to enhanced growth of Acholeplasma sp. However, at a recent re-examination of re-infected BF-2 cells using electron microscopy (EM), conventional PCR, and quantitative PCR (qPCR), a virus was also detected. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Seasonal dietary shifts enhance parasite transmission to lake salmonids during ice cover.

Ecol Evol 2020 May 8;10(9):4031-4043. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Arctic and Marine Biology Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics UiT The Arctic University of Norway Tromsø Norway.

Changes in abiotic and biotic factors between seasons in subarctic lake systems are often profound, potentially affecting the community structure and population dynamics of parasites over the annual cycle. However, few winter studies exist and interactions between fish hosts and their parasites are typically confined to snapshot studies restricted to the summer season whereas host-parasite dynamics during the ice-covered period rarely have been explored. The present study addresses seasonal patterns in the infections of intestinal parasites and their association with the diet of sympatric living Arctic charr () and brown trout () in Lake Takvatn, a subarctic lake in northern Norway. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Proliferative kidney disease in Alaskan salmonids with evidence that pathogenic myxozoans may be emerging north.

Int J Parasitol 2020 09 29;50(10-11):797-807. Epub 2020 May 29.

Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries, Fish Pathology Laboratory, Anchorage, AK, USA. Electronic address:

Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) of salmonids, a chronic immunopathology caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, is exacerbated by increased water temperatures. PKD causes economic concerns to trout farmers and contributes to the decline of wild salmonid populations in North America and Europe. The parasite occurs as far north as Norway and Iceland in Europe and was confirmed from California to southern British Columbia in the American continent. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Food frequency questionnaire assessing traditional food consumption in Dene/Métis communities, Northwest Territories, Canada.

Int J Circumpolar Health 2020 12;79(1):1760071

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) can be used to document food consumption and to estimate the intake of contaminants for Indigenous populations. The objective of this project was to refine and implement an FFQ to estimate the consumption of traditional locally harvested foods for Dene/Métis in the Northwest Territories, Canada. The strategy consisted of: 1) refining the FFQ through three focus groups and, 2) implementing the FFQ in Indigenous communities. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020