2,543 results match your criteria arctic alaska

The "second wave" of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Arctic: regional and temporal dynamics.

Int J Circumpolar Health 2021 12;80(1):1925446

Department of Geography, Texas State University, Round Rock, TX, USA.

This article focuses on the "second wave" of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Arctic and examines spatiotemporal patterns between July 2020 and January 2021. We analyse available COVID-19 data at the regional (subnational) level to elucidate patterns and typology of Arctic regions with respect to the COVID-19 pandemic. This article builds upon our previous research that examined the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic between February and July 2020. Read More

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December 2021

Experimental warming differentially affects vegetative and reproductive phenology of tundra plants.

Nat Commun 2021 06 11;12(1):3442. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Center for Ecosystem Science and Society, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, USA.

Rapid climate warming is altering Arctic and alpine tundra ecosystem structure and function, including shifts in plant phenology. While the advancement of green up and flowering are well-documented, it remains unclear whether all phenophases, particularly those later in the season, will shift in unison or respond divergently to warming. Here, we present the largest synthesis to our knowledge of experimental warming effects on tundra plant phenology from the International Tundra Experiment. Read More

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Post-diapause transcriptomic restarts: insight from a high-latitude copepod.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jun 3;22(1):409. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Pacific Biosciences Research Center, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, 1993 East-West Rd, Honolulu, HI, 96822, USA.

Background: Diapause is a seasonal dormancy that allows organisms to survive unfavorable conditions and optimizes the timing of reproduction and growth. Emergence from diapause reverses the state of arrested development and metabolic suppression returning the organism to an active state. The physiological mechanisms that regulate the transition from diapause to post-diapause are still unknown. Read More

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MercuNorth - monitoring mercury in pregnant women from the Arctic as a baseline to assess the effectiveness of the Minamata Convention.

Int J Circumpolar Health 2021 Dec;80(1):1881345

Axe Santé Des Populations Et Pratiques Optimales En Santé, Centre De Recherche Du CHU De Québec, Québec, QC, Canada.

Exposure to mercury (Hg) is a global concern, particularly among Arctic populations that rely on the consumption of marine mammals and fish which are the main route of Hg exposure for Arctic populations.The MercuNorth project was created to establish baseline Hg levels across several Arctic regions during the period preceding the Minamata Convention. Blood samples were collected from 669 pregnant women, aged 18-44 years, between 2010 and 2016 from sites across the circumpolar Arctic including Alaska (USA), Nunavik (Canada), Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Northern Lapland (Finland) and Murmansk Oblast (Russia). Read More

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December 2021

Plant and soil nitrogen in oligotrophic boreal forest habitats with varying moss depths: does exclusion of large grazers matter?

Oecologia 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Ecology and Genetics Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

The boreal forest consists of drier sunlit and moister-shaded habitats with varying moss abundance. Mosses control vascular plant-soil interactions, yet they all can also be altered by grazers. We determined how 2 decades of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) exclusion affect feather moss (Pleurozium schreberi) depth, and the accompanying soil N dynamics (total and dissolvable inorganic N, δN), plant foliar N, and stable isotopes (δN, δC) in two contrasting habitats of an oligotrophic Scots pine forest. Read More

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A global metagenomic map of urban microbiomes and antimicrobial resistance.

Cell 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA; The Bin Talal Bin Abdulaziz Alsaud Institute for Computational Biomedicine, New York, NY, USA.

We present a global atlas of 4,728 metagenomic samples from mass-transit systems in 60 cities over 3 years, representing the first systematic, worldwide catalog of the urban microbial ecosystem. This atlas provides an annotated, geospatial profile of microbial strains, functional characteristics, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) markers, and genetic elements, including 10,928 viruses, 1,302 bacteria, 2 archaea, and 838,532 CRISPR arrays not found in reference databases. We identified 4,246 known species of urban microorganisms and a consistent set of 31 species found in 97% of samples that were distinct from human commensal organisms. Read More

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Resilience of cardiac performance in Antarctic notothenioid fishes in a warming climate.

J Exp Biol 2021 May 27;224(10). Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Zoology, and Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, V6T 1Z4.

Warming in the region of the Western Antarctic Peninsula is occurring at an unprecedented rate, which may threaten the survival of Antarctic notothenioid fishes. Herein, we review studies characterizing thermal tolerance and cardiac performance in notothenioids - a group that includes both red-blooded species and the white-blooded, haemoglobinless icefishes - as well as the relevant biochemistry associated with cardiac failure during an acute temperature ramp. Because icefishes do not feed in captivity, making long-term acclimation studies unfeasible, we focus only on the responses of red-blooded notothenioids to warm acclimation. Read More

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Investigating the performance of 24-h urinary sucrose and fructose as a biomarker of total sugars intake in US participants - a controlled feeding study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Gertner Institute for Epidemiology and Health Policy Research, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

Background: Developing approaches for the objective assessment of sugars intake in population research is crucial for generating reliable disease risk estimates, and evidence-based dietary guidelines. Twenty-four-hour urinary sucrose and fructose (24uSF) was developed as a predictive biomarker of total sugars intake based on 3 UK feeding studies, yet its performance as a biomarker of total sugars among US participants is unknown.

Objectives: To investigate the performance of 24uSF as a biomarker of sugars intake among US participants, and to characterize its use. Read More

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Implications of Zoonoses From Hunting and Use of Wildlife in North American Arctic and Boreal Biomes: Pandemic Potential, Monitoring, and Mitigation.

Front Public Health 2021 5;9:627654. Epub 2021 May 5.

Wildlife Conservation Society Health Program, Bronx, NY, United States.

The COVID-19 pandemic has re-focused attention on mechanisms that lead to zoonotic disease spillover and spread. Commercial wildlife trade, and associated markets, are recognized mechanisms for zoonotic disease emergence, resulting in a growing global conversation around reducing human disease risks from spillover associated with hunting, trade, and consumption of wild animals. These discussions are especially relevant to people who rely on harvesting wildlife to meet nutritional, and cultural needs, including those in Arctic and boreal regions. Read More

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Inherent tolerance of extreme seasonal variability in light and salinity in an Arctic endemic kelp (Laminaria solidungula).

J Phycol 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

University of Texas Marine Science Institute, Port Aransas, Texas, USA.

The kelp Laminaria solidungula is an important foundation species in the circumpolar Arctic. One of the largest populations of L. solidungula in the Beaufort Sea occurs in Stefansson Sound, off the north coast of Alaska. Read More

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Living conditions and mental wellness in a changing climate and environment: focus on community voices and perceived environmental and adaptation factors in Greenland.

Heliyon 2021 Apr 30;7(4):e06862. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

University of Arctic, Finland.

Background: Climate change is a major global challenge, especially for Indigenous communities. It can have extensive impacts on peoples' lives that may occur through the living environment, health and mental well-being, and which are requiring constant adaptation.

Objectives: The overall purpose of this research was to evaluate the impacts of climate change and permafrost thaw on mental wellness in Disko Bay, Greenland. Read More

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Spring Phenology Drives Range Shifts in a Migratory Arctic Ungulate with Key Implications for the Future.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 May 16. Epub 2021 May 16.

Department of Environment, Yukon Government, Dawson City, YT, Y0B 1G0, Canada.

Annual variation in phenology can have profound effects on the behavior of animals. As climate change advances spring phenology in ecosystems around the globe, it is becoming increasingly important to understand how animals respond to variation in the timing of seasonal events and how their responses may shift in the future. We investigated the influence of spring phenology on the behavior of migratory, barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus), a species that has evolved to cope with short Arctic summers. Read More

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Connecting Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches in Environmental Observing.

Bioscience 2021 May 28;71(5):467-483. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, United States.

Effective responses to rapid environmental change rely on observations to inform planning and decision-making. Reviewing literature from 124 programs across the globe and analyzing survey data for 30 Arctic community-based monitoring programs, we compare top-down, large-scale program driven approaches with bottom-up approaches initiated and steered at the community level. Connecting these two approaches and linking to Indigenous and local knowledge yields benefits including improved information products and enhanced observing program efficiency and sustainability. Read More

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Using fractal self-similarity to increase precision of shrub biomass estimates.

Ecol Evol 2021 May 18;11(9):4866-4873. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station University of Washington Seattle WA USA.

We show that aerial tips are self-similar fractals of whole shrubs and present a field method that applies this fact to improves accuracy and precision of biomass estimates of tall-shrubs, defined here as those with diameter at root collar (DRC) ≥ 2.5 cm. Power function allometry of biomass to stem diameter generates a disproportionate prediction error that increases rapidly with diameter. Read More

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Ancient horse genomes reveal the timing and extent of dispersals across the Bering Land Bridge.

Mol Ecol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Biomolecular Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, USA.

The Bering Land Bridge (BLB) last connected Eurasia and North America during the Late Pleistocene. Although the BLB would have enabled transfers of terrestrial biota in both directions, it also acted as an ecological filter whose permeability varied considerably over time. Here we explore the possible impacts of this ecological corridor on genetic diversity within, and connectivity among, populations of a once wide-ranging group, the caballine horses (Equus spp. Read More

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Using next generation sequencing of alpine plants to improve fecal metabarcoding diet analysis for Dall's sheep.

BMC Res Notes 2021 May 7;14(1):173. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.

Objectives: Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) are important herbivores in the mountainous ecosystems of northwestern North America, and recent declines in some populations have sparked concern. Our aim was to improve capabilities for fecal metabarcoding diet analysis of Dall's sheep and other herbivores by contributing new sequence data for arctic and alpine plants. This expanded reference library will provide critical reference sequence data that will facilitate metabarcoding diet analysis of Dall's sheep and thus improve understanding of plant-animal interactions in a region undergoing rapid climate change. Read More

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A Novel Adenovirus Detected in Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Seas Bowhead Whale (Balaena mysticetus): Epidemiologic Data and Phylogenetic Characterization.

J Wildl Dis 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Athens Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA.

Adenoviruses are common pathogens infecting a wide range of vertebrates. Few cetacean adenoviruses have been described in the literature, and their pathogenicity is still unclear. Using PCR-based viral and bacterial pathogen surveillance in Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort seas bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) legally harvested 2011-15 during Alaskan aboriginal subsistence hunts, six of 59 bowhead whales (10%) tested positive for adenovirus DNA in the spleen. Read More

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The ecological niche of reported rabies cases in Canada is similar to Alaska.

Zoonoses Public Health 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK, USA.

The ecology of rabies in the circumpolar North is still not well understood. We use machine learning, a geographic information system and data explicit in time and space obtained for reported rabies cases and predictors in Canada to develop an ecological niche model for the distribution of reported rabies cases in the American north (Alaska and Canada). The ecological niche model based on reported rabies cases in Canada predicted reported rabies cases in Alaska, suggesting a rather robust inference and even similar drivers on a continental scale. Read More

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Projected land ice contributions to twenty-first-century sea level rise.

Nature 2021 05 5;593(7857):74-82. Epub 2021 May 5.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA.

The land ice contribution to global mean sea level rise has not yet been predicted using ice sheet and glacier models for the latest set of socio-economic scenarios, nor using coordinated exploration of uncertainties arising from the various computer models involved. Two recent international projects generated a large suite of projections using multiple models, but primarily used previous-generation scenarios and climate models, and could not fully explore known uncertainties. Here we estimate probability distributions for these projections under the new scenarios using statistical emulation of the ice sheet and glacier models. Read More

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Cranial Mandibular Fibrosis Syndrome in Adult Farmed Rainbow Trout .

Pathogens 2021 Apr 30;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

International Centre of Excellence for Aquatic Animal Health, Cefas Weymouth Laboratory, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 8UB, UK.

An unusual condition affecting market size rainbow trout was investigated. This condition was prevalent for several years at low levels but affected a large proportion of stock during 2018 and 2019. Chronic fibrosis affecting cranial tissues and the jaw was observed in samples collected in 2018. Read More

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Identifying dominant environmental predictors of freshwater wetland methane fluxes across diurnal to seasonal time scales.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Earth System Science, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

While wetlands are the largest natural source of methane (CH ) to the atmosphere, they represent a large source of uncertainty in the global CH budget due to the complex biogeochemical controls on CH dynamics. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first multi-site synthesis of how predictors of CH fluxes (FCH4) in freshwater wetlands vary across wetland types at diel, multiday (synoptic), and seasonal time scales. We used several statistical approaches (correlation analysis, generalized additive modeling, mutual information, and random forests) in a wavelet-based multi-resolution framework to assess the importance of environmental predictors, nonlinearities and lags on FCH4 across 23 eddy covariance sites. Read More

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Seasonal variation in added sugar or sugar sweetened beverage intake in Alaska native communities: an exploratory study.

Int J Circumpolar Health 2021 Dec;80(1):1920779

Department of Oral Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Excess added sugar intake contributes to tooth decay risk in Alaska Native communities. The goal of this exploratory study was to determine if there is seasonal variation in total added sugar intake or in the leading sources of added sugars in a Yup'ik population. Data were collected in spring and winter from 2008-2010 using self-reported intake data measured by 24-hour recall and by hair biomarker (carbon and nitrogen stable isotope). Read More

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December 2021

Adaptive introgression of the beta-globin cluster in two Andean waterfowl.

Heredity (Edinb) 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Human Genetics and Genomics, Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

Introgression of beneficial alleles has emerged as an important avenue for genetic adaptation in both plant and animal populations. In vertebrates, adaptation to hypoxic high-altitude environments involves the coordination of multiple molecular and cellular mechanisms, including selection on the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway and the blood-O transport protein hemoglobin (Hb). In two Andean duck species, a striking DNA sequence similarity reflecting identity by descent is present across the ~20 kb β-globin cluster including both embryonic (HBE) and adult (HBB) paralogs, though it was yet untested whether this is due to independent parallel evolution or adaptive introgression. Read More

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Diving below the surface: A framework for arctic health research to support thriving communities.

Scand J Public Health 2021 Apr 25:14034948211007694. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Centre for Public Health in Greenland, National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.

Aims: Historically, health research in the Arctic has focused on documenting ill-health using a narrow set of deficit-oriented epidemiologic indicators (i.e., prevalence of disease and mortality rates). Read More

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Marine biodiversity refugia in a climate-sensitive subarctic shelf.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jul 25;27(14):3299-3311. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Arctic Research Center, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

The subarctic shelf of the Eastern Bering Sea (EBS) is one of the world's most productive marine environments, exposed to drastic climate changes characterized by extreme fluctuations in temperature, sea ice concentration, timing, and duration. These climatic changes elicit profound responses in species distribution, abundance, and community composition. Here, we examined the patterns of alpha and temporal beta diversity of 159 marine taxa (66 vertebrates and 93 invertebrate species) from 29 years (1990-2018) of species observations from the NOAA bottom trawl surveys in the EBS. Read More

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A warm jet in a cold ocean.

Nat Commun 2021 04 23;12(1):2418. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Unprecedented quantities of heat are entering the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait, particularly during summer months. Though some heat is lost to the atmosphere during autumn cooling, a significant fraction of the incoming warm, salty water subducts (dives beneath) below a cooler fresher layer of near-surface water, subsequently extending hundreds of kilometers into the Beaufort Gyre. Upward turbulent mixing of these sub-surface pockets of heat is likely accelerating sea ice melt in the region. Read More

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Three decades of Canadian marine harmful algal events: Phytoplankton and phycotoxins of concern to human and ecosystem health.

Harmful Algae 2021 02 24;102:101852. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Centre, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, A1C 5X1, Canada.

Spatial and temporal trends of marine harmful algal events in Canada over the last three decades were examined using data from the Harmful Algal Event Database (HAEDAT). This database contains the most complete record of algal blooms, phycotoxins and shellfish harvesting area closures in Canada since 1987. This 30-year review of 593 Canadian HAEDAT records from 1988 to 2017, together with other Canadian data and publications, shows that recurring harmful algal events have been widespread throughout both the Atlantic and Pacific coastal regions. Read More

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February 2021

Combined effects of crude oil exposure and warming on eggs and larvae of an arctic forage fish.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 16;11(1):8410. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, 9037, Tromsø, Norway.

Climate change, along with environmental pollution, can act synergistically on an organism to amplify adverse effects of exposure. The Arctic is undergoing profound climatic change and an increase in human activity, resulting in a heightened risk of accidental oil spills. Embryos and larvae of polar cod (Boreogadus saida), a key Arctic forage fish species, were exposed to low levels of crude oil concurrently with a 2. Read More

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Transcriptional changes and preservation of bone mass in hibernating black bears.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8281. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2140 Koyukuk Dr., Fairbanks, AK, 99775, USA.

Physical inactivity leads to losses of bone mass and strength in most mammalian species. In contrast, hibernating bears show no bone loss over the prolonged periods (4-6 months) of immobility during winter, which suggests that they have adaptive mechanisms to preserve bone mass. To identify transcriptional changes that underlie molecular mechanisms preventing disuse osteoporosis, we conducted a large-scale gene expression screening in the trabecular bone and bone marrow, comparing hibernating and summer active bears through sequencing of the transcriptome. Read More

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