157,951 results match your criteria architecture

Reconstruction of the Mandibular Condyle.

Facial Plast Surg 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas.

The mandibular condyle is an integral structure in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) serving not only as the hinge point for mandibular opening, but also facilitating mandibular growth and contributing to facial aesthetics. Significant compromise of the TMJ can be debilitating functionally, psychologically, and aesthetically. Reconstruction of the mandibular condyle is rarely straightforward. Read More

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The impact of environmental water on the potential application of core-shell titania-silica nanospheres as photocatalysts.

Nanotechnology 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Faculty of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Department of Nanomaterials Physicochemistry, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, POLAND.

In this study, the core-shell silica nanospheres modified with titanium dioxide were tested in the photocatalytic decomposition of dyes. The presented data underlines the advantages and shortcomings in the potential application of silica-based catalysts to neutralize organic pollutants. During the photocatalytic reaction in distilled water, catalysts showed decreased efficiency due to a carbon layer deposited on its surface. Read More

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Nanosecond pulsed fiber laser irradiation for enhanced zirconia crown adhesion: Morphological, chemical, thermal and mechanical analysis.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2021 Apr 15;219:112189. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

CNR-IMEM Institute, Parco delle Scienze 37a, I-43100 Parma, Italy.

The increasing demand for aesthetics, together with advancements in technology, have contributed to the rise in popularity of all-ceramic restorations. In the last two decades, the continuous progression in ceramic materials science for dental applications has permitted the fabrication of high-strength materials. Amongst these, zirconia-based ceramics have improved in terms of fracture resistance and long-term viability in comparison with other silica-based materials. Read More

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Cis-epistasis at the LPA locus and risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Cardiovasc Res 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Deutsches Herzzentrum München, Klinik für Herz- und Kreislauferkrankungen, Technische Universität München, 80636, Munich, Germany.

Aims: Coronary artery disease (CAD) has a strong genetic predisposition. However, despite substantial discoveries made by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), a large proportion of heritability awaits identification. Non-additive genetic-effects might be responsible for part of the unaccounted genetic variance. Read More

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HSGAN: Hierarchical Graph Learning for Point Cloud Generation.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 Apr 20;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Point clouds are the most general data representations of real and abstract objects, and have a wide variety of applications in many science and engineering fields. Point clouds also provide the most scalable multi-resolution composition for geometric structures. Although point cloud learning has shown remarkable results in shape estimation and semantic segmentation, the unsupervised generation of 3D object parts still pose significant challenges in the 3D shape understanding problem. Read More

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Simultaneous Direct Depth Estimation and Synthesis Stereo for Single Image Plant Root Reconstruction.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 Apr 20;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Plant roots are the main conduit to its interaction with the physical and biological environment. A 3D root system architecture can provide fundamental and applied knowledge of a plant's ability to thrive, but the construction of 3D structures for thin and complicated plant roots is challenging. Existing methods such as structure-from-motion and shape-from-silhouette require multiple images, as input, under a complicated optimization process, which is usually not convenient in fieldwork. Read More

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An Automated Low-Cost Swim Tunnel for Measuring Swimming Performance in Fish.

Zebrafish 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

The study of swimming behavior is an important part of fish biology research and the swim tunnel is used to study swimming performance as well as metabolism of fish. In this investigation, we have developed a user-friendly, automated, modular, and low-cost swim tunnel that permits to study the performance of one or more fish separately, as well as a small group of individuals. To validate our swim tunnel, we assessed swimming activity of four different species (zebrafish, medaka, guppy, and cavefish) recording reliable data of swimming behavior and performance. Read More

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Cryo-balloon catheter localization in X-Ray fluoroscopy using U-net.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Internal Medicine II, Ulm University Medical Center, Albert-Einstein-Allee 23, 89081, Ulm, Germany.

Purpose: Automatic identification of interventional devices in X-ray (XR) fluoroscopy offers the potential of improved navigation during transcatheter endovascular procedures. This paper presents a prototype implementation of fully automatic 3D reconstruction of a cryo-balloon catheter during pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) procedures by deep learning approaches.

Methods: We employ convolutional neural networks (CNN) to automatically identify the cryo-balloon XR marker and catheter shaft in 2D fluoroscopy during PVI. Read More

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Translational model of melphalan-induced gut toxicity reveals drug-host-microbe interactions that drive tissue injury and fever.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Pediatrics (Molecular Metabolism and Nutrition), University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Conditioning therapy with high-dose melphalan (HDM) is associated with a high risk of gut toxicity, fever and infections in haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. However, validated preclinical models that adequately reflect clinical features of melphalan-induced toxicity are not available. We therefore aimed to develop a novel preclinical model of melphalan-induced toxicity that reflected well-defined clinical dynamics, as well as to identify targetable mechanisms that drive intestinal injury. Read More

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The contralateral knee is a good predictor for determining normal knee stability: a cadaveric study.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium.

Purpose: The goal is to evaluate contralateral knee joint laxity and ascertain whether or not contralateral symmetry is observable. Secondary, a validation of a knee laxity testing rig is provided.

Methods: Seven pairs of cadaveric knee specimens have been tested under passive conditions with and without external loads, involving a varus/valgus and an external/internal rotational torque and an anteroposterior shear force. Read More

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Testing Pleiotropy vs. Separate QTL in Multiparental Populations.

G3 (Bethesda) 2019 Jul;9(7):2317-2324

Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706.

The high mapping resolution of multiparental populations, combined with technology to measure tens of thousands of phenotypes, presents a need for quantitative methods to enhance understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits. When multiple traits map to a common genomic region, knowledge of the number of distinct loci provides important insight into the underlying mechanism and can assist planning for subsequent experiments. We extend the method of Jiang and Zeng (1995), for testing pleiotropy with a pair of traits, to the case of more than two alleles. Read More

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Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationships of Annual and Perennial Glycine Species.

G3 (Bethesda) 2019 Jul;9(7):2325-2336

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Soybean Genomics and Improvement Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705.

We have estimated the average genetic diversity of two Glycine annual and six perennial species based upon 76 orthologous gene sets and performed phylogenetic analysis, divergence analysis and tests for departure from neutrality of the eight species using 52 orthologous gene sets. In addition, 367 orthologous gene sets were used to estimate the relationships of 11 G. canescens accessions. Read More

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Genetically Distinct Behavioral Modules Underlie Natural Variation in Thermal Performance Curves.

G3 (Bethesda) 2019 Jul;9(7):2135-2151

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto.

Thermal reaction norms pervade organismal traits as stereotyped responses to temperature, a fundamental environmental input into sensory and physiological systems. Locomotory behavior represents an especially plastic read-out of animal response, with its dynamic dependence on environmental stimuli presenting a challenge for analysis and for understanding the genomic architecture of heritable variation. Here we characterize behavioral reaction norms as thermal performance curves for the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae, using a collection of 23 wild isolate genotypes and 153 recombinant inbred lines to quantify the extent of genetic and plastic variation in locomotory behavior to temperature changes. Read More

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Identification, methylation profiling, and expression analysis of stress-responsive cytochrome P450 genes in rice under abiotic and phytohormones stresses.

GM Crops Food 2021 Apr 20:1-13. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

College of Economics and Management, Kunming University, Kunming China.

The cytochrome P450 (CYP) is a large and complex eukaryotic gene superfamily with enzymatic activities involved in several physiological and regulatory processes. As an objective, an genome-wide DNA methylation (5mC) analysis was performed in rice ( cv. Zhonghua11), and the epigenetic role of CYPs in two abiotic stresses was observed. Read More

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Tissue clearing techniques for three-dimensional optical imaging of intact human prostate and correlations with multi-parametric MRI.

Prostate 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Medical Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Program, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR.

Background: Tissue clearing technologies have enabled remarkable advancements for in situ characterization of tissues and exploration of the three-dimensional (3D) relationships between cells, however, these studies have predominantly been performed in non-human tissues and correlative assessment with clinical imaging has yet to be explored. We sought to evaluate the feasibility of tissue clearing technologies for 3D imaging of intact human prostate and the mapping of structurally and molecularly preserved pathology data with multi-parametric volumetric MR imaging (mpMRI).

Methods: Whole-mount prostates were processed with either hydrogel-based CLARITY or solvent-based iDISCO. Read More

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Optimization of sampling designs for pedigrees and association studies.

Biometrics 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, CNRS, AgroParisTech, GQE - Le Moulon, Gif-sur-Yvette, 91190, France.

In many studies, related individuals are phenotyped in order to infer how their genotype contributes to their phenotype, through the estimation of parameters such as breeding values or locus effects. When it is not possible to phenotype all the individuals, it is important to properly sample the population to improve the precision of the statistical analysis. This article studies how to optimize such sampling designs for pedigrees and association studies. Read More

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Architecture of the mycobacterial succinate dehydrogenase with a membrane-embedded Rieske FeS cluster.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(15)

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Frontiers Science Center for Cell Responses, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300353, China;

Complex II, also known as succinate dehydrogenase (SQR) or fumarate reductase (QFR), is an enzyme involved in both the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Mycobacterial Sdh1 has recently been identified as a new class of respiratory complex II (type F) but with an unknown electron transfer mechanism. Here, using cryoelectron microscopy, we have determined the structure of Sdh1 in the presence and absence of the substrate, ubiquinone-1, at 2. Read More

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Flexible assembly of engineered Tetrahymena ribozymes forming polygonal RNA nanostructures with catalytic ability.

Chembiochem 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

University of Toyama, Chemistry, Gofuku 3190, 930-8555, Toyama, JAPAN.

Ribozymes with modular architecture constitute an attractive class of structural platforms for design and construction of nucleic acid nanostructures with biological functions. Through modular engineering of the Tetrahymena ribozyme, we have designed unit RNAs (L-RNAs), assembly of which formed ribozyme-based closed trimers and closed tetramers. Their catalytic activity was dependent on oligomer formation. Read More

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Benzene Ring Knitting Achieved by Ambient-Temperature Dehalogenation via Mechanochemical Ullmann-Type Reductive Coupling.

Adv Mater 2021 Apr 19:e2008685. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Chemistry, Joint Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996, USA.

The current approaches capable of affording conjugated porous networks (CPNs) still rely on solution-based coupling reactions promoted by noble metal complexes or Lewis acids, on-surface polymerization conducted in ultrahigh-vacuum environment at very high temperatures (>200 °C), or mechanochemical Scholl-type reactions limited to electron-rich substrates. To develop simple and scalable approaches capable of making CPNs under neat and ambient conditions, herein, a novel and complementary method to the current oxidative Scholl coupling processes is demonstrated to afford CPNs via direct aromatic ring knitting promoted by mechanochemical Ullmann-type reactions. The key to this strategy lies in the dehalogenation of aromatic halides in the presence of Mg involving the formation of Grignard reagent intermediates. Read More

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Do angiosperm tree species adjust intervessel lateral contact in response to soil drought?

Physiol Plant 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Experimental Biology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, Brno, Czech Republic.

During soil drought (i.e., limited soil water availability to plants), woody species may adjust the structure of their vessel network to improve their resistance against future soil drought stress. Read More

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Artificial intelligence (AI) for medical imaging to combat coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a detailed review with direction for future research.

Artif Intell Rev 2021 Apr 15:1-31. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Discipline of Business Analytics in Business School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Since early 2020, the whole world has been facing the deadly and highly contagious disease named coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the World Health Organization declared the pandemic on 11 March 2020. Over 23 million positive cases of COVID-19 have been reported till late August 2020. Medical images such as chest X-rays and Computed Tomography scans are becoming one of the main leading clinical diagnosis tools in fighting against COVID-19, underpinned by Artificial Intelligence based techniques, resulting in rapid decision-making in saving lives. Read More

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Photocatalytic LPOR forms helical lattices that shape membranes for chlorophyll synthesis.

Nat Plants 2021 Apr 19;7(4):437-444. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland.

Chlorophyll biosynthesis, crucial to life on Earth, is tightly regulated because its precursors are phototoxic. In flowering plants, the enzyme light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (LPOR) captures photons to catalyse the penultimate reaction: the reduction of a double bond within protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to generate chlorophyllide (Chlide). In darkness, LPOR oligomerizes to facilitate photon energy transfer and catalysis. Read More

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Revealing the spatial shifting pattern of COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 19;11(1):8396. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Geography, Environment and Society, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, USA.

We describe the use of network modeling to capture the shifting spatiotemporal nature of the COVID-19 pandemic. The most common approach to tracking COVID-19 cases over time and space is to examine a series of maps that provide snapshots of the pandemic. A series of snapshots can convey the spatial nature of cases but often rely on subjective interpretation to assess how the pandemic is shifting in severity through time and space. Read More

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Chromatic micromaps in primary visual cortex.

Nat Commun 2021 Apr 19;12(1):2315. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

The clustering of neurons with similar response properties is a conspicuous feature of neocortex. In primary visual cortex (V1), maps of several properties like orientation preference are well described, but the functional architecture of color, central to visual perception in trichromatic primates, is not. Here we used two-photon calcium imaging in macaques to examine the fine structure of chromatic representation and found that neurons responsive to spatially uniform, chromatic stimuli form unambiguous clusters that coincide with blobs. Read More

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Synchronous brain dynamics establish brief states of communality in distant neuronal populations.

eNeuro 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Functional Brain Mapping Lab, Department of Fundamental Neuroscience, Campus Biotech, University of Geneva, 1202 Geneva, Switzerland

Intrinsic brain dynamics co-fluctuate between distant regions in an organized manner during rest, establishing large-scale functional networks. We investigate these brain dynamics on a millisecond time scale by focusing on Electroencephalographic (EEG) source analyses. While synchrony is thought of as a neuronal mechanism grouping distant neuronal populations into assemblies, the relevance of simultaneous zero-lag synchronization between brain areas in humans remains largely unexplored. Read More

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IL-6 family cytokines in respiratory health and disease.

Cytokine 2021 Apr 16:155520. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Centre for Innate Immunity and Infectious Diseases, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria, Australia; Department of Molecular and Translational Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Chronic lung diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung fibrosis represent a major burden on healthcare systems with limited effective therapeutic options. Developing effective treatments for these debilitating diseases requires an understanding of how alterations at the molecular level affect lung macroscopic architecture. A common theme among these lung disorders is the presence of an underlying dysregulated immune system which can lead to sustained chronic inflammation. Read More

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Literature review: Evidence-based health outcomes and perceptions of the built environment in pediatric hospital facilities.

J Pediatr Nurs 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothia Forum for Clinical Trials, Gothenburg, Sweden; Center for Ethics, Law, and Mental Health (CELAM), Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Problem: The current knowledge of evidence-based design for adults is not always implemented when hospital buildings are designed. Scientific data are sparse on the effects of hospital design in pediatric settings on health outcomes in children, parents, and staff. The objective of this review is to determine the evidence-based impact of the built environment in pediatric hospital facilities on health outcomes in children, parents, and staff. Read More

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STQS: Interpretable multi-modal Spatial-Temporal-seQuential model for automatic Sleep scoring.

Artif Intell Med 2021 Apr 27;114:102038. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

University of Twente, Netherlands; University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany.

Sleep scoring is an important step for the detection of sleep disorders and usually performed by visual analysis. Since manual sleep scoring is time consuming, machine-learning based approaches have been proposed. Though efficient, these algorithms are black-box in nature and difficult to interpret by clinicians. Read More

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Hierarchical Brookite TiO₂-Bi₂MoO Nanospheres with Efficient Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Response.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 Oct;21(10):5370-5377

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangtze Normal University, Chongqing, 408000, China.

Hierarchical TiO₂-Bi₂MoO nanospheres as efficient visible-light responsive photocatalyst are fabricated by dispersing brookite TiO₂ nanorods on the hierarchical Bi₂MoO nanospheres, which provides visible-light absorption and large surface area. The morphologies, surface area and light absorption features of as-prepared TiO²-Bi²MoO can be rational controlled by varying the loading amount of TiO² nanorods on hierarchical Bi²MoO nanospheres. As a result, the TiO²-Bi²MoO-3 yields 380 ppm CO² production for decomposing 2-propanol at 11 h under visible light irradiation, realizing 4. Read More

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October 2021

Performance Enhancement of Actual Wastewater Treatment and Electricity Generation Through Surface Modified TiO₂ Nanotube Arrays Based Photoanode Photocatalytic Fuel Cell.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 Oct;21(10):5188-5195

Beijing Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Building Structure and Environment Remediation, Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing, 100044, China.

Herein, we report a surface modified TiO₂ nanowire arrays (NAs) photoanode based photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) towards simultaneous enhancement of actual wastewater treatment and electricity generation under visible light irradiation. TiO₂ NAs were facile fabricated via two-step anodization process in ethylene glycol and glycerin solution, respectively. Actual wastewater samples were directly applied to evaluate the PFC performance in terms of wastewater degradation and electricity generation through the as-prepared TiO₂ NAs photoanode without loading noble-metals or semiconductors. Read More

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October 2021