143 results match your criteria archeological fossil


Hotter and sicker: External energy expenditure and the tangled evolutionary roots of anthropogenic climate change and chronic disease.

Authors:
Herman Pontzer

Am J Hum Biol 2021 Feb 25:e23579. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Background: The dual crises of climate change and chronic, or non-communicable, disease (NCD) have emerged worldwide as the global economy has industrialized over the past two centuries.

Aims: In this synthesis I examine humans' dependence on external (non-metabolic) energy expenditure (e.g. Read More

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February 2021

Nature and sources of ionic species in rainwater during monsoon periods in and around sixteenth-seventeenth century CE monuments in Yamuna River basin, India.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Jan 26;193(2):86. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines), Dhanbad, Dhanbad, 826 004, India.

The nature and sources of ionic species were studied in the monsoon rainwater collected from two monuments of the sixteenth-seventeenth century CE in the Yamuna River basin from 2016 to 2018. The results showed the acidic pH of the rainwater with high dissolved SO and NO, and soil-derived components (Ca, Mg, and K). The anionic (SO, NO, Cl, F, and HCO) and cationic (Ca, Mg, K, NH, and Na) concentrations showed regional differences in yearly contribution mainly from the fossil fuel combustion, soil dust, and farm residue burning. Read More

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January 2021

Tooth chipping prevalence and patterns in extant primates.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2021 05 17;175(1):292-299. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

Sir John Walsh Research Institute, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, 9054, New Zealand.

Objectives: A tooth chip occurs when a hard object forcefully contacts the surface of the tooth, typically removing enamel from the occlusal edge. In this study, chipping patterns in extant primates were compared, and hard-object-feeding assessed alongside other factors (e.g. Read More

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Automated resolution independent method for comparing in vivo and dry trabecular bone.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2021 04 27;174(4):822-831. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Archaeology, Cambridge University, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Objectives: Variation in human trabecular bone morphology can be linked to habitual behavior, but it is difficult to investigate in vivo due to the radiation required at high resolution. Consequently, functional interpretations of trabecular morphology remain inferential. Here we introduce a method to link low- and high-resolution CT data from dry and fresh bone, enabling bone functional adaptation to be studied in vivo and results compared to the fossil and archaeological record. Read More

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Issues of theory and method in the analysis of Paleolithic mortuary behavior: A view from Shanidar Cave.

Evol Anthropol 2020 Sep 11;29(5):263-279. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Mortuary behavior (activities concerning dead conspecifics) is one of many traits that were previously widely considered to have been uniquely human, but on which perspectives have changed markedly in recent years. Theoretical approaches to hominin mortuary activity and its evolution have undergone major revision, and advances in diverse archeological and paleoanthropological methods have brought new ways of identifying behaviors such as intentional burial. Despite these advances, debates concerning the nature of hominin mortuary activity, particularly among the Neanderthals, rely heavily on the rereading of old excavations as new finds are relatively rare, limiting the extent to which such debates can benefit from advances in the field. Read More

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September 2020

The dawn of the Middle Paleolithic in Atapuerca: the lithic assemblage of TD10.1 from Gran Dolina.

J Hum Evol 2020 08 21;145:102812. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social (IPHES), Zona educacional 4, Campus Sescelades URV (Edifici W3), Tarragona 43007, Spain; Dept. d'Història i Historia de l'Art, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), Avinguda de Catalunya 35, Tarragona 43002, Spain; Departamento de Historia, Geografía y Comunicación, Universidad de Burgos, Paseo de los Comendadores s/n, Burgos 09001, Spain.

The Atapuerca localities present evidence of a long series of hominin occupations from the Early Pleistocene onward and are a key site for understanding the continuity and discontinuity of Western European technological and settlement dynamics. The TD10 unit from Gran Dolina is located in the upper part of the sequence and divided into four lithostratigraphic subunits (TD10.4 to TD10. Read More

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Optimization of Method for Human Sex Determination Using Peptidome Analysis of Teeth Enamel from Teeth of Different Biological Generation, Archeological Age, and Degrees of Taphonomic Preservation.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 May;85(5):614-622

Anuchin Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 125009, Russia.

Determination of biological sex to human remains is a fundamental requirement in anthropological, archeological, and forensic anthropological studies. Sex determination based on morphological criteria is significantly limited in the cases of juvenile remains and adult skeletons in a poor state of preservation. Regular attempts have been made to use alternative techniques to resolve this issue, including analysis of tooth enamel peptides by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Read More

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Assessing the reliability of virtual reconstruction of mandibles.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 08 18;172(4):723-734. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Faculdade das Ciências Humanas e Sociais, Interdisciplinary Center for Archaeology and Evolution of Human Behaviour (ICArHEB), University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal.

Objectives: Mandibular morphological variation is often used to examine various aspects of human palaeobiology. However, fossil and archeological skeletal remains are often fragmented/distorted and so are frequently excluded from studies. This leads to decreased sample sizes and, potentially, to biased results. Read More

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A Paleolithic bird figurine from the Lingjing site, Henan, China.

PLoS One 2020 10;15(6):e0233370. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNRS UMR5199 PACEA, Université de Bordeaux, Pessac, Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France.

The recent identification of cave paintings dated to 42-40 ka BP in Borneo and Sulawesi highlights the antiquity of painted representations in this region. However, no instances of three-dimensional portable art, well attested in Europe since at least 40 ka BP, were documented thus far in East Asia prior to the Neolithic. Here, we report the discovery of an exceptionally well-preserved miniature carving of a standing bird from the site of Lingjing, Henan, China. Read More

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A mobile laboratory for ancient DNA analysis.

PLoS One 2020 18;15(3):e0230496. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Unité Eco-anthropologie, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France.

Mobile devices for on-field DNA analysis have been used for medical diagnostics at the point-of-care, forensic investigations and environmental surveys, but still have to be validated for ancient DNA studies. We report here on a mobile laboratory that we setup using commercially available devices, including a compact real-time PCR machine, and describe procedures to perform DNA extraction and analysis from a variety of archeological samples within 4 hours. The process is carried out on 50 mg samples that are identified at the species level using custom TaqMan real-time PCR assays for mitochondrial DNA fragments. Read More

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The Paleolithic in the Nihewan Basin, China: Evolutionary history of an Early to Late Pleistocene record in Eastern Asia.

Evol Anthropol 2020 May 20;29(3):125-142. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Department of Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany.

The Nihewan Basin of China preserves one of the most important successions of Paleolithic archeological sites in Eurasia. Stratified archeological sites and mammalian fossils, first reported in the 1920s, continue to be recovered in large-scale excavation projects. Here, we review key findings from archeological excavations in the Nihewan Basin ranging from ~1. Read More

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The Neanderthal teeth from Marillac (Charente, Southwestern France): Morphology, comparisons and paleobiology.

J Hum Evol 2020 01 22;138:102683. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

UMR5199 PACEA: de la préhistoire à l'actuel: culture, environnement et anthropologie, Université de Bordeaux, bât. B8. Allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire - CS 50023, 33615 Pessac, France.

Few European sites have yielded human dental remains safely dated to the end of MIS 4/beginning of MIS 3. One of those sites is Marillac (Southwestern France), a collapsed karstic cave where archeological excavations (1967-1980) conducted by B. Vandermeersch unearthed numerous faunal and human remains, as well as a few Mousterian Quina tools. Read More

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January 2020

Middle Paleolithic complex technology and a Neandertal tar-backed tool from the Dutch North Sea.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 10 21;116(44):22081-22087. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Faculty of Archeology, Leiden University, 2333 CC Leiden, The Netherlands.

We report the discovery of a 50,000-y-old birch tar-hafted flint tool found off the present-day coastline of The Netherlands. The production of adhesives and multicomponent tools is considered complex technology and has a prominent place in discussions about the evolution of human behavior. This find provides evidence on the technological capabilities of Neandertals and illuminates the currently debated conditions under which these technologies could be maintained. Read More

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October 2019

The composition of a Neandertal social group revealed by the hominin footprints at Le Rozel (Normandy, France).

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 09 9;116(39):19409-19414. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Projet Collectif de Recherche, Les Premiers Hommes en Normandie, Ministère de la Culture, 14052 Caen Cedex 4, France;

Footprints represent a unique snapshot of hominin life. They provide information on the size and composition of groups that differs from osteological and archeological remains, whose contemporaneity is difficult to establish. We report here on the discovery of 257 footprints dated to 80,000 y from the Paleolithic site at Le Rozel (Normandy, France), which represent the largest known Neandertal ichnological assemblage to date. Read More

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September 2019

External auditory exostoses among western Eurasian late Middle and Late Pleistocene humans.

PLoS One 2019 14;14(8):e0220464. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

CNRS, UMR5199 PACEA, Bâtiment B8, Allée Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, Pessac, France.

External auditory exostoses (EAE) have been noted among the Neandertals and a few other Pleistocene humans, but until recently they have been discussed primary as minor pathological lesions with possible auditory consequences. An assessment of available western Eurasian late Middle and Late Pleistocene human temporal bones with sufficiently preserved auditory canals (n = 77) provides modest levels of EAE among late Middle Pleistocene archaic humans (≈20%) and early modern humans (Middle Paleolithic: ≈25%; Early/Mid Upper Paleolithic: 20.8%; Late Upper Paleolithic: 9. Read More

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Poggetti Vecchi (Tuscany, Italy): A late Middle Pleistocene case of human-elephant interaction.

J Hum Evol 2019 08 21;133:32-60. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Istituto Italiano di Preistoria e Protostoria, 50121, Florence, Italy.

A paleosurface with a concentration of wooden-, bone-, and stone-tools interspersed among an accumulation of fossil bones, largely belonging to the straight-tusked elephant Palaeoloxodon antiquus, was found at the bottom of a pool, fed by hot springs, that was excavated at Poggetti Vecchi, near Grosseto (Tuscany, Italy). The site is radiometrically dated to the late Middle Pleistocene, around 171,000 years BP. Notable is the association of the artifacts with the elephant bones, and in particular the presence of digging sticks made from boxwood (Buxus sp. Read More

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Modern guanaco (Lama guanicoe, Camelidae) bezoars: An approach towards identification in the fossil record.

Int J Paleopathol 2019 09 24;26:111-121. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

CONICET-Departamento de Humanidades, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 12 de octubre 1092, 8000 Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Electronic address:

Objective: Provide a frame of reference for the recognition and interpretation of bezoars recovered from archeological and paleontological sites.

Materials: 49 bezoars from extant guanaco (Lama guanicoe) were analyzed and compared with five objects previously identified as bezoars, recovered from Holocene archeological sites of the Argentine Pampas.

Methods: Size, shape, weight, external and internal features, and mineralogical composition were evaluated in both modern and archeological bezoars using nondestructive and destructive methods. Read More

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September 2019

Age at death estimation by cementochronology: Too precise to be true or too precise to be accurate?

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 07 2;169(3):464-481. Epub 2019 May 2.

Univ. Lille, CHU Lille, EA 7367 - UTML - Unité de Taphonomie Médico-Légale, F-59000 Lille, France.

Objectives: Cementochronology based on annual deposition of acellular cementum is acknowledged for its superior performance for estimating age-at-death but is also disregarded because of its suspicious effectiveness. This article aims to provide a standardized framework for the validation of the technique and to define and test cementochronology's performance and limitations.

Materials And Methods: To determine the boundaries of the cementum aging technique, we applied a certified protocol on a sample of 200 healthy canines from individuals of known age, sex, postmortem, and inhumation intervals from anthropological and anatomical collections. Read More

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Human behavior and Homo-mammal interactions at the first European peopling: new evidence from the Pirro Nord site (Apricena, Southern Italy).

Naturwissenschaften 2019 Apr 22;106(5-6):16. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Dipartimento di Studi Umanistici, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

Recent functional and zooarchaeological studies conducted on the archeological finds of Pirro Nord (PN13) produced new, reliable data on early European hominid subsistence activities. The age of the site is estimated to be ~ 1.3-1. Read More

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Going big versus going small: Lithic miniaturization in hominin lithic technology.

Evol Anthropol 2019 Mar 29;28(2):72-85. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Anthropology Department & Turkana Basin Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York.

Lithic miniaturization was one of our Pleistocene ancestors' more pervasive stone tool production strategies and it marks a key difference between human and non-human tool use. Frequently equated with "microlith" production, lithic miniaturization is a more complex, variable, and evolutionarily consequential phenomenon involving small backed tools, bladelets, small retouched tools, flakes, and small cores. In this review, we evaluate lithic miniaturization's various technological and functional elements. Read More

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Isolated teeth from La Ferrassie: Reassessment of the old collections, new remains, and their implications.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 05 16;169(1):132-142. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Département Homme et environnement, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Musée de l'Homme, UMR 7194 CNRS, Université de Perpignan "Via Domitia", EPCC-CERP de Tautavel, Paris, France.

Objectives: We provide the description and comparative analysis of six new teeth from the site of La Ferrassie. Our goal is to discuss their taxonomic attribution, and to provide an updated inventory of Neandertal and modern human remains from La Ferrassie in their associated archeological context.

Materials And Methods: We use external and internal anatomy, classic morphometrics, and geometric morphometrics. Read More

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Remains of Leatherback turtles, , at Mid-Late Holocene archaeological sites in coastal Oman: clues of past worlds.

PeerJ 2018 17;6:e6123. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Torino, Torino, Italy.

Small, irregular isolated bones identified as remains of leatherback turtles () were recovered from Mid to Late Holocene sites at Ra's al-Hamra and Ra's al-Hadd, coastal Oman. These provide the third instance of this animal being documented from any prehistoric site anywhere, and the records provide one of the oldest, if not the oldest, dates for this distinctive chelonian-even though they do not refer to fossils. Decades of research in this region has yielded vast amounts of archeological information, including abundant evidence of intense exploitation and utilization of marine turtles from about 6,500 to 4,000 BP. Read More

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December 2018

Nondestructive adult age at death estimation: Visualizing cementum annulations in a known age historical human assemblage using synchrotron X-ray microtomography.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 01 15;168(1):25-44. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Institute of Archaeology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Objectives: Adult age at death estimation continues to challenge physical anthropologists. One estimation method involves counting tooth cementum annulations (TCA). Non-destructively accessing TCA is a critical step to approaching fossil teeth of unknown age and to verifying life history profiles of human ancestors. Read More

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January 2019

Evidence for precision grasping in Neandertal daily activities.

Sci Adv 2018 09 26;4(9):eaat2369. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Paleoanthropology, Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment, Department of Geosciences, University of Tübingen, Tübingen 72070, Germany.

Neandertal manual activities, as previously reconstructed from their robust hand skeletons, are thought to involve systematic power grasping rather than precise hand movements. However, this interpretation is at odds with increasing archeological evidence for sophisticated cultural behavior. We reevaluate the manipulative behaviors of Neandertals and early modern humans using a historical reference sample with extensive genealogical and lifelong occupational documentation, in combination with a new and precise three-dimensional multivariate analysis of hand muscle attachments. Read More

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September 2018

Potential of Bioapatite Hydroxyls for Research on Archeological Burned Bone.

Anal Chem 2018 10 17;90(19):11556-11563. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Research Centre for Anthropology and Health (CIAS), Department of Life Sciences , University of Coimbra , 3000-456 Coimbra , Portugal.

The estimation of the maximum temperature affecting skeletal remains was previously attempted via infrared techniques. However, fossilization may cause changes in the composition of bones that replicate those from burned bones. We presently investigated the potential of three OH/P indices (intensity ratios of characteristic infrared bands for OH and phosphate groups, respectively) to identify bones burned at high temperatures (>800 °C) and to discriminate between fossil and burned archeological bones, using vibrational spectroscopy: combined inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and FTIR-ATR. Read More

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October 2018

Cognitive archeology, body cognition, and hand-tool interaction.

Prog Brain Res 2018 14;238:325-345. Epub 2018 Jul 14.

Sociograph Marketing Science Consulting, Valladolid, Spain.

Body cognition and lateralization can be investigated in fossils by integrating anatomical and functional aspects. Paleoneurology cannot provide strong evidence in this sense, because hemispheric asymmetries are shared in all extinct human species, and motor cortical areas are difficult to delineate in endocranial casts. However, paleoneurological analyses also suggest that modern humans and Neanderthals underwent an expansion of parietal regions crucial for visuospatial integration and eye-hand-tool management. Read More

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January 2019

Manual laterality and cognition through evolution: An archeological perspective.

Prog Brain Res 2018 18;238:295-323. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Cognitive Science Program, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, United States; Department of Anthropology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, United States. Electronic address:

To understand the evolution of lateralized motor biases and cognitive functions, we rely on archeological methods to give us a window onto the past. Currently, the overwhelming majority of prehistoric data on asymmetry and laterality concern only the hominin lineage, spanning the time period from the presumed evolutionary split with the other great apes around 6-8 million years ago until the present day. We present an overview of these data from paleontology and archeology. Read More

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January 2019

Orangutans venture out of the rainforest and into the Anthropocene.

Sci Adv 2018 06 27;4(6):e1701422. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Borneo Futures, Bandar Seri Begawan, BE1518 Brunei Darussalam.

Conservation benefits from understanding how adaptability and threat interact to determine a taxon's vulnerability. Recognizing how interactions with humans have shaped taxa such as the critically endangered orangutan ( spp.) offers insights into this relationship. Read More

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