1,309 results match your criteria arbs associated

Effect of medical treatment on heart failure incidence in patients with a systemic right ventricle.

Heart 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Adult Congenital Heart Centre, National Centre for Pulmonary Hypertension, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK.

Background: To date, clinical trials have been underpowered to demonstrate a benefit from ACE inhibitors (ACEis) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) in preventing systemic right ventricle (sRV) failure and disease progression in patients with transposition of the great arteries (TGA). This observational study aimed to estimate the effect of ACEi and ARB on heart failure (HF) incidence and mortality in a large population of patients with an sRV.

Methods: Data on all patients with an sRV under active follow-up at two tertiary centres between January 2007 and September 2018 were studied. Read More

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The effect of RAAS inhibitors on acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and in-hospital mortality in the hypertensive Covid-19 patients.

Clin Exp Hypertens 2021 May 6:1-10. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Cardiology, University of Health Sciences Diyarbakır Gazi Yaşargil Education and Research Hospital, Diyarbakır, Turkey.

Introduction: We have aimed to investigate the relationship between use of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin-receptor-blocker (ARB) drugs and acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) and in-hospital mortality in hypertensive Covid-19 patients.

Material And Method: Consecutive 1345 patients diagnosed with Covid-19 between April and October 2020 who met inclusion criteria were divided into two groups based on presence and absence of AHRF and mortality. The groups were compared regarding epidemiological, clinical, radiological, laboratory findings and treatments methods. Read More

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Drug Intake and Actinic Keratosis: A Case-Control Study.

Dermatol Pract Concept 2021 Mar 12;11(2):e2021031. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Dermatology, IRCCS Policlinico di Sant'Orsola. Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Italy.

Background: Actinic keratosis (AK) is a form of premalignant keratinocyte dysplasia. Recently, the role of photosensitizing drugs in the development of AK has been postulated.

Objective: This study evaluated a possible association between the use of photosensitizing drugs and the development of AK. Read More

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Barriers to ACEI/ARB Use in Proteinuric Chronic Kidney Disease: An Observational Study.

Mayo Clin Proc 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Division of Nephrology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA.

Objective: To assess present angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) use among patients with proteinuric chronic kidney disease (CKD) and examine barriers limiting this guideline-concordant care.

Patients And Methods: Using a nationwide database containing patient-level claims and integrated clinical information, we examined current ACEI/ARB prescriptions on the index date (April 15, 2017) and prior ACEI/ARB use in 41,743 insured adults with proteinuric CKD. Using multivariable logistic regression, we estimated adjusted associations between current ACEI/ARB use and putative barriers including past acute kidney injury (AKI), hyperkalemia, advanced CKD, and lack of nephrology care. Read More

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Effects of SARS-CoV-2 on Cardiovascular System: The Dual Role of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the Virus Receptor and Homeostasis Regulator-Review.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 26;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Cardiothoracovascular Department, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Giuliano Isontina (ASUGI) and Department of Medical Surgical and Health Science, University of Trieste, 34149 Trieste, Italy.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) in humans. ACE-2 is a type I transmembrane metallocarboxypeptidase expressed in vascular endothelial cells, alveolar type 2 lung epithelial cells, renal tubular epithelium, Leydig cells in testes and gastrointestinal tract. ACE2 mediates the interaction between host cells and SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein. Read More

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Beneficial Effect of Left Ventricular Remodeling after Early Change of Sacubitril/Valsartan in Patients with Nonischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Apr 25;57(5). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Division of Cardiology, Heart Stroke Vascular Center, Incheon Sejong Hospital, 20, Gyeyangmunhwa-ro, Gyeyang-gu, Incheon 21080, Korea.

Evidence for effectiveness of early change from angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) to sacubitril/valsartan is lacking. We aimed to investigate whether early changes to sacubitril/valsartan could improve outcomes in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in real-world practice. : A total of 296 patients with nonischemic DCM who were treated with ARB or ACEI continuously (group A, = 150) or had their medication switched to sacubitril/valsartan (group S, = 146) were included. Read More

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Antihypertensive Medications and COVID-19 Diagnosis and Mortality: Population-based Case-Control Analysis in the United Kingdom.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

King's College London, School of Population Health and Environmental Sciences, London, UK.

Aims: Antihypertensive drugs have been implicated in COVID-19 susceptibility and severity but estimated associations may be susceptible to bias. We aimed to evaluate antihypertensive medications and COVID-19 diagnosis and mortality, accounting for healthcare seeking behaviour.

Methods: A population-based case control study was conducted including 16,866 COVID-19 cases and 70,137 matched controls from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Read More

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Potential protective role of ACE-inhibitors and AT1 receptor blockers against levodopa-induced dyskinesias: a retrospective case-control study.

Neural Regen Res 2021 Dec;16(12):2475-2478

Movement Disorders Centre, Neurology Unit, Department of Translational Medicine, University of Piemonte Orientale, Novara; Center of Research in Medical Pharmacology, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.

Growing evidence has highlighted that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors (ACEi)/AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) may influence the complex interplay between dopamine and the renin-angiotensin system in the nigrostriatal pathway, thus affecting the development of levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we analyzed whether the use of this class of medication was associated with a reduced occurrence of levodopa-induced dyskinesia, using electronically-stored information of idiopathic PD patients enrolled at Novara University Hospital "Maggiore della Carità". We conducted a retrospective case-control study identifying PD patients with dyskinesias (PwD; n = 47) as cases. Read More

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December 2021

Expression of the SARS-CoV-2 receptorACE2 in human heart is associated with uncontrolled diabetes, obesity, and activation of the renin angiotensin system.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2021 04 27;20(1):90. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Cardiac Research Laboratory, Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Sackler School of Medicine Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Diabetic and obese patients are at higher risk of severe disease and cardiac injury in corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. Cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2 is mainly via the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, which is highly expressed in normal hearts. There is a disagreement regarding the effect of factors such as obesity and diabetes on ACE2 expression in the human heart and whether treatment with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors or anti-diabetic medications increases ACE2 expression and subsequently the susceptibility to infection. Read More

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Angiotensin II receptor blocker or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use and COVID-19-related outcomes among US Veterans.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(4):e0248080. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Population Health Sciences, Division of Health System Innovation and Research, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, United States of America.

Background: Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) may positively or negatively impact outcomes in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We investigated the association of ARB or ACEI use with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related outcomes in US Veterans with treated hypertension using an active comparator design, appropriate covariate adjustment, and negative control analyses.

Methods And Findings: In this retrospective cohort study of Veterans with treated hypertension in the Veterans Health Administration (01/19/2020-08/28/2020), we compared users of (A) ARB/ACEI vs. Read More

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Does taking an angiotensin inhibitor increase the risk for COVID-19? - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 04 22;13(8):10853-10865. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Heart Center and Beijing Key Laboratory of Hypertension, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Chaoyang 100020, Beijing, China.

Because SARS-COV2 entry into cells is dependent on angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) increase ACE2 activity, the safety of ACEI/ARB usage during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a controversial topic. To address that issue, we performed a meta-analysis following The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Searches of the Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases identified 16 case-control studies examining the effect of ACEI/ARB on the incidence of COVID-19 and its severity. Read More

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Classical and Counter-regulatory Renin-angiotensin System: potential key roles in COVID-19 pathophysiology.

CJC Open 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

King Abdullah International Medical Research Centre, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

In the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) uses angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor for cell entry leading to ACE-2 dysfunction and downregulation which disturbs the balance between classical and counter-regulatory renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in favor of classical RAS. RAS dysregulation is one of the major characteristics of several cardiovascular diseases, thus adjustment of this system is the main therapeutic target. RAS inhibitors - particularly angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) - are commonly used for treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Read More

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Acute Cardiac Injury in Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Other Viral Infections-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Crit Care Med 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, PQ, Canada. Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University, New York, NY. Department of Medicine, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Department of Pediatrics, BC Children's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Centre for Health Evaluation and Outcomes Science (CHEOS), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Department of Medicine, Centre for Heart Lung Innovation, St. Paul's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Department of Critical Care Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada. Department of Medicine and Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Divisions of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada. Department of Medicine, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Objectives: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 binds and inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme-2. The frequency of acute cardiac injury in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 is unknown. The objective was to compare the rates of cardiac injury by angiotensin-converting enzyme-2-binding viruses from viruses that do not bind to angiotensin-converting enzyme-2. Read More

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Different therapeutic associations of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors with coronavirus disease 2019 compared with usual pneumonia.

Korean J Intern Med 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Korean Society of Hypertension, Seoul, Korea.

Background/aims: Although it is near concluded that renin-angiotensin system inhibitors do not have a harmful effect on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there is no report about whether angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) offer any protective role. This study aimed to compare the association of ARBs and ACEIs with COVID-19-related mortality.

Methods: All patients with COVID-19 in Korea between January 19 and April 16, 2020 were enrolled. Read More

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Narrative review: the holy grail: update on pharmacotherapy for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(6):523

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, El Paso, TX, USA.

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is the presence of clinical signs and/or symptoms of heart failure with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥50%. Risk factors associated with this disease include hypertension, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation (AF), obesity, diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). Despite the multiple risk factors identified for this condition, treatment and management remain challenging and a subject of ongoing research. Read More

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CJC Open 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Centre for Heart Lung Innovation, St. Paul's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Background: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and/or angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors could alter mortality of COVID-19, but existing meta-analyses which combined crude and adjusted results may be confounded by comorbidities being more common in ARBs/ACE inhibitors users.

Methods: We searched PubMed/MEDLINE/Embase for cohort studies and meta-analysis reporting mortality by pre-existing ARB/ACE inhibitor treatment in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Random effects meta-regression was used to compute pooled odds ratios for mortality adjusted for imbalance in age, sex and prevalence of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease between users and non-users of ARBs/ACE inhibitors at the study-level during data synthesis. Read More

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Blood pressure reduction and anti-hypertensive treatment choice: A post-hoc analysis of the SPRINT trial.

Clin Cardiol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Medical Statistics, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: Uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) increases the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events. In SPRINT an intensive versus standard BP lowering strategy resulted in a lower rate of cardiovascular events and death. Whether BP reduction only or also the choice of anti-hypertensive drugs is associated with outcomes remains to be elucidated. Read More

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Combination of Angiotensin (1-7) Agonists and Convalescent Plasma as a New Strategy to Overcome Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) Inhibition for the Treatment of COVID-19.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 18;8:620990. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

PRASE and Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences - I, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon.

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently the most concerning health problem worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 infects cells by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). It is believed that the differential response to SARS-CoV-2 is correlated with the differential expression of ACE2. Read More

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Antihypertensive Class and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With HIV and Hypertension.

Hypertension 2021 Apr 5:HYPERTENSIONAHA12016263. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Renal-Electrolyte and Hypertension Division, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. (R.R.T., J.B.C.).

Given unique pathways contributing to hypertension among people with HIV, we sought to determine whether antihypertensive class was associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events among people with HIV. Among veterans with HIV and incident hypertension (2000-2018), we used propensity-score matching to evaluate risk of (1) incident/recurrent CVD or death, (2) incident CVD, and (3) incident heart failure by antihypertensive class. In supplementary analyses, we performed stratified analyses by race and chronic kidney disease status. Read More

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Severe COVID-19 Infection Associated with Endothelial Dysfunction Induces Multiple Organ Dysfunction: A Review of Therapeutic Interventions.

Biomedicines 2021 Mar 10;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8575, Japan.

Since December 2019, the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has transfixed the medical world. COVID-19 symptoms vary from mild to severe and underlying chronic conditions such as pulmonary/cardiovascular disease and diabetes induce excessive inflammatory responses to COVID-19 and these underlying chronic diseases are mediated by endothelial dysfunction. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most common cause of death in COVID-19 patients, but coagulation induced by excessive inflammation, thrombosis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) also induce death by multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome. Read More

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Mortality in Patients with COVID-19 on Renin Angiotensin System Inhibitor Long-Term Treatment: An Observational Study Showing that Things Are Not Always as They Seem.

Adv Ther 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Internal Medicine, Angelo Bianchi Bonomi Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Introduction: At the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, controversial data were reported concerning angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) that induced a number of physicians to stop using them in patients with COVID-19. Although large-scale studies have ruled out this concern, it is common experience that patients with COVID-19 taking ACE inhibitors or ARBs are at increased risk of death. The aim of this study was to investigate the reasons for this apparently high mortality rate. Read More

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Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in acute heart failure: invasive hemodynamic parameters and clinical outcomes.

Rev Cardiovasc Med 2021 Mar;22(1):199-206

Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Einstein Medical Center, 19141 Philadelphia, USA.

There are limited data regarding the use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEi/ARBs) in acute heart failure (AHF). The purpose is to determine the patterns of ACEi/ARB use at the time of admission and discharge in relation to invasive hemodynamic data, mortality, and heart failure (HF) readmissions. This is a retrospective single-center study in patients with AHF who underwent right heart catheterization between January 2010 and December 2016. Read More

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The role of the renin-angiotensin system inhibitors in malignancy: a review.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 1;11(3):884-897. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

West China School of Basic Medical Science and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University Chengdu 610041, China.

Hypertension is one of the most prevalent diseases in cardiology. The angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)/angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are widely used drugs to stabilize the blood pressure via inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Studies have found that the exposure to RAS inhibitors (RASi) can suppress the development of cancers via multimodal mechanisms and has attracted increased attentions in the recent past. Read More

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Association Between Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitors and Clinical Outcomes in Patients With COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 03 1;4(3):e213594. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Cardiology, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich, United Kingdom.

Importance: The chronic receipt of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) has been assumed to exacerbate complications associated with COVID-19 and produce worse clinical outcomes.

Objective: To conduct an updated and comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis comparing mortality and severe adverse events (AEs) associated with receipt vs nonreceipt of ACEIs or ARBs among patients with COVID-19.

Data Sources: PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched from December 31, 2019, until September 1, 2020. Read More

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Hypertension in Children and Adolescents with Turner Syndrome (TS), Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), and Williams Syndrome (WS).

Curr Hypertens Rep 2021 03 29;23(4):18. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and University of Pennsylvania, 9th Floor Beurger Building, 3405 Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Turner syndrome (TS), neurofibromatosis type 1(NF1), and William Syndrome (WS) are 3 genetic conditions that are all associated with a substantial increase in risk of hypertension. In this review, we focus on factors leading to hypertension and on clinical manifestations and management of hypertension in children and adolescents with these genetic conditions RECENT FINDINGS: In most instances, hypertension is secondary. There is a high prevalence of masked hypertension in TS; however, the extent to which control of the BP helps reduce the risk of aortic dissection/aneurysm in TS is not yet fully elucidated. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 infection and smoking: What is the association? A brief review.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 23;19:1654-1660. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

College of Medicine, QU Health, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.

Susceptibility to severe illness from COVID-19 is anticipated to be associated with cigarette smoking as it aggravates the risk of cardiovascular and respiratory illness, including infections. This is particularly important with the advent of a new strain of coronaviruses, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that has led to the present pandemic, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although, the effects of smoking on COVID-19 are less described and controversial, we presume a link between smoking and COVID-19. Read More

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Angiotensin receptor blockers significantly reduce hemoglobin level in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus not suffered chronic cardiac failure and chronic kidney disease.

Endocr J 2021 Apr 26;68(4):503-507. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma 371-8511, Japan.

Anemia due to angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) therapy has been previously reported in patients with diabetes mellitus with glomerular filtration rates of <60 mL min/1.73 m. However, whether Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) receiving ARB therapy for chronic cardiac failure and chronic kidney disease develop reduced hemoglobin (Hb) levels has not been elucidated. Read More

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Combination Pharmacotherapies for Cardiac Reverse Remodeling in Heart Failure Patients with Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Mar 22:105573. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, P.R. China.

Pharmacotherapies, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor II blockers (ARBs), β-blockers (BBs), mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) and angiotensin receptor blocker-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), have played a pivotal role in reducing in-hospital and mortality in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, effects of the five drug categories used alone or in combination for cardiac reverse remodeling (CRR) in these patients have not been systematically evaluated. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was conducted based on 55 randomized controlled trials published between 1989 and 2019 involving 12,727 patients from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Clinicaltrials. Read More

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Modest Association of Long-Term ACE Inhibitor Treatment With Lung Cancer: The Promise and Pitfalls of Epidemiological Drug-Safety Analyses.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2021 Mar 25:10742484211000521. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

3541Midwestern University College of Pharmacy, Glendale Campus (CPG), Glendale, AZ, USA.

Results of the carefully executed Evaluation of Treatment with Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and the Risk of Lung Cancer (ERACER) study, reported in this issue, echo those of several previous observational analyses of the association of long-term angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use with incident lung cancer. These epidemiological drug-safety analyses merit cautious interpretation. First, the number needed to harm (NNH) of 6667 reported in ERACER for ACE inhibitors compared with angiotensin-2 receptor blockers (ARBs) after approximately 12 years of follow-up should be balanced against therapeutic benefits. Read More

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