20,430 results match your criteria appropriate context


"I'm Going to Stop Myself Before Someone Stops Me": Complicating Narratives of Volitional Substance Use Treatment.

Front Sociol 2021 10;6:619677. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Rory Meyers College of Nursing, New York University, New York, NY, United States.

Often people assume that entry into drug treatment is a voluntary action for persons who use drugs (PWUD). This narrative informs the organizational and regulatory structure of most treatment programs and consequently affects patients' ability to exert agency over their own treatment. Yet, this view ignores the complex interplay between individual and structural factors in peoples' decision-making processes, particularly among people who use drugs who are stigmatized and criminalized. Read More

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February 2021

Making a Case for Creating Living Labs for Aging-in-Place: Enabling Socially Innovative Models for Experimentation and Complementary Economies.

Front Sociol 2019 2;4:19. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Ageing Studies, Institute for the Environment, Health and Societies, Brunel University London, Uxbridge, United Kingdom.

Aging is continuously depicted as a force majeure event despite clear and robust premonitions of its coming. However, such depiction serves to justify the unpreparedness and inadequacy of policies manifesting in loneliness and isolation, unsatisfied demands in health and social care, lack of suitably inclusive residential and social facilities, and inequitable access to support and services. Recent years have seen an increase in social innovation that involves alternative transaction models, such as time-banks and circular economies. Read More

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Cultural Adaptation of Community Informant Tool for Detection of Maternal Depression in Rural Pakistan.

Front Psychiatry 2021 1;12:598857. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Human Development Research Foundation, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Evidence indicates that mental health issues like depression, epilepsy, and substance misuse can be detected with reasonable accuracy in resource-poor settings. The Community Informant Detection Tool (CIDT) is one such approach used for detecting mental health problems, including depression. We adapted this community informant approach for detecting maternal depression in Pakistan. Read More

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An Ecological Approach To Learning In (Not And) Development.

Authors:
Karen E Adolph

Hum Dev 2020 Jan 12;63(Suppl 3-4):180-201. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

New York University.

The ecological approach is a framework for studying the behavior of animals in their environments. My version of an ecological approach focuses on learning in the context of development. I argue that the most important thing animals learn is behavioral flexibility. Read More

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January 2020

Can we safely use systemic treatment in atopic dermatitis during the COVID-19 pandemic? Overview of selected conventional and biologic systemic therapies.

Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Immunopathology, Faculty of Medicine, Division of Biomedical Science, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Introduction: Since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the medical community has faced major challenges that affect disease management in all areas. Dermatologists and immunologists have to choose appropriate treatment strategy taking into consideration risk of infection and possible exacerbation of the course of the disease in patients with confirmed infection. Management of atopic dermatitis (AD) in moderate to severe cases is based on systemic therapy such as cyclosporine, azathioprine, methotrexate and dupilumab. Read More

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Community knowledge, attitudes and practices towards malaria in Ha-Lambani, Limpopo Province, South Africa: a cross-sectional household survey.

Malar J 2021 Apr 17;20(1):188. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

HIV/AIDS & Global Health Research Programme, and Department of Microbiology, University of Venda, Limpopo Province, Thohoyandou, South Africa.

Background: Malaria remains a global health concern and is endemic in Limpopo, Mpumalanga and KwaZulu Natal Provinces of South Africa, which aims to eliminate malaria by 2025. Community engagement plays a significant role in improving the acceptability and effectiveness of programmes aimed at reducing malaria transmission. The success of such intervention efforts depends on the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the community, and understanding the KAP of community residents may support malaria control efforts in the locality. Read More

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A Narrative Review on the Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolic Events in the Context of Chronic Venous Disease.

J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Surgery, Section of Vascular Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. Electronic address:

Background: Chronic venous disease (CVD) describes a spectrum of conditions associated with venous hypertension. The association between various CVD etiologies and subsequent risk of venous thromboembolic (VTE) events, such as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, is a topic of considerable clinical interest. The aims of this review are to characterize the risk of VTE according to CVD etiology and to determine the optimal anticoagulation strategy for treatment or prevention of VTE in patients with CVD. Read More

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Urgently seeking efficiency and sustainability of clinical trials in global health.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 May;9(5):e681-e690

School of Public Health, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda; Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; Cytel, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Electronic address:

This paper shows the scale of global health research and the context in which we frame the subsequent papers in the Series. In this Series paper, we provide a historical perspective on clinical trial research by revisiting the 1948 streptomycin trial for pulmonary tuberculosis, which was the first documented randomised clinical trial in the English language, and we discuss its close connection with global health. We describe the current state of clinical trial research globally by providing an overview of clinical trials that have been registered in the WHO International Clinical Trial Registry since 2010. Read More

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Simple extraction of toxicologically relevant psychotropic compounds and metabolites from whole blood using Mini-QuEChERS followed by UPLC-MS/MS analysis.

Biomed Chromatogr 2021 Apr 17:e5142. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Laboratory of Analytical Toxicology, Feevale University, Novo Hamburgo, Brazil.

The determination of psychotropic drugs and metabolites in blood is relevant both in context of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and clinical and forensic toxicology. LC-MS/MS is a preferred method for these assays. However, LC-MS/MS is particularly subjected to matrix ionization effects and appropriate sample preparation is required to minimize these effects. Read More

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Magnetic Resonance Biomarkers in Radiation Oncology.

Med Phys 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, Texas, USA.

A magnetic resonance (MR) biologic marker (biomarker) is a measurable quantitative characteristic that is an indicator of normal biological and pathogenetic processes or a response to therapeutic intervention derived from the MR imaging process. There is significant potential for MR biomarkers to facilitate personalized approaches to cancer care through more precise disease targeting by quantifying normal versus pathologic tissue function as well as toxicity to both radiation and chemotherapy. Both of which have the potential to increase the therapeutic ratio and provide earlier, more accurate monitoring of treatment response. Read More

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Moving toward a competency-based curriculum: Analyzing patients' information and students' evaluation in geriatric dentistry.

J Dent Educ 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Thungyai Hospital, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand.

Objective: There is no core competency for geriatric dentistry and special patient care (GSP) in Thailand. Therefore, GSP program was developed as a knowledge-based curriculum. This study aimed to describe the development and architecture of the GSP curriculum by analyzing patients' information and students' evaluation to move toward a competency-based curriculum. Read More

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Genomic prediction of hybrid crops allows disentangling dominance and epistasis.

Genetics 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

INRAE, INP, UMR 1388 GenPhySE, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan, France.

We revisited, in a genomic context, the theory of hybrid genetic evaluation models of hybrid crosses of pure lines, as the current practice is largely based on infinitesimal model assumptions. Expressions for covariances between hybrids due to additive substitution effects and dominance and epistatic deviations were analytically derived. Using dense markers in a GBLUP analysis, it is possible to split specific combining ability into dominance and across-groups epistatic deviations, and to split general combining ability (GCA) into within-line additive effects and within-line additive by additive (and higher order) epistatic deviations. Read More

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Inflammatory processes in the liver: divergent roles in homeostasis and pathology.

Cell Mol Immunol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

The hepatic immune system is designed to tolerate diverse harmless foreign moieties to maintain homeostasis in the healthy liver. Constant priming and regulation ensure that appropriate immune activation occurs when challenged by pathogens and tissue damage. Failure to accurately discriminate, regulate, or effectively resolve inflammation offsets this balance, jeopardizing overall tissue health resulting from an either  overly tolerant or an overactive inflammatory response. Read More

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The arthritis connection to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): why has it taken so long to understand it?

RMD Open 2021 Apr;7(1)

Internal Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) associated arthritis is a subgroup of spondyloarthritis (SpA) that has suffered from lack of recognition in rheumatology clinical and research circles for over 100 years. Although clinically distinguishable from rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis, it took advances in detection systems in the middle of the last century (rheumatoid factor, HLA-B27) to convincingly make the final separations. We now know that significant numbers of patients with SpA have associated clinical IBD and almost half of them show subclinical gut inflammation, yet the connection between the gut and the musculoskeletal system has remained a vexing problem. Read More

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Implementation conditions leading to the scale-up of an innovation involving the optimal use of antipsychotics in long-term care centers: The Optimizing Practices, use, Care and Services-Antipsychotics (OPUS-AP) program.

Res Social Adm Pharm 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

University of Sherbrooke, Canada; Research Center on Aging of CIUSSS de L'Estrie-CHUS, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Antipsychotics are often used for the first-line management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia despite their limited efficacy and the risk of serious adverse drug events, compounded with disregard for guidelines recommending prioritizing non-pharmacological interventions. Some innovative interventions promote the deprescription of antipsychotics in long term care (LTC) settings.

Objective: The objective of this article is to present the conditions leading to the scale-up of an innovative program on the appropriate use of antipsychotics in LTC centers. Read More

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Challenges of the induced-membrane technique in the reconstruction of traumatic tibial defect with limited resources : a cohort study.

Acta Orthop Belg 2020 Dec;86(4):606-613

This study sought foremost to evaluate the outcomes of applying the induced membrane technique (IMT) for tibia reconstruction within the context of a sub-Saharan Africa trauma center. Second, this study aimed to elucidate the conditions of IMT usage in a limited-resource setting. A retrospective study was performed among patients treated via IMT for posttraumatic tibial bone defects who had follow-up data available for at least 12 months. Read More

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December 2020

Prediction of genomic breeding values of milk traits in Brazilian Saanen goats.

J Anim Breed Genet 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Animal Sciences Department, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil.

The study's objective was to compare the genomic prediction ability methods for the traits milk yield, milk composition and somatic cell count of Saanen Brazilian goats. Nine hundred forty goats, genotyped with an Axiom_OviCap (Caprine) panel, Affimetrix customized array with 62,557 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), were used for the genomic selection analyses. The genomic methods studied to estimate the effects of SNPs and direct genomic values (DGV) were as follows: (a) genomic BLUP (GBLUP), (b) Bayes Cπ and (c) Bayesian Lasso (BLASSO). Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 infection in schools in a northern French city: a retrospective serological cohort study in an area of high transmission, France, January to April 2020.

Euro Surveill 2021 04;26(15)

Direction de la recherche médicale, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

BackgroundChildren's role in SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology remains unclear. We investigated an initially unnoticed SARS-CoV-2 outbreak linked to schools in northern France, beginning as early as mid-January 2020.AimsThis retrospective observational study documents the extent of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, linked to an affected high school (n = 664 participants) and primary schools (n = 1,340 study participants), in the context of unsuspected SARS-CoV-2 circulation and limited control measures. Read More

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What constitutes a palliative care need in people with serious illnesses across Africa? A mixed-methods systematic review of the concept and evidence.

Palliat Med 2021 Apr 16:2692163211008784. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Cicely Saunders Institute of Palliative Care, Policy and Rehabilitation, Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing, Midwifery and Palliative Care, King's College London, London, UK.

Background: Clarity on what constitutes a palliative care need is essential to ensure that health systems and clinical services deliver an appropriate response within Universal Health Coverage.

Aim: To synthesise primary evidence from Africa for palliative care needs among patients and families with serious illness.

Design: We conducted a mixed methods systematic review with sequential synthesis design. Read More

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Peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance subsp. strain EG2348.

EFSA J 2021 Apr 9;19(4):e06495. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authorities of the rapporteur Member State, Denmark, and co-rapporteur Member State, the Netherlands, for the pesticide active substance subsp. strain EG2348 and the considerations as regards the inclusion of the substance in Annex IV of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 844/2012, as amended by Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 2018/1659. Read More

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Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a patient with a metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour and ectopic Cushing's syndrome.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2021 Apr 14;2021. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

King's College Hospital National Health Service Foundation TrustLondon, UK.

Summary: We report a rare case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), precipitated by ectopic Cushing's syndrome, in a patient with a metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour. A 55-year-old female presented as a hypertensive emergency with seizures and severe biochemical disturbance, including alkalosis, hypokalaemia and hyperglycaemia. MRI showed vasogenic oedema in the parieto-occipital region, consistent with a diagnosis of PRES. Read More

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COVID-19 response: mitigating negative impacts on other areas of health.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 Apr;6(4)

Public Health Emergencies, UNICEF, Geneva, Switzerland.

'Vertical' responses focused primarily on preventing and containing COVID-19 have been implemented in countries around the world with negative consequences for other health services, people's access to and use of them, and associated health outcomes, especially in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). 'Lockdowns' and restrictive measures, especially, have complicated service provision and access, and disrupted key supply chains. Such interventions, alongside more traditional public health measures, interact with baseline health, health system, and social and economic vulnerabilities in LMICs to compound negative impacts. Read More

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What does the patient have to say? Valuing the patient experience to improve the patient journey.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Apr 15;21(1):347. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Campus Bio-Medico di Roma University, Rome, Italy.

Background: Patient-reported data-satisfaction, preferences, outcomes and experience-are increasingly studied to provide excellent patient-centred care. In particular, healthcare professionals need to understand whether and how patient experience data can more pertinently inform the design of service delivery from a patient-centred perspective when compared with other indicators. This study aims to explore whether timely patient-reported data could capture relevant issues to improve the hospital patient journey. Read More

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Extracellular vesicles as novel assay tools to study cellular interactions of anti-infective compounds - a perspective.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Drug Delivery Helmholtz-Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS) Helmholtz-Centre for Infection Research (HZI), Campus E8.1, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany; Department of Pharmacy Saarland University Campus E8.1, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany. Electronic address:

Sudden outbreaks of novel infectious diseases and the persistent evolution of antimicrobial resistant pathogens make it necessary to develop specific tools to quickly understand pathogen-cell interactions and to study appropriate drug delivery strategies. Extracellular vesicles (EV) are cell-specific biogenic transport systems, which are gaining more and more popularity as either diagnostic markers or drug delivery systems. Apart from that, there are emerging possibilities for EVs as tools to study drug penetration, drug-membrane interactions as well as pathogen-membrane interactions. Read More

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A few prolific liars in Japan: Replication and the effects of Dark Triad personality traits.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(4):e0249815. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Communication Studies, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America.

Truth-Default Theory (TDT) predicts that across countries and cultures, a few people tell most of the lies, while a majority of people lie less frequently than average. This prediction, referred to as "a few prolific liars," is tested in Japan. The study further investigated the extent to which the Dark Triad personality traits predict the frequency of lying. Read More

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Peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance calcium carbonate.

EFSA J 2021 Apr 8;19(4):e06500. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

The conclusions of EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authorities of the rapporteur Member State Spain and co-rapporteur Member State Hungary for the pesticide active substance calcium carbonate are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 844/2012, as amended by Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 2018/1659. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of calcium carbonate as a repellent on deciduous and coniferous trees in forestry. Read More

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Peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance subsp. strain PB 54.

EFSA J 2021 Apr 8;19(4):e06496. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

The conclusions of the EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authorities of the rapporteur Member State, Denmark, and co-rapporteur Member State, the Netherlands, for the pesticide active substance subsp. strain PB 54 and the considerations as regards the inclusion of the substance in Annex IV of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 844/2012, as amended by Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 2018/1659. Read More

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Exploring Factors Contributing to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Guideline Non-Adherence and Potential Solutions in the Emergency Department: Interdisciplinary Staff Perspective.

J Multidiscip Healthc 2021 6;14:767-785. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia.

Purpose: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a significant and prolonged impact on health-related quality of life, patient outcomes, and escalation of pulmonary function decline. COPD-X guidelines published in 2003 subsist to facilitate a shift from the emphasis on pharmacological treatment to a more holistic multi-disciplinary interventions approach. Despite the existing comprehensive recommendations, readmission rates have increased in the last decade. Read More

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The use of game modes to promote engagement and social involvement in multi-user serious games: a within-person randomized trial with stroke survivors.

J Neuroeng Rehabil 2021 Apr 14;18(1):62. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Faculdade de Ciências Exatas e da Engenharia, Universidade da Madeira, Campus Universitário da Penteada, 9020-105, Funchal, Portugal.

Background: Serious games are promising for stroke rehabilitation, with studies showing a positive impact on reducing motor and cognitive deficits. However, most of the evidence is in the context of single-user rehabilitation, and little is known concerning the impact in multi-user settings. This study evaluates the impact that different game modes can have on engagement and social involvement during a two-user game. Read More

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