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Tunnelling times, Larmor clock, and the elephant in the room.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):10040. Epub 2021 May 11.

Basque Center for Applied Mathematics (BCAM), Alameda de Mazarredo 14, 48009, Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain.

A controversy surrounding the "tunnelling time problem" stems from the seeming inability of quantum mechanics to provide, in the usual way, a definition of the duration a particle is supposed to spend in a given region of space. For this reason, the problem is often approached from an "operational" angle. Typically, one tries to mimic, in a quantum case, an experiment which yields the desired result for a classical particle. Read More

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Walking the middle ground between hermeneutics and science: A research proposal on psychoanalytic process.

Int J Psychoanal 2020 Jun 2;101(3):496-522. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Psychiatry Department, Universidad de Chile, Santiago de Chile.

In 100 years of clinical research and 40 years of empirical research, the concept of psychoanalytic process continues to elude a consensual definition, probably because the problem and methodology must be approached in a different way. This article outlines the empirical implications of the epistemological model exposed in a previous article, by proposing a scientific, innovative, and clinically sensitive research programme for the study of psychoanalytic process. This proposal is an attempt at developing psychotherapy research that is founded on psychoanalytic hypotheses derived from a two-person psychology. Read More

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Engaging the 'Missing Men' in the HIV Treatment Cascade: Creating a Tailored Intervention to Improve Men's Uptake of HIV Care Services in Rural South Africa: A Study Protocol.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 2;18(7). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Sociology, Faculty of Humanities, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg 2006, South Africa.

Men, especially young men, have been consistently missing from the HIV care cascade, leading to poor health outcomes in men and ongoing transmission of HIV in young women in South Africa. Although these men may not be missing for the same reasons across the cascade and may need different interventions, early work has shown similar trends in men's low uptake of HIV care services and suggested that the social costs of testing and accessing care are extremely high for men, particularly in South Africa. Interventions and data collection have hitherto, by and large, focused on men in relation to HIV prevention in women and have not approached the problem through the male lens. Read More

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Malaysian pharmacy students' perspectives on the virtual objective structured clinical examination during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.

J Educ Eval Health Prof 2021 12;18. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan, Malaysia.

Purpose: This study investigated pharmacy students' perceptions of various aspects of virtual objective structured clinical examinations (vOSCEs) conducted during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Malaysia.

Methods: This cross-sectional study involved third- and fourth-year pharmacy students at the International Islamic University Malaysia. A validated self-administered questionnaire was distributed to students who had taken a vOSCE a week before. Read More

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Local and CNS-wide astrocyte intracellular calcium signalling attenuation with CalEx mice.

J Neurosci 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Departments of Physiology

Astrocytes exist throughout the CNS and are proposed to affect neural circuits and behaviour through intracellular Ca signaling. Studying the function(s) of astrocyte Ca signaling has proven difficult because of the paucity of tools to achieve selective attenuation. Based on recent studies, we generated and used male and female knock-in mice for Cre-dependent expression of mCherry-tagged hPMCA2w/b in order to attenuate astrocyte Ca signaling in genetically defined cells (CalEx mice for lcium trusion). Read More

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Toward a Cultural Evolutionary Psychology: Why the Evolutionary Approach does not Imply Reductionism or Determinism.

Integr Psychol Behav Sci 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Psychology, University of Turin, 10124, Turin, Italy.

Does evolutionary psychology (EP) properly account for the sociocultural context? Does it underestimate both the developmental and the relational aspects of the human psyche? Is it instantiated in a mechanistic epistemology? Does it imply determinism or reductionism? The commentaries on our previous target article raised similar questions and we try to tackle them in the current response. Our "epistemological assessment" of Psychology and our consequent unification claim under the banner of the evolutionary approach (Zagaria et al., Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 54(3), 521-562, 2020 ) was deeply examined and discussed. Read More

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Serotherapy-Free Regimen Improves Non-Relapse Mortality and Immune Recovery Among the Recipients of αβ TCell-Depleted Haploidentical Grafts: Retrospective Study in Childhood Leukemia.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Apr 14;27(4):330.e1-330.e9. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Dmitriy Rogachev National Medical Center Of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology And Immunology, Moscow, Russia. Electronic address:

Depletion of αβ T cells from the graft prevents graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and improves the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from haploidentical donors. Delayed recovery of adaptive immunity remains a problem, which can be approached by adoptive T-cell transfer. In a randomized trial, we have assessed the safety and efficacy of low-dose memory (CD45RA-depleted) donor lymphocytes (mDLI) after HSCT with αβ T-cell depletion. Read More

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Generalizing neural signal-to-text brain-computer interfaces.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 Apr 30;7(3). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Radiology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States of America.

Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) may help patients with faltering communication abilities due to neurodegenerative diseases produce text or speech by direct neural processing. However, their practical realization has proven difficult due to limitations in speed, accuracy, and generalizability of existing interfaces. The goal of this study is to evaluate the BCI performance of a robust speech decoding system that translates neural signals evoked by speech to a textual output. Read More

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Surveillance of U.S. Corporate Filings Provides a Proactive Approach to Inform Tobacco Regulatory Research Strategy.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 16;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623, USA.

The popularity of electronic cigarettes in the United States and around the world has led to a startling rise in youth nicotine use. The Juul e-cigarette was introduced in the U.S. Read More

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Association between urban environment and mental health in Brussels, Belgium.

BMC Public Health 2021 Apr 1;21(1):635. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Risk and Health Impact Assessment, Sciensano, Rue Juliette Wytsman 14, BE-1050, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: Mental health disorders appear as a growing problem in urban areas. While common mental health disorders are generally linked to demographic and socioeconomic factors, little is known about the interaction with the urban environment. With growing urbanization, more and more people are exposed to environmental stressors potentially contributing to increased stress and impairing mental health. Read More

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Domestic violence among Omani women: prevalence, risk factors and help-seeking behaviour.

East Mediterr Health J 2021 Mar 23;27(3):242-249. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman.

Background: Domestic violence is a serious and often underreported problem. No studies on domestic violence have been conducted in Oman.

Aims: This study determined the prevalence and risk factors of emotional and/or physical domestic violence in Omani women, and the help-seeking behaviour of those experiencing domestic violence. Read More

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The complex case of Ellie Anderson.

J Med Ethics 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Philosophy, Classics, History of Art and Ideas, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Ellie Anderson had always known that she wanted to have children. Her mother, Louise, was aware of this wish. Ellie was designated male at birth, but according to news sources, identified as a girl from the age of three. Read More

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Pontine Arteriolosclerosis and Locus Coeruleus Oxidative Stress Differentiate Resilience from Mild Cognitive Impairment in a Clinical Pathologic Cohort.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2021 Mar;80(4):325-335

From the Department of Translational Neuroscience, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, Michigan.

Locus coeruleus (LC) neurodegeneration is associated with cognitive deterioration during the transition from normal cognition to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD). However, the extent to which LC degenerative processes differentiate cognitively normal, "resilient" subjects bearing a high AD pathological burden from those with MCI or AD remains unclear. We approached this problem by quantifying the number of LC neurons and the percentage of LC neurons bearing AT8 tau pathology, TDP-43 pathology, or a marker for DNA/RNA oxidative damage, in well-characterized subjects diagnosed as normal cognition-low AD pathology (NC-LP), NC-high AD pathology (NC-HP), MCI, or mild/moderate AD. Read More

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Colour coded client segmentation (CCCS) public health approach to educate the community to deal with problem of hypertension: A pilot study.

J Educ Health Promot 2021 28;10:41. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Community Medicine and School of Public Health, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India.

Introduction: We know that risk communication is equally important as risk identification, which is usually not communicated properly to the patients and resulting in poor outcomes, especially in hypertensive patients.

Objective: Our study objective was to evolve and test a colour coded client segmentation based public health approach to educate the community to deal with problem of hypertension.

Methodology: This cross-sectional pilot study was done in March 2020 among purposively approached in a primary health centre to 100 people aged above 18 years, among them 41 gave written consent for the study and their demographic information was noted. Read More

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January 2021

Patients' experience of haemorrhagic cystitis after Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Findings from a phenomenological study.

Eur J Oncol Nurs 2021 Apr 27;51:101926. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Medical Sciences, Udine University, Italy. Electronic address:

Purpose: Haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a severe complication of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), which significantly affects patients' quality of life. However, no qualitative studies have described to date the experience of patients who have developed this complication. Therefore, the aim of this interpretative phenomenological study performed on 2019 was to explore the experience of patients who developed HC after HSCT. Read More

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Stimulus value gates multisensory integration.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 May 22;53(9):3142-3159. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

The brain enhances its perceptual and behavioral decisions by integrating information from its multiple senses in what are believed to be optimal ways. This phenomenon of "multisensory integration" appears to be pre-conscious, effortless, and highly efficient. The present experiments examined whether experience could modify this seemingly automatic process. Read More

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Specificity of RNA Folding and Its Association with Evolutionarily Adaptive mRNA Secondary Structures.

Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Program in Cancer Research, Zhongshan School of Medicine, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China; Department of Medical Informatics, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China; RNA Biomedical Institute, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510120, China. Electronic address:

The secondary structure is a fundamental feature of both noncoding and messenger RNAs. However, our understanding of the secondary structure of mRNA, especially that of the coding regions, remains elusive, likely due to translation and the lack of RNA-binding proteins that sustain the consensus structure, such as those that bind to noncoding RNA. Indeed, mRNA has recently been found to adopt diverse alternative structures, the overall functional significance of which remains untested. Read More

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February 2021

A quantum enhanced search for dark matter axions.

Nature 2021 02 10;590(7845):238-242. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

The manipulation of quantum states of light holds the potential to enhance searches for fundamental physics. Only recently has the maturation of quantum squeezing technology coincided with the emergence of fundamental physics searches that are limited by quantum uncertainty. In particular, the quantum chromodynamics axion provides a possible solution to two of the greatest outstanding problems in fundamental physics: the strong-CP (charge-parity) problem of quantum chromodynamics and the unknown nature of dark matter. Read More

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February 2021

Plethora of Traumatic Lesions of Bilateral Knee Extensor Mechanism in Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 21;11:603638. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Introduction: Injuries to the quadriceps extensor mechanism are rare in patients with Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI). To the best of our knowledge, non-union of the patella in OI, either as an isolated problem or in combination with an acute fracture, has not been previously reported.

Case Report: We describe how we surgically approached both the fracture and the non-union simultaneously. Read More

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January 2021

Interactive Digital Experience as an Alternative Laboratory (IDEAL): Creative Investigation of Forensic Biomechanics.

J Appl Biomech 2021 Feb 3;37(2):163-170. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Michigan State University.

An Interactive Digital Experience as an Alternative Laboratory (IDEAL) was developed and implemented in a flipped biomechanics classroom. The IDEAL challenge problem was created to more closely simulate a real-world scenario than typical homework or challenge problems. It added a more involved story, specific characters, simple interaction, and student-led inquiry into a challenge problem. Read More

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February 2021

RNN- and LSTM-Based Soft Sensors Transferability for an Industrial Process.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jan 26;21(3). Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Engineering, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy.

The design and application of Soft Sensors (SSs) in the process industry is a growing research field, which needs to mediate problems of model accuracy with data availability and computational complexity. Black-box machine learning (ML) methods are often used as an efficient tool to implement SSs. Many efforts are, however, required to properly select input variables, model class, model order and the needed hyperparameters. Read More

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January 2021

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding antibiotic use and resistance among community pharmacists: a cross sectional study in Jordan.

Int J Clin Pharm 2021 Jan 29. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

School of Medicine, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.

Background Antibiotic resistance is a global threat and burden on healthcare systems. One major factor contributing to this problem is inappropriate use of antibiotics, which comprises suboptimal use, misuse, abuse, and dispensing errors. Another important factor is dispensing antibiotics without medical prescription. Read More

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January 2021

Targeting Causes of Burnout in Residency: An Innovative Approach Used at Hennepin Healthcare.

Acad Med 2021 05;96(5):690-694

R. Quirk is program director, Internal Medicine Residency Program, Hennepin Healthcare, and assistant professor of medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Problem: Rates of burnout are high in physicians in the United States. While others have reported on the success of burnout-reduction strategies on practicing physicians and residents, few strategies have approached the problem longitudinally in residents.

Approach: From 2014 to 2019, the authors used a previously developed survey to assess factors related to resident burnout, including sleep, personal time, professional fulfillment, effects on relationships, program recognition, and peer support. Read More

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Estimation of Tail Probabilities by Repeated Augmented Reality.

J Stat Theory Pract 2021 20;15(2):25. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Public Health Dynamics Laboratory, Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA USA.

Synthetic data, when properly used, can enhance patterns in real data and thus provide insights into different problems. Here, the estimation of tail probabilities of rare events from a moderately large number of observations is considered. The problem is approached by a large number of augmentations or fusions of the real data with computer-generated synthetic samples. Read More

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January 2021

Role of live cell colonization in the biofilm formation process in membrane bioreactors treating actual sewage under low organic loading rate conditions.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Feb 22;105(4):1721-1729. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Science of Technology Innovation, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, 940-2188, Japan.

Biofilm development on the membrane surface is one of the main reasons for membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) and it is a big problem for their stable operation. Precise information on the microbial community composition of the biofilm is needed for a better understanding of biofilm development. However, there have been limited investigations of the relationship between the biofilm formation process and the microbial community of activated sludge and biofilm in MBRs treating real sewage. Read More

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February 2021

Predictive modeling of depression and anxiety using electronic health records and a novel machine learning approach with artificial intelligence.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 21;11(1):1980. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Center for Technology and Behavioral Health, Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, 46 Centerra Parkway, Lebanon, NH, 03766, USA.

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are highly prevalent and impairing problems, but frequently go undetected, leading to substantial treatment delays. Electronic health records (EHRs) collect a great deal of biometric markers and patient characteristics that could foster the detection of GAD and MDD in primary care settings. We approached the problem of predicting MDD and GAD using a novel machine learning pipeline to re-analyze data from an observational study. Read More

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January 2021

A Qualitative Study Exploring the Lived Experience of Unemployment Among People with Severe Mental Illness.

Indian J Psychol Med 2020 Sep 20;42(5):435-444. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Dept. of Psychiatry, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Background: Severe mental illnesses lead to deterioration in the life skills of the patient, resulting in socio-occupational dysfunction and low rates of employment. The purpose of this study was to explore attitudes, knowledge, and barriers to employment as experienced by patients and their caregivers in India.

Method: Patients with schizophrenia or bipolar affective disorder, aged between 18 and 60 and undergoing inpatient treatment and their caregivers, were approached for written informed consent and recruited for focus group discussions. Read More

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September 2020

Nobody ever questions-Polypharmacy in care homes: A mixed methods evaluation of a multidisciplinary medicines optimisation initiative.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(1):e0244519. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Division of Population Medicine, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom.

Background: Nurse-led monitoring of patients for signs and symptoms associated with documented 'undesirable effects' of medicines has potential to prevent avoidable harm, and optimise prescribing.

Intervention: The Adverse Drug Reaction Profile for polypharmacy (ADRe-p) identifies and documents putative adverse effects of medicines commonly prescribed in primary care. Nurses address some problems, before passing ADRe-p to pharmacists and prescribers for review, in conjunction with prescriptions. Read More

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Do reservoir computers work best at the edge of chaos?

Authors:
T L Carroll

Chaos 2020 Dec;30(12):121109

U.S. Naval Research Lab, Washington, DC 20375, USA.

It has been demonstrated that cellular automata had the highest computational capacity at the edge of chaos [N. H. Packard, in Dynamic Patterns in Complex Systems, edited by J. Read More

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December 2020

Further Reflections: Surrogate Decisionmaking When Significant Mental Capacities are Retained.

Authors:
Jennifer Hawkins

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2021 Jan;30(1):192-198

Mackenzie Graham has made an important contribution to the literature on decisionmaking for patients with disorders of consciousness. He argues, and I agree, that decisions for unresponsive patients who are known to retain some degree of covert awareness ought to focus on current interests, since such patients likely retain the kinds of mental capacities that in ordinary life command our current respect and attention. If he is right, then it is not appropriate to make decisions for such patients by appealing to the values they had in the past, either the values expressed in an advance directive or the values recalled by a surrogate. Read More

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January 2021