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Flow Structure and Particle Deposition Analyses for Optimization of a Pressurized Metered Dose Inhaler (pMDI) in a Model of Tracheobronchial Airway.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 Jun 12:105911. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Institute of Lung Biology and Disease, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg 85764, Germany; Comprehensive Pneumology Center, Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Max-Lebsche-Platz 31, Munich 81377, Germany. Electronic address:

Inhalation therapy plays an important role in management or treatment of respiratory diseases such asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs). For decades, pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) have been the most popular and prescribed drug delivery devices for inhalation therapy. The main objectives of the present computational work are to study flow structure inside a pMDI, as well as transport and deposition of micron-sized particles in a model of human tracheobronchial airways and their dependence on inhalation air flow rate and characteristic pMDI parameters. Read More

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Toe-brachial index is beyond a peripheral issue in patients with type 2 diabetes.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0253138. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Endocrine Research Center, Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Background: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in patients with diabetes. We aimed to evaluate the association between ankle-brachial index (ABI) and toe-brachial index (TBI) with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM).

Methods: This cross sectional study included 296 patients with T2DM who met the American Diabetes Association criteria for the assessment of peripheral arterial atherosclerosis. Read More

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Applied surgical anatomy is back (has it ever left?).

Colorectal Dis 2021 Jun;23(6):1299-1300

Surgical Anatomy Unit, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

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Concurrent transcranial direct current stimulation and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in patients with Gambling Disorder.

Brain Connect 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Universite Laval Faculte de medecine, 12369, Quebec, Quebec, Canada.

Background/Introduction: Transcranial direct current stimulation delivered over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while patients are at rest can decrease craving in patients with substance-related and addictive disorders. Yet, the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on resting state brain activity remain unknown in this population. This study examined the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on resting state functional connectivity with concurrent stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging in patients with Gambling Disorder. Read More

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Association between aphasia severity and brain network alterations after stroke assessed using the electroencephalographic phase synchrony index.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 14;11(1):12469. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Neurorehabilitation Research Institute, Morinomiya Hospital, Osaka, 536-0025, Japan.

Electroencephalographic synchrony can help assess brain network status; however, its usefulness has not yet been fully proven. We developed a clinically feasible method that combines the phase synchrony index (PSI) with resting-state 19-channel electroencephalography (EEG) to evaluate post-stroke motor impairment. In this study, we investigated whether our method could be applied to aphasia, a common post-stroke cognitive impairment. Read More

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Multiple fermion scattering in the weakly coupled spin-chain compound YbAlO.

Nat Commun 2021 Jun 14;12(1):3599. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Neutron Scattering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA.

The Heisenberg antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain, originally introduced almost a century ago, is one of the best studied models in quantum mechanics due to its exact solution, but nevertheless it continues to present new discoveries. Its low-energy physics is described by the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid of spinless fermions, similar to the conduction electrons in one-dimensional metals. In this work we investigate the Heisenberg spin-chain compound YbAlO and show that the weak interchain coupling causes Umklapp scattering between the left- and right-moving fermions and stabilizes an incommensurate spin-density wave order at q = 2k under finite magnetic fields. Read More

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[Clinical value of left ventricular strain analysis by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients with coronary chronic total occlusion].

Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi 2021 Jun;49(6):601-609

Department of Cardiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100029,China.

To explore the clinical value of quantitatively assessment of left ventricular strain in patients with coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR)-feature tracking (CMR-FT) technique. In this retrospective and observation study, patients with single CTO, who underwent CMR examination in Beijing Anzhen Hospital from November 2014 to January 2019, were selected as case group (CTO group), and those without cardiovascular diseases defined by echocardiography, electrocardiogram (ECG) and clinical history and with normal CMR results were selected as healthy control group (control group). General clinical data including age, gender, discharge diagnosis, and the examination results of echocardiography and ECG were obtained from the electronic medical record system. Read More

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Hippocampal volume as treatment predictor in antidepressant naïve patients with major depressive disorder.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Jun 7;140:323-328. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo Leon, School of Medicine, Human Anatomy Department, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico. Electronic address:

Major depression disorder (MDD) limits psychosocial functioning and quality of life. One of the biological alterations is a hippocampal volume (HV) reduction. Previous prospective neuroimaging studies present inconsistencies regarding HV reductions and clinical features and response of antidepressant treatment of the participants. Read More

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Outcomes of redo-isolated tricuspid valve surgery after left-sided valve surgery.

J Card Surg 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Objectives: To compare early and long-term outcomes of redo-isolated tricuspid surgery (RITS) after left-sided valve surgery.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 173 patients who underwent RITS for severe tricuspid regurgitation after previous left-sided valve surgery from January 1999 to December 2019. Patients were divided into two groups: RITS by median sternotomy (m-RITS; n = 78) and totally endoscopic approach (e-RITS; n = 95). Read More

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The degeneration changes of basal forebrain are associated with prospective memory impairment in patients with Wilson's disease.

Brain Behav 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

School of Medical Information Engineering, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei, Anhui, China.

Introduction: Degeneration changes of the basal forebrain (BF) are suggested to play an important role in cognitive impairment and memory loss in patients with Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, little is known about if and how the structure and function of BF are abnormal in Wilson's disease (WD).

Methods: Here, we employed the structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 19 WD individuals and 24 healthy controls (HC). Read More

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Establishment of a localized acute implant-associated Staphylococcus aureus bone infection model in sheep.

Pathog Dis 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Musculoskeletal Research Unit, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Orthopedic implant-associated bacterial infections with Staphylococcus aureus constitute a major clinical problem, and large pre-clinical animal models remain scarce. The aim of this study was to establish a standardized method of a localized, acute S. aureus bone infection in the presence of complex implanted devices in a sheep model. Read More

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Early systolic lengthening by speckle tracking echocardiography predicts outcome after coronary artery bypass surgery.

Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc 2021 Jun 28;34:100799. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Cardiology, Herlev & Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Early systolic lengthening (ESL), a paradoxical stretch of myocardial fibers, has been linked to loss of myocardial viability and contractile dysfunction. We assessed the long-term prognostic potential of ESL in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients.

Methods: We retrospectively included patients (n = 709; mean age 68 years; 85% men) who underwent speckle tracking echocardiography (median 15 days) prior to CABG. Read More

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Aortic Valve Sclerosis as an Important Predictor of Long-Term Mortality in Patients With Carotid Atheromatous Plaque Requiring Carotid Endarterectomy.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 28;8:653991. Epub 2021 May 28.

Unità per lo Studio delle Patologie Aortiche, Valvolari e Coronariche, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Milan, Italy.

A strong association between aortic valve sclerosis (AVSc), the earliest manifestation of calcific aortic valve disease, and atherosclerosis exists. The aim of the study was to evaluate the predictive capabilities of AVSc on long-term all-cause mortality, in patients requiring carotid endarterectomy (CEA). 806 consecutive CEA patients were enrolled. Read More

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How do people living with dementia perceive eating and drinking difficulties? A qualitative study.

Age Ageing 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Marie Curie Palliative Care Research Department, Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Eating and drinking problems are common among people living with later-stage dementia, yet few studies have explored their perspectives.

Objective: This study aimed to explore how people living with mild dementia understand possible future eating and drinking problems and their perspectives on assistance.

Design: Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Read More

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Effects of high-frequency prefrontal rTMS on heart frequency rates and blood pressure in schizophrenia.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Jun 7;140:243-249. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Medical Faculty, University of Augsburg, BKH, Augsburg, Germany.

Background: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a safe non-invasive neuromodulation technique used for the treatment of various neuropsychiatric disorders. The effect of rTMS applied to the cortex on autonomic functions has not been studied in detail in patient cohorts, yet patients who receive rTMS may have disease-associated impairments in the autonomic system and may receive medication that may pronounce autonomic dysfunctions.

Methods: Using data from the 'rTMS for the Treatment of Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia' (RESIS) trial we evaluated the effect of rTMS applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on autonomic nervous system-related parameters such as blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in both reclining and standing postures from screening up to 105 days after intervention among patients with schizophrenia. Read More

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N-ammonia positron emission tomography-derived endocardial strain for the assessment of ischemia using feature-tracking in high-resolution cine imaging.

J Nucl Cardiol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging & Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162-8666, Japan.

Background: Assessing endocardial strain using a single N-ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) scan would be clinically useful, given the association between ischemia and myocardial deformation. However, no software has been developed for strain analysis using PET. We evaluated the clinical potential of feature tracking-derived strain values measured using PET, based on associations with the myocardial flow reserve (MFR). Read More

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Feasibility study on stereotactic radiotherapy for total pulmonary vein isolation in a canine model.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12369. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

We tested the feasibility of pulmonary vein (PV) and left atrial (LA) posterior wall isolation using non-invasive stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) and investigated pathological changes in irradiated lesions in a canine model. Seven male Mongrel dogs received single-fraction 33 Gy SABR. We designed the en-bloc circular target of total PVs and LA posterior wall to avoid the esophagus. Read More

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The causal role of DLPFC top-down control on the acquisition and the automatic expression of implicit learning: State of the art.

Cortex 2021 May 12;141:293-310. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Experimental Psychology and Mind, Brain and Behaviour Research Center, University of Granada, Spain. Electronic address:

Implicit learning refers to the incidental acquisition and expression of knowledge that is not accompanied by full awareness of its contents. Implicit sequence learning (ISL) represents one of the most useful paradigms to investigate these processes. In this paradigm, participants are usually instructed to respond to the location of a target that moves regularly through a set of possible locations. Read More

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Left ventricle motion estimation for cine MR images using sparse representation with shape constraint.

Phys Med 2021 Jun 9;87:49-64. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

College of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

Purpose: To propose a left ventricle (LV) motion estimation method based on sparse representation, in order to handle the spatial-varying intensity distortions caused by tissue deformation.

Methods: For each myocardial landmark, an adaptive dictionary was generated by learning transformations from a training dataset. Then the landmark was tracked using sparse representation. Read More

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Simultaneous transcatheter treatment of ascending aortic aneurysm with aortic and mitral regurgitation: an in vitro study.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Endovascular Diagnosis and Treatment Center for Heart Valvular Diseases, and Endovascular Diagnosis and Treatment Center for Aortic Dissection, Navy Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: We sought to explore the efficacy of the endovascular repair of an ascending aortic aneurysm with aortic and mitral regurgitation by 2 novel valved stents.

Methods: We established models of ascending aortic aneurysms combined with aortic and mitral regurgitation in 10 pig hearts, then implanted self-expanding aortic fenestrated and mitral valved stents via the transapical approach. We applied a fluoroscopy-guided in vitro setting to test the approach, then analysed continuous circulating flushing at 37°C. Read More

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Limited added value of negative pressure wound therapy compared to calcium alginate dressings for second intention healing in a non-contaminated and contaminated equine distal limb wound model.

Equine Vet J 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Surgery and Anaesthesiology of Domestic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820, Merelbeke, Belgium.

Background: Distal limb wounds in horses often show aberrant healing due to a slow inflammatory response. In human medicine, negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is used for treatment of chronic wounds with a similar inflammatory response.

Objectives: To compare the effect of NPWT to calcium alginate dressings on the healing of (non-) contaminated equine distal limb wounds. Read More

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Open vs closed surgical exposure of palatally displaced canines: a comparison of clinical and patient-reported outcomes-a multicentre, randomized controlled trial.

Eur J Orthod 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Postgraduate Dental Education Center, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Örebro, Sweden.

Objectives: To compare treatment time, patients' perceptions during orthodontic treatment, dental fear and side effects, between open and closed surgical exposures in patients with palatally displaced canines (PDCs).

Trial Design: Multicentre, randomized controlled trial, with random 1:1 allocation of two parallel groups.

Materials And Methods: One hundred and twenty patients from three different orthodontic centres were randomized into one of the two intervention arms, open or closed surgical exposure. Read More

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A volumetric study of mandibular condyles in orthognathic patients by semiautomatic segmentation.

Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department for Oral and Craniomaxillofacial and Plastic Surgery, University Hospital Cologne and Faculty of Medicine, University of Cologne, Kerpener Straße 62, 50937, Cologne, Germany.

Purpose: This study was conducted to elucidate volumetric data of mandibular condyles of orthognathic patients by analyzing cone beam computed tomography images based upon semiautomatic segmentation.

Methods: Cone beam computed tomography images of 87 patients with malocclusions were analyzed in this retrospective study. Patients were between 17 and 53 years old and diagnosed with Angle class I, II, or III malocclusion. Read More

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Cardiac Natriuretic Peptide Profiles in Chronic Hypertension by Single or Sequentially Combined Renovascular and DOCA-Salt Treatments.

Front Physiol 2021 25;12:651246. Epub 2021 May 25.

Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Cátedras de Fisiopatología y Anatomía e Histología, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The involvement of natriuretic peptides was studied during the hypertrophic remodeling transition mediated by sequential exposure to chronic hemodynamic overload. We induced hypertension in rats by pressure (renovascular) or volume overload (DOCA-salt) during 6 and 12 weeks of treatment. We also studied the consecutive combination of both models in inverse sequences: RV 6 weeks/DS 6 weeks and DS 6 weeks/RV 6 weeks. Read More

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Effectiveness of Nanohydroxyapatite on Demineralization of Enamel and Cementum Surrounding Margin of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Polycrystalline Ceramic Restoration.

ScientificWorldJournal 2021 19;2021:5540738. Epub 2021 May 19.

Division of Biomaterials and Prosthodontics Research, Faculty of Dentistry, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.

Introduction: Prosthetic dentistry has shifted toward prevention of caries occurrence surrounding restorative margin through the anti-demineralization process. This study examines the ability of nanohydroxyapatite (NHA) gel and Clinpro (CP) on enhancing resistance to demineralization of enamel and cementum at margin of restoration.

Materials And Methods: Thirty extracted mandibular third molars were segregated at 1 mm above and below cementoenamel junction (CEJ) to separate CEJ portions and substituted with zirconia disks by bonding to crown and root portions with resin adhesive. Read More

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Saturation recovery-prepared magnetic resonance angiography for assessment of left atrial and esophageal anatomy.

Br J Radiol 2021 Jun 11:20210048. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Comprehensive Arrhythmia Research & Management Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Objectives: Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has been established as an important imaging method in cardiac ablation procedures. In pulmonary vein (PV) isolation procedures, MRA has the potential to minimize the risk of severe complications, such as atrio-esophageal fistula, by providing detailed information on esophageal position relatively to cardiac structures. However, traditional non-gated, first-pass (FP) MRA approaches have several limitations, such as long breath-holds, non-uniform signal intensity throughout the left atrium (LA), and poor esophageal visualization. Read More

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Longitudinal Evaluation of Hyper-Reflective Foci in the Retina Following Subretinal Delivery of Adeno-Associated Virus in Non-Human Primates.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021 May;10(6):15

University Eye Hospital, Centre for Ophthalmology, University Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether clinical grade recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (rAAV8) leads to increased appearance of hyper-reflective foci (HRF) in the retina of non-human primates (NHPs) following subretinal gene therapy injection.

Methods: Different doses of rAAV8 vector (rAAV8. human phosphodiesterase 6A subunit (hPDE6A) at low dose: 1 × 1011 vector genomes (vg), medium dose: 5 × 1011 vg, or high dose: 1 × 1012 vg) were injected subretinally into the left eyes of NHPs in a formal toxicology study in preparation of a clinical trial. Read More

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Echocardiographic view and feature selection for the estimation of the response to CRT.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(6):e0252857. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

University of Rennes, CHU Rennes, Inserm, LTSI UMR 1099, Rennes, France.

Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an implant-based therapy applied to patients with a specific heart failure (HF) profile. The identification of patients that may benefit from CRT is a challenging task and the application of current guidelines still induce a non-responder rate of about 30%. Several studies have shown that the assessment of left ventricular (LV) mechanics by speckle tracking echocardiography can provide useful information for CRT patient selection. Read More

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Developing a Peak Extraction and Retention (PEER) Algorithm for Improving the Temporal Resolution of Raman Spectroscopy.

Anal Chem 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005, China.

In spectroscopic analysis, push-to-the-limit sensitivity is one of the important topics, particularly when facing the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the trace target. Normally, the effective recognition and extraction of weak signals are the first key steps, for which there has been considerable effort in developing various denoising algorithms for decades. Nevertheless, the lower the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the greater the deviation of the peak height and shape during the denoising process. Read More

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Spatial spin flipping and spin switching phenomena on a Y-shaped graphene nanoribbon ferromagnetic junction with Rashba spin orbit coupling and strain.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Physics, Nanjing Normal University, No.1, Wenyuan Road, Qixia District,, Nanjing, 210097, CHINA.

We theoretically study a controllable spatial spin converter and spin valve by using a Y-shaped even-chain zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGR) junction with Rashba spin orbit coupling(SOC) and strain. By calculating the spin-dependent conductance spectra of different tunneling terminals through the multi-terminal Landauer formula, we find that the spin up electron can flip its spin orientation, and convert to spin down one on the left electrode, the same spin converting phenomena can be inhibited on the right terminal. The above spin flipping and its valve phenomena are derived from the interactions of the Rashba SOC, strain and magnetization layout. Read More

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