28,462 results match your criteria applied fields


Computational analysis of vincristine loaded silk fibroin hydrogel for sustained drug delivery applications: Multiphysics modeling and experiments.

Int J Pharm 2021 Oct 12;609:121184. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

In this paper, silk fibroin hydrogel is used as a drug carrier for vincristine. To optimize drug delivery, a multi-physics model is proposed that couples the deformation and diffusion fields. We applied inverse analysis and general continuum mechanics to define material parameters and mechanical properties. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Catalytic Fields as a Tool to Analyze Enzyme Reaction Mechanism Variants and Reaction Steps.

J Phys Chem B 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Chemistry, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wyb. Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland.

Catalytic fields representing the topology of the optimal molecular environment charge distribution that reduces the activation barrier have been used to examine alternative reaction variants and to determine the role of conserved catalytic residues for two consecutive reactions catalyzed by the same enzyme. Until now, most experimental and conventional top-down theoretical studies employing QM/MM or ONIOM methods have focused on the role of enzyme electric fields acting on broken bonds of reactants. In contrast, our bottom-up approach dealing with a small reactant and transition-state model allows the analysis of the opposite effects: how the catalytic field resulting from the charge redistribution during the enzyme reaction acts on conserved amino acid residues and contributes to the reduction of the activation barrier. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Resistance to post-emergent herbicides is becoming common for grass weeds on New Zealand wheat and barley farms.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(10):e0258685. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

School of Agriculture and Environment, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

To estimate the prevalence of herbicide-resistant weeds, 87 wheat and barley farms were randomly surveyed in the Canterbury region of New Zealand. Over 600 weed seed samples from up to 10 mother plants per taxon depending on abundance, were collected immediately prior to harvest (two fields per farm). Some samples provided by agronomists were tested on an ad-hoc basis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

High-throughput fabrication of high aspect ratio Ag/Al nanopillars for optical detection of biomarkers.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Micro/Bio/Nanofluidics Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0412, Japan.

Nanomaterial-based optical techniques for biomarker detection have garnered tremendous attention from the nanofabrication community due to their high precision and enhanced limit of detection (LoD) features. These nanomaterials are highly responsive to local refractive index (RI) fluctuations, and their RI unit sensitivity can be tuned by varying the chemical composition, geometry, and dimensions of the utilized nanostructures. To improve the sensitivity and LoD values of these nanomaterials, it is common to increase both dimensions and aspect ratios of the fabricated nanostructures. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Flux and separation of magneto-active superballs in applied fields.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

The term "active matter" describes a class of out-of-equilibrium systems, whose ability to transform environmental to kinetic energy is sought after in multiple fields of science. A challenge that still remains is to craft nanometer-sized active particles, whose motion can be efficiently directed by externally applied bio-noninvasive stimuli. Adding a magnetic component and therefore being able to direct the motion of active nanoparticles with an applied magnetic field is one of the promising solutions in the field. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Lessons learned in transitioning to AI in the medical imaging of COVID-19.

J Med Imaging (Bellingham) 2021 Jan 1;8(Suppl 1):010902-10902. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

The University of Chicago, Medical Imaging Data and Resource Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has wreaked havoc across the world. It also created a need for the urgent development of efficacious predictive diagnostics, specifically, artificial intelligence (AI) methods applied to medical imaging. This has led to the convergence of experts from multiple disciplines to solve this global pandemic including clinicians, medical physicists, imaging scientists, computer scientists, and informatics experts to bring to bear the best of these fields for solving the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Who is the culprit: Is pest infestation responsible for crop yield losses close to semi-natural habitats?

Ecol Evol 2021 Oct 24;11(19):13232-13246. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Berlin-Brandenburg Institute of Advanced Biodiversity Research (BBIB) Berlin Germany.

Semi-natural habitats (SNHs) are becoming increasingly scarce in modern agricultural landscapes. This may reduce natural ecosystem services such as pest control with its putatively positive effect on crop production. In agreement with other studies, we recently reported wheat yield reductions at field borders which were linked to the type of SNH and the distance to the border. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Comparative Study of a Modified Sub-Tenon's Capsule Injection of Triamcinolone Acetonide and the Intravenous Infusion of Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Retinitis Pigmentosa Combined With Macular Edema.

Front Pharmacol 2021 27;12:694225. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China.

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a hereditary retinal degenerative disease leading to eventual blindness. When RP is combined with macular edema (ME), the visual impairment further worsens. We compared a modified sub-Tenon's capsule injection of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) and the intravenous infusion of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) in the treatment of RP combined with ME (RP-ME) to assess their safety and efficacy in eliminating ME and restoring visual function. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Cross-modal semantic autoencoder with embedding consensus.

Sci Rep 2021 Oct 13;11(1):20319. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Big Data and Brain Computing and NLSDE, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191, China.

Cross-modal retrieval has become a topic of popularity, since multi-data is heterogeneous and the similarities between different forms of information are worthy of attention. Traditional single-modal methods reconstruct the original information and lack of considering the semantic similarity between different data. In this work, a cross-modal semantic autoencoder with embedding consensus (CSAEC) is proposed, mapping the original data to a low-dimensional shared space to retain semantic information. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Facile Fabrication of Anisotropic Multicompartmental Microfibers Using Charge Reversal Electrohydrodynamic Co-jetting.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2021 Oct 13:e2100560. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, College of Engineering, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro (st), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34134, Republic of Korea.

Anisotropic microstructures are utilized in various fields owing to their unique properties, such as reversible shape transitions or on-demand and sequential release of drug combinations. In this study, anisotropic multicompartmental microfibers composed of different polymers are prepared via charge reversal electrohydrodynamic (EHD) co-jetting. The combination of various polymers, such as thermoplastic polyurethane, poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide), poly(vinyl cinnamate), and poly(methyl methacrylate), results in microfibers with distinct compositional boundaries. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

dNTPpoolDB: a manually curated database of experimentally determined dNTP pools and pool changes in biological samples.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Institute of Enzymology, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Budapest, H-1117, Hungary.

Stimulated by the growing interest in the role of dNTP pools in physiological and malignant processes, we established dNTPpoolDB, the database that offers access to quantitative data on dNTP pools from a wide range of species, experimental and developmental conditions (https://dntppool.org/). The database includes measured absolute or relative cellular levels of the four canonical building blocks of DNA and of exotic dNTPs, as well. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Machine learning enabling prediction of the bond dissociation enthalpy of hypervalent iodine from SMILES.

Sci Rep 2021 Oct 12;11(1):20207. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Machine learning to create models on the basis of big data enables predictions from new input data. Many tasks formerly performed by humans can now be achieved by machine learning algorithms in various fields, including scientific areas. Hypervalent iodine compounds (HVIs) have long been applied as useful reactive molecules. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Coupling complementary strategy to flexible graph neural network for quick discovery of coformer in diverse co-crystal materials.

Nat Commun 2021 Oct 12;12(1):5950. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064, China.

Cocrystal engineering have been widely applied in pharmaceutical, chemistry and material fields. However, how to effectively choose coformer has been a challenging task on experiments. Here we develop a graph neural network (GNN) based deep learning framework to quickly predict formation of the cocrystal. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

CirPred, the first structure modeling and linker design system for circularly permuted proteins.

BMC Bioinformatics 2021 Oct 12;22(Suppl 10):494. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Institute of Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.

Background: This work aims to help develop new protein engineering techniques based on a structural rearrangement phenomenon called circular permutation (CP), equivalent to connecting the native termini of a protein followed by creating new termini at another site. Although CP has been applied in many fields, its implementation is still costly because of inevitable trials and errors.

Results: Here we present CirPred, a structure modeling and termini linker design method for circularly permuted proteins. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

The Evidence of the Bystander Effect after Bleomycin Electrotransfer and Irreversible Electroporation.

Molecules 2021 Oct 2;26(19). Epub 2021 Oct 2.

Biophysical Research Group, Vytautas Magnus University, Vileikos st. 844404, LT-44001 Kaunas, Lithuania.

One of current applications of electroporation is electrochemotherapy and electroablation for local cancer treatment. Both of these electroporation modalities share some similarities with radiation therapy, one of which could be the bystander effect. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of the bystander effect following these electroporation-based treatments. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Statistical Analysis of Chemical Element Compositions in Food Science: Problems and Possibilities.

Molecules 2021 Sep 23;26(19). Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Data-Analysis OG, AT-1110 Vienna, Austria.

In recent years, many analyses have been carried out to investigate the chemical components of food data. However, studies rarely consider the compositional pitfalls of such analyses. This is problematic as it may lead to arbitrary results when non-compositional statistical analysis is applied to compositional datasets. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

221 K Local Photothermal Heating in a Si Plasmonic Waveguide Loaded with a Co Thin Film.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Oct 6;21(19). Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan.

Photothermal heaters are important devices for optical switches and memories based on the thermo-optic/magneto-optic effect and phase change materials. We demonstrated photothermal heating in Si plasmonic waveguides loaded with Co thin films by measuring the resistance change upon inputting transverse-magnetic (TM) mode light. Temperature rise is proportional to the light intensity with clear polarization dependence. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Motion Magnification of Vibration Image in Estimation of Technical Object Condition-Review.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Sep 30;21(19). Epub 2021 Sep 30.

I-Care Polska Sp. z o.o., ul. Puszkarska 9, 30-644 Kraków, Poland.

One of the most important features of the proper operation of technical objects is monitoring the vibrations of their mechanical components. The currently significant proportion of the research methods in this regard includes a group of research methods based on the conversion of vibrations using sensors providing data from individual locations. In parallel with the continuous improvement of these tools, new methods for acquiring information on the condition of the object have emerged due to the rapid development of visual systems. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Recent Advances in Biomedical Photonic Sensors: A Focus on Optical-Fibre-Based Sensing.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Sep 28;21(19). Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Photonics Engineering Group, University of Cantabria, 39005 Santander, Spain.

In this invited review, we provide an overview of the recent advances in biomedical photonic sensors within the last five years. This review is focused on works using optical-fibre technology, employing diverse optical fibres, sensing techniques, and configurations applied in several medical fields. We identified technical innovations and advancements with increased implementations of optical-fibre sensors, multiparameter sensors, and control systems in real applications. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Magnetoelectric Response of Laminated Cantilevers Comprising a Magnetoactive Elastomer and a Piezoelectric Polymer, in Pulsed Uniform Magnetic Fields.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Sep 24;21(19). Epub 2021 Sep 24.

East Bavarian Centre for Intelligent Materials (EBACIM), Ostbayerische Technische Hochschule (OTH) Regensburg, Seybothstr. 2, D-93053 Regensburg, Germany.

The voltage response to pulsed uniform magnetic fields and the accompanying bending deformations of laminated cantilever structures are investigated experimentally in detail. The structures comprise a magnetoactive elastomer (MAE) slab and a commercially available piezoelectric polymer multilayer. The magnetic field is applied vertically and the laminated structures are customarily fixed in the horizontal plane or, alternatively, slightly tilted upwards or downwards. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Synthesis of Magnetite Nanoparticles through a Lab-On-Chip Device.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Oct 8;14(19). Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 011061 Bucharest, Romania.

Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) represent one of the most intensively studied types of iron oxide nanoparticles in various fields, including biomedicine, pharmaceutics, bioengineering, and industry. Since their properties in terms of size, shape, and surface charge significantly affects their efficiency towards the envisaged application, it is fundamentally important to develop a new synthesis route that allows for the control and modulation of the nanoparticle features. In this context, the aim of the present study was to develop a new method for the synthesis of MNPs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Validity and Applicability of the Scaling Effects for Low Velocity Impact on Composite Plates.

Authors:
Michele Guida

Materials (Basel) 2021 Oct 8;14(19). Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Industrial Engineering, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, 80125 Napoli, Italy.

As a result of the increasing use of composite materials in engineering fields, the study of the effect of scale on impact performance is essential for the design of large-scale structures. The purpose of this study was to develop a method capable of identifying a corrective factor that can be used to evaluate based on similarity theory the behavior of panels with the same material but with scaled geometry when subjected to low velocity impact. The field of investigation was applied based on the experimental results present in the bibliography and that refer to two flat sheets differing only in geometric scale and made by overlapping carbon/carbon unidirectional pre-impregnated epoxy 914 C-TS (6K) -5 34% sheets. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Changes in Permittivity of the Piezoelectric Material PVDF as Functions of the Electrical Field and Temperature.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Oct 1;14(19). Epub 2021 Oct 1.

School of Engineering and Applied Science, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA.

Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) is becoming a widely used piezoelectric material because of its flexibility, low cost, light weight, and biocompatibility. Its electronic properties, such as its permittivity, can be affected by material crystal structure variations, which also greatly impact the material's application. It is known that external stress and electrical fields can alter the crystal structure of piezoelectric material. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Evidence of Skyrmion-Tube Mediated Magnetization Reversal in Modulated Nanowires.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Sep 29;14(19). Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada and Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Avda. Francisco Tomás y Valiente 7, 28049 Madrid, Spain.

Magnetic nanowires, conceived as individual building blocks for spintronic devices, constitute a well-suited model to design and study magnetization reversal processes, or to tackle fundamental questions, such as the presence of topologically protected magnetization textures under particular conditions. Recently, a skyrmion-tube mediated magnetization reversal process was theoretically reported in diameter modulated cylindrical nanowires. In these nanowires, a vortex nucleates at the end of the segments with larger diameter and propagates, resulting in a first switching of the nanowire core magnetization at small fields. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Prediction of Crack Initiation Based on Energy Storage Rate during Low-Cycle Fatigue of Austenitic Stainless Steel.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Sep 24;14(19). Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawińskiego St. 5B, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland.

The low-cycle deformation of 304L austenitic stainless steel was examined in terms of energy conversion. Specimens were subjected to cyclic loading at the frequency of 2 Hz. The loading process was carried out in a hybrid strain-stress manner. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

A Novel Cre/-Based Genetic Tool for Repeated, Targeted and Markerless Gene Integration in .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Oct 4;22(19). Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, The Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China.

The unconventional yeast is extensively applied in bioproduction fields owing to its excellent metabolite and protein production ability. Nonetheless, utilization of this promising host is still restricted by the limited availability of precise and effective gene integration tools. In this study, a novel and efficient genetic tool was developed for targeted, repeated, and markerless gene integration based on Cre/ site-specific recombination system. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Recent Advances in Metal-Based Magnetic Composites as High-Efficiency Candidates for Ultrasound-Assisted Effects in Cancer Therapy.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Sep 28;22(19). Epub 2021 Sep 28.

State Key Laboratory of Ultrasound in Medicine and Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China.

Metal-based magnetic materials have been used in different fields due to their particular physical or chemical properties. The original magnetic properties can be influenced by the composition of constituent metals. As utilized in different application fields, such as imaging monitoring, thermal treatment, and combined integration in cancer therapies, fabricated metal-based magnetic materials can be doped with target metal elements in research. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Organoid Models for Cancer Research-From Bed to Bench Side and Back.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Sep 26;13(19). Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Department of General, Visceral, Transplantation, Vascular and Pediatric Surgery, University Hospital, University of Wuerzburg, Oberduerrbacherstr. 6, 97080 Wuerzburg, Germany.

Organoids are a new 3D ex vivo culture system that have been applied in various fields of biomedical research. First isolated from the murine small intestine, they have since been established from a wide range of organs and tissues, both in healthy and diseased states. Organoids genetically, functionally and phenotypically retain the characteristics of their tissue of origin even after multiple passages, making them a valuable tool in studying various physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Biological Impact of Target Fragments on Proton Treatment Plans: An Analysis Based on the Current Cross-Section Data and a Full Mixed Field Approach.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Sep 24;13(19). Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Trento Institute for Fundamental Physics and Applications (TIFPA), National Institute for Nuclear Physics, (INFN), 38123 Trento, Italy.

Clinical routine in proton therapy currently neglects the radiobiological impact of nuclear target fragments generated by proton beams. This is partially due to the difficult characterization of the irradiation field. The detection of low energetic fragments, secondary protons and fragments, is in fact challenging due to their very short range. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

High-accuracy quantitative principle of a new compact digital PCR equipment: Lab On An Array.

Genomics Inform 2021 Sep 30;19(3):e34. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Bioconvergence Engineering, Dankook University, Yongin 16890, Korea.

Digital PCR (dPCR) is the third-generation PCR that enables real-time absolute quantification without reference materials. Recently, global diagnosis companies have developed new dPCR equipment. In line with the development, the Lab On An Array (LOAA) dPCR analyzer (Optolane) was launched last year. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021