565 results match your criteria applied archaeological

A"Dirty" Footprint: Macroinvertebrate diversity in Amazonian Anthropic Soils.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, Santarém, PA, 68020-640, Brazil.

Amazonian rainforests, once thought to be pristine wilderness, are increasingly known to have been widely inhabited, modified, and managed prior to European arrival, by human populations with diverse cultural backgrounds. Amazonian Dark Earths (ADEs) are fertile soils found throughout the Amazon Basin, created by pre-Columbian societies with sedentary habits. Much is known about the chemistry of these soils, yet their zoology has been neglected. Read More

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Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis of organic archaeological materials: background paper.

Anal Methods 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is ideally suited to the cultural heritage sector due to the ability to apply it minimally or non-destructively with limited sample preparation, fast analysis times (spectra can be obtained in a matter of minutes), relatively low cost, and relative ease of use. FTIR has been applied to answer a range of archaeological research questions through analysis of both organic and inorganic materials. Examples include determining the firing temperatures of archaeological clays or identifying types of textile. Read More

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Fe K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of corrosion phases of archaeological iron: results, limitations, and the need for complementary techniques.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Mary Rose Trust, College Road, HM Naval Base, Portsmouth, PO1 3LX, UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND.

Data analysis methods for iron X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) can provide extensive information about the oxidation state and co-ordination of an Fe-species. However, the extent to which techniques developed using a single-phase iron sample may be applied to complex, mixed-phase samples formed under real-world conditions is not clear. This work uses a combination of pre-edge fitting and linear combination analysis (LCA) to characterise the near edge region of the X-ray absorption spectrum (XANES) for a set of archaeological iron corrosion samples from a collection of cast iron cannon shot excavated from the Mary Rose shipwreck and compares the data with phase compositions determined by Synchrotron X-ray Powder Diffraction (SXPD). Read More

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Zinc isotopes from archaeological bones provide reliable tropic level information for marine mammals.

Commun Biol 2021 Jun 3;4(1):683. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

In marine ecology, dietary interpretations of faunal assemblages often rely on nitrogen isotopes as the main or only applicable trophic level tracer. We investigate the geographic variability and trophic level isotopic discrimination factors of bone zinc Zn/Zn ratios (δZn value) and compared it to collagen nitrogen and carbon stable isotope (δN and δC) values. Focusing on ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from multiple Arctic archaeological sites, we investigate trophic interactions between predator and prey over a broad geographic area. Read More

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Ancient DNA, lipid biomarkers and palaeoecological evidence reveals construction and life on early medieval lake settlements.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 3;11(1):11807. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Tromsø Museum, Artic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Direct evidence of ancient human occupation is typically established through archaeological excavation. Excavations are costly and destructive, and practically impossible in some lake and wetland environments. We present here an alternative approach, providing direct evidence from lake sediments using DNA metabarcoding, steroid lipid biomarkers (bile acids) and from traditional environmental analyses. Read More

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Direct dating of lithic surface artifacts using luminescence.

Sci Adv 2021 Jun 2;7(23). Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Institute for Mineralogy and Petrography, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

Archaeological surface assemblages composed of lithic scatters comprise a large proportion of the archaeological record. Dating such surface artifacts has remained inherently difficult owing to the dynamic nature of Earth-surface processes affecting these assemblages and because no satisfactory chronometric dating technique exists that can be directly applied to constrain the timing of artifact manufacture, discard, and thus human use of the landscape. Here, we present a dating approach based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL)-OSL rock-surface burial dating-and apply it to a lithic surface scatter in Tibet. Read More

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Bone Diagenesis in Short Timescales: Insights from an Exploratory Proteomic Analysis.

Biology (Basel) 2021 May 23;10(6). Epub 2021 May 23.

School of Applied Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1 3DH, UK.

The evaluation of bone diagenetic phenomena in archaeological timescales has a long history; however, little is known about the origins of the microbes driving bone diagenesis, nor about the extent of bone diagenesis in short timeframes-such as in forensic contexts. Previously, the analysis of non-collagenous proteins (NCPs) through bottom-up proteomics revealed the presence of potential biomarkers useful in estimating the post-mortem interval (PMI). However, there is still a great need for enhancing the understanding of the diagenetic processes taking place in forensic timeframes, and to clarify whether proteomic analyses can help to develop better models for estimating PMI reliably. Read More

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Soluble Salts Quantitative Characterization and Thermodynamic Modeling on Roman Bricks to Assess the Origin of Their Formation.

Molecules 2021 May 12;26(10). Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, UPV-EHU, 48080 Bilbao, Spain.

The environmental weathering and the formation of efflorescences on the brick walls are studied at the "Casa di Diana" Mithraeum at Ostia Antica archaeological site. Previous studies on subsoil, bedrock, hydrological systems and environmental conditions, and new ion chromatography analysis combined with ECOS-RUNSALT and Medusa-Hydra thermodynamic modelling software, had allowed us to identify the subsoil contamination related to soluble salts. The atmospheric acidic gases, CO and SO, are determined as the main salt weathering species. Read More

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Chemometrics and elemental mapping by portable LIBS to identify the impact of volcanogenic and non-volcanogenic degradation sources on the mural paintings of Pompeii.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Jul 3;1168:338565. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain. Electronic address:

Crystallization of soluble salts is a common degradation phenomenon that threatens the mural paintings of Pompeii. There are many elements that contribute to the crystallization of salts on the walls of this archaeological site. Notably, the leachates of the pyroclastic materials ejected in 79 AD by Mount Vesuvius and local groundwater, rich in ions from the erosion of volcanic rocks. Read More

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Identifying draught cattle in the past: Lessons from large-scale analysis of archaeological datasets.

Int J Paleopathol 2021 Jun 24;33:258-269. Epub 2021 May 24.

School of Archaeology, 1 South Parks Road, Oxford University, Oxford, OX13TG, United Kingdom.

Purpose: Improve understanding of the links between biological variables (sex, body size and anatomical position) and adaptive remodelling of autopodia, and the identification of traction use in the archaeological record.

Methods: A modified version of the recording system for identifying draught cattle in the archaeological record (Bartosiewicz et al., 1997) was applied to a sample of 1509 bones from six sites from medieval England. Read More

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A standardised classification scheme for the Mid-Holocene Toalean artefacts of South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(5):e0251138. Epub 2021 May 26.

Australian Research Centre for Human Evolution, School of Environment and Science, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

The archaeology of Sulawesi is important for developing an understanding of human dispersal and occupation of central Island Southeast Asia. Through over a century of archaeological work, multiple human populations in the southwestern region of Sulawesi have been identified, the most well-documented being that of the Mid- to Late Holocene 'Toalean' technological period. Archaeological models for this period describe a population with a strong cultural identity, subdivided into groups living on the coastal plains around Maros as well as dispersed upland forest dwellers, hunting endemic wildlife with bow-and-arrow technology. Read More

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Molecular genetic survey and forensic characterization of Chinese Mongolians via the 47 autosomal insertion/deletion marker.

Genomics 2021 May 19;113(4):2199-2210. Epub 2021 May 19.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Forensic Medicine, Academy of Forensic Sciences, Ministry of Justice, Shanghai 200063, China; Institute of Forensic Medicine, West China School of Basic Science and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China. Electronic address:

The Mongolians are mainly distributed in the modern state of Mongolia, China, Russia, and other countries. While the historic and archaeological records of the rise and fall of the Mongol Empire are well documented, little has been known about the genetic legacy of modern Mongolian populations. Here, 611 Mongolian individuals from Hohhot, Hulunbuir, and Ordos of China were genotyped via the 47 Insertion/Deletion markers. Read More

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Analysis of genomic DNA from medieval plague victims suggests long-term effect of Yersinia pestis on human immunity genes.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Kahlaische Strasse 10, 07745 Jena, Germany.

Pathogens and associated outbreaks of infectious disease exert selective pressure on human populations, and any changes in allele frequencies that result may be especially evident for genes involved in immunity. In this regard, the 1346-1353 Yersinia pestis-caused Black Death pandemic, with continued plague outbreaks spanning several hundred years, is one of the most devastating recorded in human history. To investigate the potential impact of Y. Read More

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Harvesting strategies as evidence for 4000 years of camas () management in the North American Columbia Plateau.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Apr 14;8(4):202213. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Anthropology, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gillman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

One of the greatest archaeological enigmas is in understanding the role of decision-making, intentionality and interventions in plant life cycles by foraging peoples in transitions to and from low-level food production practices. We bring together archaeological, palaeoclimatological and botanical data to explore relationships over the past 4000 years between people and camas (), a perennial geophyte with an edible bulb common across the North American Pacific Northwest. In this region throughout the late Holocene, people began experimenting with selective harvesting practices through targeting sexually mature bulbs by 3500 cal BP, with bulb harvesting practices akin to ethnographic descriptions firmly established by 1000 cal BP. Read More

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Evaluating machine learning techniques for archaeological lithic sourcing: a case study of flint in Britain.

Sci Rep 2021 May 13;11(1):10197. Epub 2021 May 13.

Norris Scientific, PO Box 812, Kingston, TAS, 7050, Australia.

It is 50 years since Sieveking et al. published their pioneering research in Nature on the geochemical analysis of artefacts from Neolithic flint mines in southern Britain. In the decades since, geochemical techniques to source stone artefacts have flourished globally, with a renaissance in recent years from new instrumentation, data analysis, and machine learning techniques. Read More

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Do computed tomography findings agree with traditional osteological examination? The case of porous cranial lesions.

Int J Paleopathol 2021 Jun 10;33:209-219. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Anthropology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106, USA.

Objective: The current study evaluates the feasibility of using clinical cranial computed tomography (CT) scans for assessing the presence and morphology of porous cranial lesions (cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis).

Methods: Observers (n = 4) conducted three independent evaluations of porous cranial lesions based on photographs, 2-D CT, and 3-D CT scans of archaeological crania. Evaluations of the crania from each viewing scenario were compared to findings from direct macroscopic observation. Read More

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Diachronic modeling of the population within the medieval Greater Angkor Region settlement complex.

Sci Adv 2021 May 7;7(19). Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Archaeology, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

Angkor is one of the world's largest premodern settlement complexes (9th to 15th centuries CE), but to date, no comprehensive demographic study has been completed, and key aspects of its population and demographic history remain unknown. Here, we combine lidar, archaeological excavation data, radiocarbon dates, and machine learning algorithms to create maps that model the development of the city and its population growth through time. We conclude that the Greater Angkor Region was home to approximately 700,000 to 900,000 inhabitants at its apogee in the 13th century CE. Read More

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Challenging definitions and diagnostic approaches for ancient rare diseases: The case of poliomyelitis.

Int J Paleopathol 2021 Jun 21;33:113-127. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Anthropology, Natural History Museum Vienna, Austria.

Objective: This paper aims to contribute to the definition of ancient rare diseases in skeletons displaying pathologies associated with paralysis. It uses a new suite of methods, which can be applied to challenging cases of possible paralysis in archaeologically-derived human skeletal material, specifically applied to the identification of poliomyelitis.

Materials: An adult male skeleton from Roman Halbturn, Austria. Read More

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Technical Note: Post-burial alteration of bones: Quantitative characterization with solid-state H MAS NMR.

Forensic Sci Int 2021 Apr 10;323:110783. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1001 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

The identification of markers of the modifications occurring in human bones after death and of the sedimentary and post-sedimentary processes affecting their state of preservation, is of interest for several scientific disciplines. A new index, obtained from spectral deconvolution of the H MAS NMR spectra of bones, relating the number of organic protons to the amount of hydrogen nuclei in the OH groups of bioapatite, is proposed as indicator of the state of preservation of the organic fraction. In the osteological material from three different archaeological sites, this index resulted positively correlated with the extent of collagen loss derived from infrared spectroscopy. Read More

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Unearthing Neanderthal population history using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from cave sediments.

Science 2021 05 15;372(6542). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max-Planck-Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

Bones and teeth are important sources of Pleistocene hominin DNA, but are rarely recovered at archaeological sites. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been retrieved from cave sediments but provides limited value for studying population relationships. We therefore developed methods for the enrichment and analysis of nuclear DNA from sediments and applied them to cave deposits in western Europe and southern Siberia dated to between 200,000 and 50,000 years ago. Read More

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Population genomic, climatic and anthropogenic evidence suggest the role of human forces in endangerment of green peafowl ().

Proc Biol Sci 2021 04 7;288(1948):20210073. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, People's Republic of China.

Both anthropogenic impacts and historical climate change could contribute to population decline and species extinction, but their relative importance is still unclear. Emerging approaches based on genomic, climatic and anthropogenic data provide a promising analytical framework to address this question. This study applied such an integrative approach to examine potential drivers for the endangerment of the green peafowl (). Read More

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The Method of Local Restriction: in search of potential great ape culture-dependent forms.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Early Prehistory and Quaternary Ecology, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Humans possess a perhaps unique type of culture among primates called cumulative culture. In this type of culture, behavioural forms cumulate changes over time, which increases their complexity and/or efficiency, eventually making these forms culture-dependent. As changes cumulate, culture-dependent forms become causally opaque, preventing the overall behavioural form from being acquired by individuals on their own; in other words, culture-dependent forms must be copied between individuals and across generations. Read More

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Reproducible, portable, and efficient ancient genome reconstruction with nf-core/eager.

PeerJ 2021 16;9:e10947. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany.

The broadening utilisation of ancient DNA to address archaeological, palaeontological, and biological questions is resulting in a rising diversity in the size of laboratories and scale of analyses being performed. In the context of this heterogeneous landscape, we present an advanced, and entirely redesigned and extended version of the EAGER pipeline for the analysis of ancient genomic data. This Nextflow pipeline aims to address three main themes: accessibility and adaptability to different computing configurations, reproducibility to ensure robust analytical standards, and updating the pipeline to the latest routine ancient genomic practices. Read More

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Refining the methods for identifying draught cattle in the archaeological record: Lessons from the semi-feral herd at Chillingham Park.

Int J Paleopathol 2021 Jun 24;33:84-93. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Classics, Ancient History and Archaeology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK. Electronic address:

Objective: This study provides a baseline of pathological and sub-pathological changes in the lower-limb bones of a semi-feral herd of domestic cattle. The purpose is to refine an existing method for identifying the use of cattle for traction using zooarchaeological evidence.

Methods: A published recording system for identifying draught cattle was applied to a sample of 15 individuals from Chillingham Park, Northumberland. Read More

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A West African Middle Stone Age site dated to the beginning of MIS 5: Archaeology, chronology, and paleoenvironment of the Ravin Blanc I (eastern Senegal).

J Hum Evol 2021 May 19;154:102952. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Laboratory of Archaeology and Population in Africa, Anthropology Unit, Department of Genetics and Evolution, University of Geneva, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 30, 1205 Genève, Switzerland.

The Ravin Blanc I archaeological occurrence, dated to MIS 5, provides unprecedented data on the Middle Stone Age (MSA) of West Africa since well-contextualized archaeological sites pre-dating MIS 4/3 are extremely rare for this region. The combined approach on geomorphology, phytolith analysis, and OSL date estimations offers a solid framework for the MSA industry comprised in the Ravin Blanc I sedimentary sequence. The paleoenvironmental reconstruction further emphasizes on the local effects of the global increase in moisture characterizing the beginning of the Upper Pleistocene as well as the later shift to more arid conditions. Read More

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Revisiting metric sex estimation of burnt human remains via supervised learning using a reference collection of modern identified cremated individuals (Knoxville, USA).

Am J Phys Anthropol 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Maritime Cultures Research Institute, Department of History, Archaeology, Arts, Philosophy and Ethics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.

Objectives: This study aims to increase the rate of correctly sexed calcined individuals from archaeological and forensic contexts. This is achieved by evaluating sexual dimorphism of commonly used and new skeletal elements via uni- and multi-variate metric trait analyses.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-two skeletal traits were evaluated in 86 individuals from the William M. Read More

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Genome-wide analysis of nearly all the victims of a 6200 year old massacre.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(3):e0247332. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Paleogenomic and bioanthropological studies of ancient massacres have highlighted sites where the victims were male and plausibly died all in battle, or were executed members of the same family as might be expected from a killing intentionally directed at subsets of a community, or where the massacred individuals were plausibly members of a migrant community in conflict with previously established groups, or where there was evidence that the killing was part of a religious ritual. Here we provide evidence of killing on a massive scale in prehistory that was not directed to a specific family, based on genome-wide ancient DNA for 38 of the 41 documented victims of a 6,200 year old massacre in Potočani, Croatia and combining our results with bioanthropological data. We highlight three results: (i) the majority of individuals were unrelated and instead were a sample of what was clearly a large farming population, (ii) the ancestry of the individuals was homogenous which makes it unlikely that the massacre was linked to the arrival of new genetic ancestry, and (iii) there were approximately equal numbers of males and females. Read More

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Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Classification of 12 Fennel ( Miller) Varieties Based on Their Aroma Profiles and Estragole Levels as Analyzed Using Chemometric Tools.

ACS Omega 2021 Mar 12;6(8):5775-5785. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Pharmacognosy Department, College of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El Aini St., P.B. 11562, Cairo 12613, Egypt.

Fennel ( Miller) is a popular aromatic plant native to the Mediterranean basin and cultivated worldwide that is valued for the nutritional and health benefits of its fruits. Headspace solid-phase microextraction of 12 fennel accessions of cultivated ( subsp. ) and wild forms ( subsp. Read More

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Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) and normalized difference image (NDI) data processing: An advanced method to map collagen in archaeological bones.

Talanta 2021 May 26;226:122126. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

University of Bologna, Department of Chemistry "G. Ciamician", Ravenna Campus, Via Guaccimanni, 42, 48121, Ravenna, Italy.

In the present study, an innovative and highly efficient near-infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) method is proposed to provide spectral maps able to reveal collagen distribution in large-size bones, also offering semi-quantitative estimations. A recently introduced method for the construction of chemical maps, based on Normalized Difference Images (NDI), is declined in an innovative approach, through the exploitation of the NDI values computed for each pixel of the hyperspectral image to localize collagen and to extract information on its content by a direct comparison with known reference samples. The developed approach addresses an urgent issue of the analytical chemistry applied to bioarcheology researches, which rely on well-preserved collagen in bones to obtain key information on chronology, paleoecology and taxonomy. Read More

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Multipronged dental analyses reveal dietary differences in last foragers and first farmers at Grotta Continenza, central Italy (15,500-7000 BP).

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 19;11(1):4261. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Maxillo-Facial Sciences, DANTE - Diet and Ancient Technology Laboratory, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

This paper provides results from a suite of analyses made on human dental material from the Late Palaeolithic to Neolithic strata of the cave site of Grotta Continenza situated in the Fucino Basin of the Abruzzo region of central Italy. The available human remains from this site provide a unique possibility to study ways in which forager versus farmer lifeways affected human odonto-skeletal remains. The main aim of our study is to understand palaeodietary patterns and their changes over time as reflected in teeth. Read More

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February 2021