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High spatial resolution fluorescence imagery for optimized pest management within a Huanglongbing-infected citrus grove.

Phytopathology 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Colorado State University, 3447, 1170 Campus Delivery, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States, 80523-1170.

Huanglongbing (HLB), or citrus greening disease, has significantly decreased citrus production all over the world. The disease management currently depends on the efficient application and adequate distribution of insecticides to reduce the density of the disease vector, the Asian citrus psyllid. Here, we use a novel fluorescent-based method to evaluate insecticide distribution in an HLB-infected citrus grove in Florida. Read More

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September 2021

Mobile App for Parental Empowerment for Caregivers of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Prospective Open Trial.

JMIR Ment Health 2021 Sep 15;8(9):e27803. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Psychiatry, Hôpital St Antoine, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.

Background: Conflicting data emerge from literature regarding the actual use of smartphone apps in medicine; some considered the introduction of smartphone apps in medicine to be a breakthrough, while others suggested that, in real-life, the use of smartphone apps in medicine is disappointingly low. Yet, digital tools become more present in medicine daily. To empower parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder, we developed the Smartautism smartphone app, which asks questions and provides feedback, using a screen with simple curves. Read More

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September 2021

A Multiplex Noninvasive Salivary Antibody Assay for SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Its Application in a Population-Based Survey by Mail.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Sep 15:e0069321. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agencygrid.418698.a, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Noninvasive salivary antibody immunoassays can enable low-cost epidemiological surveillance of infections. This study involved developing and validating a multiplex suspension immunoassay on the Luminex platform to measure immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleocapsid and spike (S) proteins, and the spike protein's S1 and S2 subunits and receptor binding domain. Multiple versions of these recombinant proteins acquired from commercial and noncommercial sources were evaluated. Read More

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September 2021

Toward Convergence in Free Energy Calculations for Protein Conformational Changes: A Case Study on the Thin Gate of Mhp1 Transporter.

J Chem Theory Comput 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Physics, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, 402 N. Blackford Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, United States.

It has been challenging to obtain reliable free energies for protein conformational changes from all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, despite the availability of many enhanced sampling techniques. To alleviate the difficulties associated with the enormous complexity of the conformational space, here we propose a few practical strategies for such calculations, including (1) a stringent method to examine convergence by comparing independent simulations starting from different initial coordinates, (2) adoption of multistep schemes in which the complete conformational change consists of multiple transition steps, each sampled using a distinct reaction coordinate, and (3) application of boundary restraints to simplify the conformational space. We demonstrate these strategies on the conformational changes between the outward-facing and outward-occluded states of the Mhp1 membrane transporter, obtaining the equilibrium thermodynamics of the relevant metastable states, the kinetic rates between these states, and the reactive trajectories that reveal the atomic details of spontaneous transitions. Read More

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September 2021

Efficacy of in situ active capping Cd highly contaminated sediments with nano-FeO modified biochar.

Environ Pollut 2021 Sep 7;290:118134. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Research Center for Coastal Environment Engineering Technology of Shandong Province, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Effective remediation of Cd polluted sediment is imperative for its potential damages to aquatic ecosystem. Biochar (BC) and nano-FeO modified BC ([email protected]) were conducted to remedy Cd highly contaminated sediments, and their performances, applicable conditions, and mechanisms were investigated. After 60 d capping, both BC and [email protected] capping inhibited Cd release from sediment to overlying water and porewater (reduction rates >99%). Read More

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September 2021

2D/2D FeNi-layered double hydroxide/bimetal-MOFs nanosheets for enhanced photo-Fenton degradation of antibiotics: Performance and synergetic degradation mechanism.

Chemosphere 2021 Sep 1;287(Pt 1):132061. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082, PR China; Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha, 410082, PR China.

The photo-Fenton system exhibits great potential in environmental remediation. However, photo-Fenton process suffers from slow reaction kinetics, which is caused by the low yield of available charge carriers and active radicals. In this work, the 2D/2D FeNi-layered double hydroxide/bimetal-organic frameworks nanosheets (FeNi-LDH/BMNSs) photocatalyst was fabricated via an in-situ semi-sacrificial template strategy. Read More

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September 2021

Review of diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for multiple myeloma and its precursors (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smouldering myeloma).

Skeletal Radiol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University Hospital and Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

The last decades, increasing research has been conducted on dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI techniques in multiple myeloma and its precursors. Apart from anatomical sequences which are prone to interpretation errors due to anatomical variants, other pathologies and subjective evaluation of signal intensities, dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI provide additional information on microenvironmental changes in bone marrow and are helpful in the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of plasma cell dyscrasias. Diffusion-weighted imaging provides information on diffusion (restriction) of water molecules in bone marrow and in malignant infiltration. Read More

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September 2021

Training in intraoperative neuromonitoring of recurrent laryngeal nerves reduces the risk of their injury during thyroid surgery.

Arch Med Sci 2021 7;17(5):1294-1302. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

1 Department of General and Endocrinological Surgery, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland.

Introduction: Even though incidence of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (RLNP) is low, it affects importantly the quality of life of patients and remains one of main medicolegal litigation problems in surgery. Intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) has become widely accepted tool helping in recurrent laryngeal nerve identification, however no clear association of IONM with RLNP rate has been demonstrated. The aim of our study was to assess whether training in IONM influences rates of RNLP after thyroid surgery as an independent factor. Read More

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Application of Spatial Analysis to Identify the Location of Entrepreneurs Supported by the Regional Government in Andalusia (Spain).

Appl Spat Anal Policy 2021 Sep 9:1-26. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Deparment of Quantitative Methods, Universidad Loyola Andalucía, Córdoba, Spain.

In this work, spatial analysis was used to identify the locations of entrepreneurs supported by the regional government of Andalusia (Spain). The objective of this research is to study the effectiveness of the support work for entrepreneurship carried out by the Andalusians Entrepreneurship Centres (CADEs) in the autonomous community. As a first approach to this objective, the geographical situation of the supported entrepreneurs is determined, and how that situation influences the support for entrepreneurship is analysed. Read More

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September 2021

Expanding the toolbox: another auxotrophic marker for targeted gene integrations in Trichoderma reesei.

Fungal Biol Biotechnol 2021 Sep 14;8(1). Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Institute of Chemical, Environmental and Bioscience Engineering, TU Wien, Gumpendorfer Strasse 1a, 1060, Wien, Austria.

Background: The filamentous ascomycete Trichoderma reesei is used for the industrial production of cellulases and holds the promise for heterologous gene expression due to its outstandingly high protein secretion rates and its long-term application in industry and science. A prerequisite for successful heterologous gene expression is the ability to insert a corresponding expression cassette at suitable loci in the genome of T. reesei. Read More

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September 2021

Brachytherapy with Iodine-125 seeds for treatment of portal vein-branch tumor thrombus in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

BMC Cancer 2021 Sep 14;21(1):1020. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Interventional Radiology, The First Hospital of China Medical University, No.155 Nanjing Road, Heping District, Shenyang, 110000, Liaoning, China.

Background: There is currently no widely-accepted consensus for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus. We evaluate the safety and efficacy of ultrasound-guided percutaneous brachytherapy with iodine-125 seeds for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein-branch tumor thrombus (PVBTT).

Methods: Sixty-nine hepatocellular carcinoma patients with PVBTT were enrolled; 34 received transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with iodine-125 seeds implanted in the PVBTT; 35 were treated with TACE alone. Read More

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September 2021

On the cost-effectiveness of insecticide-treated wall liner and indoor residual spraying as additions to insecticide treated bed nets to prevent malaria: findings from cluster randomized trials in Tanzania.

BMC Public Health 2021 Sep 14;21(1):1666. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Brandeis University, Waltham, MA, 02453, USA.

Background: Despite widespread use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and other tools, malaria caused 409,000 deaths worldwide in 2019. While indoor residual spraying (IRS) is an effective supplement, IRS is moderately expensive and logistically challenging. In endemic areas, IRS requires yearly application just before the main rainy season and potential interim reapplications. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of Extracorporeal Shock Waves on Microcirculation and Angiogenesis in the in vivo Wound Model of the Diver Box.

Eur Surg Res 2021 Sep 14:1-10. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Hand Surgery, St. Rochus Hospital Castrop-Rauxel, Castrop-Rauxel, Germany.

Introduction: Extracorporeal shock waves (ESWs) have been shown to have a positive effect on skin wound healing; however, little is known on the regeneration of the microcirculation and angiogenesis as well as the different application modes.

Methods: A total of 40 BALB/c mice were provided with dorsal skin fold chambers and were divided into 3 therapy groups (n = 30) and one control group (n = 10). The 3 therapy groups were treated with shock waves at different pulse rates (500-1,000 pulses/min) and application frequencies (day 0 and day 6 or day 0 only). Read More

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September 2021

STL-seq reveals pause-release and termination kinetics for promoter-proximal paused RNA polymerase II transcripts.

Mol Cell 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA; Institute for Biomolecular Design and Discovery, Yale University, West Haven, CT 06516, USA. Electronic address:

Despite the critical regulatory function of promoter-proximal pausing, the influence of pausing kinetics on transcriptional control remains an active area of investigation. Here, we present Start-TimeLapse-seq (STL-seq), a method that captures the genome-wide kinetics of short, capped RNA turnover and reveals principles of regulation at the pause site. By measuring the rates of release into elongation and premature termination through the inhibition of pause release, we determine that pause-release rates are highly variable, and most promoter-proximal paused RNA polymerase II molecules prematurely terminate (∼80%). Read More

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September 2021

The Ideal Donor Site Dressing: A Comparison of a Chitosan Based Gelling Dressing to Traditional Dressings.

J Burn Care Res 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Surgery, Texas Tech University Health Science Center, Lubbock, Texas, USA.

Introduction: Donor site wound management is critical in split-thickness skin graft surgeries. These sites typically recover in 7-14 days due to the dermal-imbedded keratinocytes that promote skin regeneration. An ideal donor site dressing can help to mitigate pain, reduce infection risk, promote hemostasis, and accelerate healing times. Read More

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September 2021

Perinatal health predictors using artificial intelligence: A review.

Womens Health (Lond) 2021 Jan-Dec;17:17455065211046132

Nuffield Department of Women's and Reproductive Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Advances in public health and medical care have enabled better pregnancy and birth outcomes. The rates of perinatal health indicators such as maternal mortality and morbidity; fetal, neonatal, and infant mortality; low birthweight; and preterm birth have reduced over time. However, they are still a public health concern, and considerable disparities exist within and between countries. Read More

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September 2021

Implementation and design of customized ex vivo machine perfusion. Analysis of its first results.

Artif Organs 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Institute for Biological and Medical Engineering, Schools of Engineering, Medicine and Biological Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

The lack of organs available for transplantation is a global problem. The high mortality rates on the waiting list and the high number of discarded livers are reasons to develop new tools in the preservation and transplantation process. New tools should also be available for low-income countries. Read More

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September 2021

Incidence, Mechanism, and Outcomes of On-Plane Versus Off-Plane Cardiac Arrest in Air Travelers.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Sep 14:e021360. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Division of Emergency Medical Services Public Health - Seattle & King County Seattle WA.

Background Air travel affords an opportunity to evaluate resuscitation performance and outcome in a setting where automated external defibrillators (AEDs) are readily available. Methods and Results The study cohort included people aged ≥18 years with out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) traveling through Seattle-Tacoma International Airport between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2019 treated by emergency medical services (EMS). The primary outcomes were pre-EMS therapies (cardiopulmonary resuscitation, application of AED), return of spontaneous circulation, and survival to hospital discharge. Read More

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September 2021

Transient kinetic analysis for studying ionizations in RNA modification enzyme mechanisms.

Methods Enzymol 2021 3;658:251-275. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Ohio State Biochemistry Program, Center for RNA Biology and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States. Electronic address:

The application of in vitro kinetic tools has the potential to provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms of RNA modification enzymes. Utilizing quantitative biochemical approaches can reveal information about enzyme preferences for specific substrates that are relevant for understanding modification reactions in their biological contexts. Moreover, kinetic tools have been powerfully applied to identify and characterize roles for specific amino acid residues in catalysis, which can be essential information for understanding the molecular basis for human disease, as well as for targeting these enzymes for potential therapeutic interventions. Read More

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Prediction of presynaptic and postsynaptic neurotoxins based on feature extraction.

Math Biosci Eng 2021 Jun;18(5):5943-5958

Yangtze Delta Region Institute (Quzhou), University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Quzhou, China.

A neurotoxin is essentially a protein that mainly acts on the nervous system; it has a selective toxic effect on the central nervous system and neuromuscular nodes, can cause muscle paralysis and respiratory paralysis, and has strong lethality. According to their principle of action, neurotoxins are divided into presynaptic neurotoxins and postsynaptic neurotoxins. Correctly identifying presynaptic and postsynaptic nerve toxins provides important clues for future drug development and the discovery of drug targets. Read More

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Differences in antibiotic prescriptions between direct-to-consumer telehealth and telehealth in the emergency department.

J Telemed Telecare 2021 Sep 13:1357633X211034994. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Emergency Medicine, 12295Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Telemedicine, which allows physicians to assess and treat patients via real-time audiovisual conferencing, is a rapidly growing modality for providing medical care. Antibiotic stewardship is one important measure of care quality, and research on antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory infections in direct-to-consumer telemedicine has yielded mixed results. We compared antibiotic prescription rates for acute respiratory infections in two groups treated by telemedicine: (1) patients treated via a direct-to-consumer telemedicine application and (2) patients treated via telemedicine while physically inside the emergency department. Read More

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September 2021

Reduction in post-operative pancreatic fistula with polyethylene glycol and recombinant human albumin sealant following stapled distal pancreatectomy.

ANZ J Surg 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

The University of Melbourne Department of Surgery, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) remains a significant cause of morbidity in patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy (DP). The use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and recombinant human albumin sealant gel applied to the transected pancreatic margin in DP may reduce POPF rates and was assessed.

Methods: A retrospective single centre cohort study of patient undergoing DP at an Australian high volume tertiary institution between January 2015 and January 2021. Read More

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September 2021

Smart allocation of restoration funds over space and time.

Ecol Appl 2021 Sep 12:e02448. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Institute for Future Environments, Queensland University of Technology, Garden's Point, Queensland, 4000, Australia.

A challenge for natural area managers is to ensure that public expenditure on land restoration is cost-effective, efficient and transparent but this is difficult to achieve in practice, especially when there are many possible projects across multiple years. Here we develop a 'roadmap' for investment in land restoration. It explicitly considers space, time and their interaction, in relation to ecological outcomes and restoration costs (and their variation in time and space). Read More

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September 2021

Application of Surgical Decision Model for Patients With Childhood Cataract: A Study Based on Real World Data.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 26;9:657866. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Reliable validated methods are necessary to verify the performance of diagnosis and therapy-assisted models in clinical practice. However, some validated results have research bias and may not reflect the results of real-world application. In addition, the conduct of clinical trials has executive risks for the indeterminate effectiveness of models and it is challenging to finish validated clinical trials of rare diseases. Read More

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Circular RNA: A potential diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic biomarker for human triple-negative breast cancer.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2021 Dec 2;26:63-80. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130041, China.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which is the most malignant subtype of breast cancer (BC), accounts for 10%-20% of all BC cases. TNBC, which occurs more frequently in young women, is characterized by high rates of cell proliferation and metastasis and poor prognosis. Chemotherapy is the primary systemic therapeutic strategy for TNBC. Read More

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December 2021

WNK3 promotes the invasiveness of glioma cell lines under hypoxia by inducing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

Transl Neurosci 2021 Jan 25;12(1):320-329. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China.

Background: The primary features of malignant glioma include high rates of mortality and recurrence, uncontrollable invasiveness, strong angiogenesis, and widespread hypoxia. The hypoxic microenvironment is an important factor affecting the malignant progression of glioma. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying glioma adaption in hypoxic microenvironments are poorly understood. Read More

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January 2021

Protective effect of extracorporeal membrane pulmonary oxygenation combined with cardiopulmonary resuscitation on post-resuscitation lung injury.

World J Emerg Med 2021 ;12(4):303-308

Department of Emergency Medicine, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100020, China.

Background: Cardiac arrest (CA) is a critical condition that is a concern to healthcare workers. Comparative studies on extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) and conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CCPR) technologies have shown that ECPR is superior to CCPR. However, there is a lack of studies that compare the protective effects of these two resuscitative methods on organs. Read More

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January 2021

Three Sample Estimates of Fraction of Missing Information From Full Information Maximum Likelihood.

Front Psychol 2021 26;12:667802. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Psychology Department, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

In missing data analysis, the reporting of missing rates is insufficient for the readers to determine the impact of missing data on the efficiency of parameter estimates. A more diagnostic measure, the fraction of missing information (FMI), shows how the standard errors of parameter estimates increase from the information loss due to ignorable missing data. FMI is well-known in the multiple imputation literature (Rubin, 1987), but it has only been more recently developed for full information maximum likelihood (Savalei and Rhemtulla, 2012). Read More

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Therapeutic Effects and Molecular Mechanisms of Bioactive Compounds Against Respiratory Diseases: Traditional Chinese Medicine Theory and High-Frequency Use.

Front Pharmacol 2021 27;12:734450. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Jilin Ginseng Academy, Key Laboratory of Active Substances and Biological Mechanisms of Ginseng Efficacy, Ministry of Education, Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Bio-Macromolecules of Chinese Medicine, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, China.

Respiratory diseases, especially the pandemic of respiratory infectious diseases and refractory chronic lung diseases, remain a key clinical issue and research hot spot due to their high prevalence rates and poor prognosis. In this review, we aimed to summarize the recent advances in the therapeutic effects and molecular mechanisms of key common bioactive compounds from Chinese herbal medicine. Based on the theories of traditional Chinese medicine related to lung diseases, we searched several electronic databases to determine the high-frequency Chinese medicines in clinical application. Read More

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Prevention and Treatment of Hardware-Related Infections in Deep Brain Stimulation Surgeries: A Retrospective and Historical Controlled Study.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 26;15:707816. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Beijing Institute of Functional Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Hardware-related infection in deep brain stimulation (DBS) is one of the most commonly reported complications frequently resulting in the removal of implantable pulse generator (IPG).

Objective: The aim of this study was to establish a useful strategy to better prevent and treat those infections and to improve the preservation rates of IPG.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective and historical controlled study of all adult patients (≥18 years old) who had undergone initial DBS implantation at a single center. Read More

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