467 results match your criteria appetite-regulating hormones


Associations between ghrelin and leptin and neural food cue reactivity in a fasted and sated state.

Neuroimage 2021 Jul 7;240:118374. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht Brain Center, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, the Netherlands; Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University, Stippeneng 4, 6708 WE, Wageningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Food cue exposure can trigger eating. Food cue reactivity (FCR) is a conditioned response to food cues and includes physiological responses and activation of reward-related brain areas. FCR can be affected by hunger and weight status. Read More

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Effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors on appetite markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Jul 18;31(8):2507-2511. Epub 2021 May 18.

High Point University Fred Wilson School of Pharmacy, One University Parkway, High Point, NC, 27268, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Glycosuria induced by sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors leads to weight loss and improved diabetes control, but a significant disparity exists between observed and expected weight loss with these medications, hindering clinical effects. This study investigated whether this discrepancy could be explained by compensatory increases in appetite and associated alterations in appetite-regulating hormones.

Methods And Results: This was a prospective single-center observational pilot study. Read More

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Restored TDCA and valine levels imitate the effects of bariatric surgery.

Elife 2021 06 22;10. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Division of Transplant Surgery & Transplant Surgery Research Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, United States.

Background: Obesity is widespread and linked to various co-morbidities. Bariatric surgery has been identified as the only effective treatment, promoting sustained weight loss and the remission of co-morbidities.

Methods: Metabolic profiling was performed on diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, lean mice, and DIO mice that underwent sleeve gastrectomies (SGx). Read More

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Fermented soybean enhances post-meal response in appetite-regulating hormones among Indonesian girls with obesity.

Obes Res Clin Pract 2021 Jul-Aug;15(4):339-344. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Institute of Sports Sciences, College of Kinesiology, University of Taipei, Taipei 11153, Taiwan; Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry, College of Kinesiology, University of Taipei, Taipei 11153, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Objective: To assess the post-meal response in appetite-regulating hormones acyl-ghrelin and insulin after fermented soybean (tempeh) consumption in girls with obesity.

Methods: A randomized counter-balanced crossover study was conducted using a breakfast (307 kcal, protein: 28%, fat: 23%, and carbohydrate: 55%) containing fermented soybean or isocaloric non-fermented soybean among 13 females (aged 18-20 y; BMI 25-30) after an overnight fast. The outcome variables were plasma acyl-ghrelin, insulin, arginine and score of the visual analog scale (VAS) appetite questionnaire. Read More

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Carbohydrate Restriction with or without Exercise Training Improves Blood Pressure and Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight Women.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 May 27;9(6). Epub 2021 May 27.

School of Physical Education and Sports, Macao Polytechnic Institute, Macao 999078, China.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 4-week low-carbohydrate diet (LC) with or without exercise training on cardiometabolic health-related profiles in overweight/obese women.

Methods: Fifty overweight/obese Chinese women (age: 22.2 ± 3. Read More

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Crossing the Antarctica: Exploring the Effects of Appetite-Regulating Hormones and Indicators of Nutrition Status during a 93-Day Solo-Expedition.

Nutrients 2021 May 23;13(6). Epub 2021 May 23.

Department of Psychological Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.

Future deep space astronauts must maintain adequate nutrition despite highly stressful, isolated, confined and dangerous environments. The present case-study investigated appetite regulating hormones, nutrition status, and physical and emotional stress in a space analog condition: an explorer conducting a 93-day unsupported solo crossing of Antarctica. Using the dried blood spot (DBS) method, the subject drew samples of his blood on a regular basis during the expedition. Read More

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Ghrelin and PYY in low-weight females with avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder compared to anorexia nervosa and healthy controls.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Jul 28;129:105243. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States of America; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America.

Background: Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is characterized by restrictive eating and failure to meet nutritional needs but is distinct from anorexia nervosa (AN) because restriction is not motivated by weight/shape concerns. We examined levels of orexigenic ghrelin and anorexigenic peptide YY (PYY) in young females with ARFID, AN and healthy controls (HC).

Methods: 94 females (22 low-weight ARFID, 40 typical/atypical AN, and 32 HC ages 10-22 years) underwent fasting blood draws for total ghrelin and total PYY. Read More

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Current Aspects of the Role of Autoantibodies Directed Against Appetite-Regulating Hormones and the Gut Microbiome in Eating Disorders.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 19;12:613983. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czechia.

The equilibrium and reciprocal actions among appetite-stimulating (orexigenic) and appetite-suppressing (anorexigenic) signals synthesized in the gut, brain, microbiome and adipose tissue (AT), seems to play a pivotal role in the regulation of food intake and feeding behavior, anxiety, and depression. A dysregulation of mechanisms controlling the energy balance may result in eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). AN is a psychiatric disease defined by chronic self-induced extreme dietary restriction leading to an extremely low body weight and adiposity. Read More

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Severe sleep restriction suppresses appetite independent of effects on appetite regulating hormones in healthy young men without obesity.

Physiol Behav 2021 08 30;237:113438. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Several nights of moderate (4-5 hr/night) sleep restriction increases appetite and energy intake, and may alter circulating concentrations of appetite regulating hormones. Whether more severe sleep restriction has similar effects is unclear. This study aimed to determine the effects of severe, short-term sleep restriction on appetite, ad libitum energy intake during a single meal, appetite regulating hormones, and food preferences. Read More

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Effects of melatonin supplementation on eating habits and appetite-regulating hormones: a systematic review of randomized controlled clinical and preclinical trials.

Chronobiol Int 2021 Aug 2;38(8):1089-1102. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Epidemiology, Public Health Graduate Program, Catholic University of Santos, SP, Brazil.

Melatonin is a hormone involved in appetite regulation and food intake. Circadian chronorrupture caused by its absence has been associated with excessive food consumption, and there is evidence that exogenous melatonin supplementation can restore homeostasis. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to synthesize evidence from randomized controlled clinical and preclinical trials that evaluated the effects of exogenous melatonin supplementation on eating habits and appetite-regulating hormones. Read More

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Is constitutional thinness really different from anorexia nervosa? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Université Clermont Auvergne, CRNH, AME2P, F-63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

A growing interest in constitutional thinness has been observed in the last decades, but the publications however cover various fields of study and report equivocal results. The present work systematically reviewed any clinical trials enrolling participants with constitutional thinness and bibliographic researches were performed between December 2018 and June 2020. From a total of 1 212 records initially identified, 402 records were removed as duplicates, 381 articles were excluded based on titles or abstracts and 390 references were excluded against eligibility criteria. Read More

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Orosensory Perception of Fat/Sweet Stimuli and Appetite-Regulating Peptides before and after Sleeve Gastrectomy or Gastric Bypass in Adult Women with Obesity.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 8;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Fonctions Gastro-Intestinales, Métaboliques et Physiopathologies Nutritionnelles Inserm UMR1149, Centre de Recherche sur l'Inflammation Paris Montmartre, 75018 Paris, France.

The aim of this study was to explore the impact of bariatric surgery on fat and sweet taste perceptions and to determine the possible correlations with gut appetite-regulating peptides and subjective food sensations. Women suffering from severe obesity (BMI > 35 kg/m) were studied 2 weeks before and 6 months after a vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG, = 32) or a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB, = 12). Linoleic acid (LA) and sucrose perception thresholds were determined using the three-alternative forced-choice procedure, gut hormones were assayed before and after a test meal and subjective changes in oral food sensations were self-reported using a standardized questionnaire. Read More

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Adipocytokine and appetite-regulating hormone response to weight loss in adolescents with obesity: Impact of weight loss magnitude.

Nutrition 2021 Jul-Aug;87-88:111188. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Postgraduate Program of Nutrition, Federal University of Sao Paulo; Paulista Medicine School, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the magnitude of weight loss (WL) and serum concentrations of the main adipocytokines and appetite-regulating hormones in adolescents with obesity.

Methods: After completion of informed consent,108 adolescents with obesity (14-19 y of age; postpubertal) were submitted to clinical, nutritional, psychological, physical exercise, and physiotherapy support for 1 y. Body composition (BC) and plasma levels of neuropeptides (neuropeptide Y [NPY], agouti-related peptide [AgRP], and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone [α-MSH]) and leptin were measured at baseline and post-intervention. Read More

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Appetite-regulating hormone trajectories and relationships with fat mass development in term-born infants during the first 6 months of life.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Subdivision of Endocrinology, Erasmus University Medical Center-Sophia Children's Hospital, Room SK-0150, Wytemaweg 80, 3015 CN, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: The first 6 months of life are a critical window for adiposity programming. Appetite-regulating hormones (ARH) are involved in food intake regulation and might, therefore, play a role in adiposity programming. Studies examining ARH in early life are limited. Read More

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Effects of Exercise during Weight Loss Maintenance on Appetite Regulation in Women.

Transl J Am Coll Sports Med 2020 ;5(12)

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Diabetes, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO.

Exercise is accepted as a method to improve weight loss maintenance; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs have yet to be elucidated. In this pilot study, 13 women with obesity underwent a structured weight loss program (goal 8%-10% weight loss) and were then randomized to either a 12-wk diet ( = 7) or an aerobic exercise training ( = 6) intervention aimed at maintaining weight loss. At baseline, post-weight loss, and following the weight loss maintenance interventions, measurements of appetite (hunger and satiety) and appetite-regulating hormones (leptin, ghrelin, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and glucagon-like peptide 1) were obtained after an overnight fast and for 3 h after a standardized test meal. Read More

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January 2020

Does sex influence the effects of experimental sleep curtailment and circadian misalignment on regulation of appetite?

Curr Opin Endocr Metab Res 2021 Apr 4;17:20-25. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Institute of Human Nutrition, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY.

Sleep curtailment and circadian misalignment disrupt energy sensing and eating behaviors, which can contribute to weight gain and obesity-related comorbidities. Herein, we review the effects of experimental manipulations of sleep duration and circadian alignment on circulating concentrations of appetite hormones, specifically leptin and ghrelin. Further, we focus on sex differences in hormonal and behavioral responses related to food intake. Read More

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Exogenous Ketones Lower Post-exercise Acyl-Ghrelin and GLP-1 but Do Not Impact Energy Intake.

Front Nutr 2020 20;7:626480. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, Canada.

Ketosis and exercise are both associated with alterations in perceived appetite and modification of appetite-regulating hormones. This study utilized a ketone ester ()-3-hydroxybutyl ()-3-hydroxybutyrate (KE) to examine the impact of elevated ketone body D-β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) during and after a bout of exercise on appetite-related hormones, appetite perception, and energy intake over a 2 h post-exercise period. In a randomized crossover trial, 13 healthy males and females (age: 23. Read More

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January 2021

Changes in Ghrelin and Glucagon following a Low Glycemic Load Diet in Women with PCOS.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr;106(5):e2151-e2161

Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Context: Altered satiety hormones in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) may contribute to obesity. Diets with a low glycemic load (GL) may influence appetite-regulating hormones including glucagon and ghrelin.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that following a 4-week, eucaloric low vs high GL diet habituation, a low vs high GL meal will increase glucagon and decrease ghrelin to reflect greater satiety and improve self-reported fullness. Read More

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A Model of Adolescent Sleep Health and Risk for Type 2 Diabetes.

Curr Diab Rep 2021 01 15;21(2). Epub 2021 Jan 15.

University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This paper presents a review of the current literature in support of a model explaining the relationships between sleep health and risk for type 2 diabetes in adolescents.

Recent Findings: Short sleep duration is associated with risk of developing obesity in youth. Sleep restriction increases energy expenditure, but also increases hunger, appetite, and food intake, causing positive energy balance, impacting appetite-regulating hormones, and leading to increased eating late at night. Read More

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January 2021

Effect of Fasting-Mimicking Diet or Continuous Energy Restriction on Weight Loss, Body Composition, and Appetite-Regulating Hormones Among Metabolically Healthy Women with Obesity: a Randomized Controlled, Parallel Trial.

Obes Surg 2021 05 9;31(5):2030-2039. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Internal Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: Fasting-mimicking diet (FMD) has been recently promoted to achieve similar metabolic changes of fasting. The purpose of our study was to compare the effect of FMD versus continuous energy restriction (CER) on anthropometric measurements, body composition, glucose metabolism, and serum levels of leptin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and total ghrelin.

Methods: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted on 60 women with obesity aged 18-55 years. Read More

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Appetite-Regulating Hormones Are Reduced After Oral Sucrose vs Glucose: Influence of Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Sex.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Mar;106(3):654-664

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Context: Fructose compared to glucose has adverse effects on metabolic function, but endocrine responses to oral sucrose vs glucose is not well understood.

Objective: We investigated how oral sucrose vs glucose affected appetite-regulating hormones, and how biological factors (body mass index [BMI], insulin sensitivity, sex) influence endocrine responses to these 2 types of sugar.

Design: Sixty-nine adults (29 men; 23. Read More

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A single session of low-volume high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous exercise elicits a transient reduction in ghrelin levels, but not in post-exercise energy intake in obese men.

Arch Endocrinol Metab 2020 Nov 9. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brasil.

Objective: This study investigated the acute effects of high-intensity interval (HIIE) and moderate-intensity continuous (MICE) exercise on ghrelin levels in obese men.

Methods: A total of 10 obese men (age 27.6 ± 1. Read More

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November 2020

High intensity interval training does not result in short- or long-term dietary compensation in cardiac rehabilitation: Results from the FITR heart study.

Appetite 2021 03 6;158:105021. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to investigate short- and long-term compensatory effects on dietary intake following high intensity interval training (HIIT) compared with usual care moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) during and following a cardiac rehabilitation program. This study investigates secondary outcomes of a clinical trial. Ninety-three participants with coronary artery disease enrolled in a 4-week cardiac rehabilitation program, were randomised to 1) 4x4-minute HIIT; or 2) 40-min of MICT (usual care). Read More

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Insulin and obesity transform hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stemness and function in a hyperactive state.

Mol Metab 2021 01 4;43:101112. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Fetscherstraße 74, Dresden, 01307, Germany. Electronic address:

Objective: Metabolic diseases are an increasing problem in society with the brain-metabolic axis as a master regulator of the human body for sustaining homeostasis under metabolic stress. However, metabolic inflammation and disease will trigger sustained activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In this study, we investigated the role of metabolic stress on progenitor cells in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Read More

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January 2021

The combined effects of probiotics and restricted calorie diet on the anthropometric indices, eating behavior, and hormone levels of obese women with food addiction a randomized clinical trial.

Nutr Neurosci 2020 Oct 15:1-13. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Department of Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Aim: Food addiction (FA) is an important contributor to obesity. Alterations in gut microbiota (GM) diversity and composition have also been proposed to play a pivotal role in obesity pathogenesis. This trial aimed to assess the effects of probiotic supplementation on the anthropometric indices, eating behavior, and hormone levels of obese women with FA. Read More

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October 2020

Appetite-Regulating Hormones in Human Milk: A Plausible Biological Factor for Obesity Risk Reduction?

J Hum Lact 2020 Oct 8:890334420954160. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

4416 Department of Animal Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA.

Background: Human milk contains appetite-regulating hormones that may influence infant growth and obesity risk.

Research Aims: We evaluated whether leptin, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and ghrelin concentrations in human milk (1) changed during feeding (from foremilk to hindmilk) and during the first 6 months of infancy; (2) were explained by maternal factors; and (3) were associated with infant anthropometrics and growth.

Methods: Mother-infant dyads ( = 22) participated. Read More

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October 2020

Circadian rhythms and meal timing: impact on energy balance and body weight.

Curr Opin Biotechnol 2020 Sep 27;70:1-6. Epub 2020 Sep 27.

Sleep Center of Excellence and Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; Institute of Human Nutrition, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Energy metabolism and appetite regulating hormones follow circadian rhythms which, when disrupted, could lead to adverse metabolic consequences. Such circadian misalignment, a mismatch between endogenous circadian rhythms and behavior, is most severely experienced by shift workers, due to nighttime wake, daytime sleep, and eating at night. However, circadian misalignment is not restricted to shift workers; milder shifts in sleep and mealtimes, termed social and eating jetlag, are highly prevalent in the general population. Read More

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September 2020

The daytime feeding frequency affects appetite-regulating hormones, amino acids, physical activity, and respiratory quotient, but not energy expenditure, in adult cats fed regimens for 21 days.

PLoS One 2020 18;15(9):e0238522. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Centre for Nutrition Modelling, Department of Animal Biosciences, Ontario Agricultural College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

The effects of feeding frequency on postprandial response of circulating appetite-regulating hormones, insulin, glucose and amino acids, and on physical activity, energy expenditure, and respiratory quotient were studied in healthy adult cats. Two experiments were designed as a 2 x 3 replicated incomplete Latin square design. Eight cats, with an average body weight (BW) of 4. Read More

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October 2020

Baicalin-Copper Complex Modulates Gut Microbiota, Inflammatory Responses, and Hormone Secretion in DON-Challenged Piglets.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Aug 31;10(9). Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Laboratory of Animal Nutritional Physiology and Metabolic Process, Key Laboratory of Agro-Ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, National Engineering Laboratory for Pollution Control and Waste Utilization in Livestock and Poultry Production, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125, Hunan, China.

The present experiment assessed the inflammatory responses, hormone secretion, and gut microbiota of weanling piglets administered baicalin-copper complex (BCU) or deoxynivalenol (DON) supplementation diets. Twenty-eight piglets were randomly assigned to four groups: control diet (Con group), a 4 mg DON/kg diet (DON group), a 5 g BCU/kg diet (BCU group), a 5 g BCU + 4 mg DON/kg diet (DBCU group). After 14 days, the results showed that dietary BCU supplementation remarkably increased the relative abundance of and decreased the relative abundance of in the DBCU group ( < 0. Read More

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Palmitate differentially regulates Spexin, and its receptors Galr2 and Galr3, in GnRH neurons through mechanisms involving PKC, MAPKs, and TLR4.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2020 12 22;518:110991. Epub 2020 Aug 22.

Departments of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

The function of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron is critical to maintain reproductive function and a significant decrease in GnRH can lead to disorders affecting fertility, including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Spexin (SPX) is a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide that exerts inhibitory effects on reproduction and feeding by acting through galanin receptor 2 (GALR2) and galanin receptor 3 (GALR3). Fatty acids can act as nutritional signals that regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, and elevated levels of circulating saturated fatty acids associated with high fat diet (HFD)-feeding have been shown to induce neuroinflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress and hormonal resistance in the hypothalamus, as well as alter neuropeptide expression. Read More

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December 2020