11,615 results match your criteria apoptosis fibrosis


Old wine in new bottles: kaempferol is a promising agent for treating the trilogy of liver diseases.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Nov 26:106005. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, China. Electronic address:

As a source of various compounds, natural products have long been important and valuable for drug development. Kaempferol (KP) is the most common flavonol with bioactive activity and has been extracted from many edible plants and traditional Chinese medicines. It has a wide range of pharmacological effects on inflammation, oxidation, and tumour and virus regulation. Read More

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November 2021

Potential Therapeutic Effect of Citronellal on Diabetic Cardiomyopathy in Experimental Rats.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 17;2021:9987531. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

College of Pharmacy, Henan International Joint Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Drug Intervention, Xinxiang Key Laboratory of Vascular Remodeling Intervention and Molecular Targeted Therapy Drug Development, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003, China.

Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), a cardiovascular complication of patients with diabetes, is a special cardiomyopathy that is independent of coronary heart disease, hypertension, and valvular disease. Citronellal (CT) is a monoterpene compound generated by the secondary metabolism of plants. In this work, the therapeutic effect and mechanism of CT in DCM were investigated. Read More

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November 2021

The bitter end: T2R bitter receptor agonists elevate nuclear calcium and induce apoptosis in non-ciliated airway epithelial cells.

Cell Calcium 2021 Nov 8;101:102499. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA; Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address:

Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) localize to airway motile cilia and initiate innate immune responses in retaliation to bacterial quorum sensing molecules. Activation of cilia T2Rs leads to calcium-driven NO production that increases cilia beating and directly kills bacteria. Several diseases, including chronic rhinosinusitis, COPD, and cystic fibrosis, are characterized by loss of motile cilia and/or squamous metaplasia. Read More

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November 2021

Ellagic acid ameliorates paraquat-induced liver injury associated with improved gut microbial profile.

Environ Pollut 2021 Nov 24;293:118572. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

National Engineering Laboratory for Pollution Control and Waste Utilization in Livestock and Poultry Production, Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Laboratory of Animal Nutritional Physiology and Metabolic Process, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, 410125, Hunan, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100008, China.

Paraquat, a widely used herbicide, causes environmental pollution, and liver injury in humans and animals. As a natural compound in fruits, ellagic acid (EA) shows anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. This study examines the beneficial effects of dietary EA against the paraquat-induced hepatic injury and further explores the underlying molecular mechanisms using a piglet model. Read More

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November 2021

PACS-2 attenuates diabetic kidney disease via the enhancement of mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane formation.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Nov 26;12(12):1107. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

NHC Key Laboratory of Hormones and Development, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Metabolic Diseases, Chu Hsien-I Memorial Hospital & Tianjin Institute of Endocrinology, Tianjin Medical University, 300134, Tianjin, China.

The altered homeostasis of mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes (MAM) was closely associated with the pathological process of nervous system diseases and insulin resistance. Here, the exact implication of phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 2 (PCAS-2), an anchor protein in the MAM interface, in diabetic kidney disease was investigated. In the kidneys of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mice and HG-induced HK-2 cells, a notable disruption of ER-mitochondria interactions, accompanied by a decreased PACS-2 expression in all subcellular fractions. Read More

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November 2021

Protective Effects of Nootkatone on Renal Inflammation, Apoptosis, and Fibrosis in a Unilateral Ureteral Obstructive Mouse Model.

Nutrients 2021 Nov 1;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10051, Taiwan.

Nootkatone is one of the major active ingredients of , which has been used as both food and medicinal plants for the treatment of diarrhea, ulceration, and enuresis. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether nootkatone treatment ameliorated the progression of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) and clarified its underlying mechanisms in an obstructive nephropathy (unilateral ureteral obstructive; UUO) mouse model. Our results revealed that nootkatone treatment preventively decreased the pathological changes and significantly mitigated the collagen deposition as well as the protein expression of fibrotic markers. Read More

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November 2021

Effect of Geumgwe-Sinkihwan on Renal Dysfunction in Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Renal Failure Mice.

Nutrients 2021 Oct 28;13(11). Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Hanbang Cardio-Renal Syndrome Research Center, Wonkwang University, 460 Iksan-daero, Iksan 54538, Jeonbuk, Korea.

Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is an important cause of acute renal failure (ARF). Geumgwe-sinkihwan (GSH) was recorded in a traditional Chines medical book named "Bangyakhappyeon" in 1884. GSH has been used for treatment for patients with diabetes and glomerulonephritis caused by deficiency of kidney yang and insufficiency of kidney gi. Read More

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October 2021

Schisandrin B Attenuates Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation and Promotes Apoptosis to Protect against Liver Fibrosis.

Molecules 2021 Nov 15;26(22). Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Institute of Special Animal and Plant Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun 130112, China.

The activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) plays a key role in the progression of hepatic fibrosis, it is essential to remove activated HSC through apoptosis to reverse hepatic fibrosis. Schisandrin B (Sch B) is the main chemical component of schisandrin lignan, and it has been reported to have good hepatoprotective effects. However, Schisandrin B on HSC apoptosis remains unclear. Read More

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November 2021

Pulmonary Alveolar Stem Cell Senescence, Apoptosis, and Differentiation by p53-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms in Telomerase-Deficient Mice.

Cells 2021 Oct 26;10(11). Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Institute of Ageing Research, Hangzhou Normal University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Hangzhou 311121, China.

Pulmonary premature ageing and fibrogenesis as in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) occur with the DNA damage response in lungs deficient of telomerase. The molecular mechanism mediating pulmonary alveolar cell fates remains to be investigated. The present study shows that naturally occurring ageing is associated with the DNA damage response (DDR) and activation of the p53 signalling pathway. Read More

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October 2021

A Microbiome-Derived Peptide Induces Apoptosis of Cells from Different Tissues.

Cells 2021 Oct 26;10(11). Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Department of Immunology, Faculty and Graduate School of Medicine, Mie University, Tsu 514-8507, Mie, Japan.

Apoptosis is a programmed cell death involved in embryogenesis and tissue homeostasis under physiological conditions. However, abnormalities in the process of apoptosis are implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. The human microbiota may release products that induce apoptosis of host cells. Read More

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October 2021

Inflammatory Modulation of Polyethylene Glycol-AuNP for Regulation of the Neural Differentiation Capacity of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

Cells 2021 Oct 22;10(11). Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Blood Bank, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 407204, Taiwan.

A nanocomposite composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) incorporated with various concentrations (~17.4, ~43.5, ~174 ppm) of gold nanoparticles (Au) was created to investigate its biocompatibility and biological performance in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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October 2021

Exercise Training Alleviates Cardiac Fibrosis through Increasing Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 and Regulating TGF-β1-Smad2/3-MMP2/9 Signaling in Mice with Myocardial Infarction.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Nov 15;22(22). Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Institute of Sports Biology, College of Physical Education, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China.

Exercise training has been reported to alleviate cardiac fibrosis and ameliorate heart dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI), but the molecular mechanism is still not fully clarified. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) exerts a protective effect on the infarcted heart. This study investigates whether exercise training could increase FGF21 protein expression and regulate the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-Smad2/3-MMP2/9 signaling pathway to alleviate cardiac fibrosis following MI. Read More

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November 2021

Estimating Drug Efficacy with a Diet-Induced NASH Model in Chimeric Mice with Humanized Livers.

Biomedicines 2021 Nov 9;9(11). Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Research and Development Department, PhoenixBio Co., Ltd., 3-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima 739-0046, Japan.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH) is the most common liver disorder in developed countries. Although many new therapeutics for NASH are present in the drug development pipeline, there are still no approved drugs. One of the reasons that makes NASH drug development challenging is the lack of appropriate animal NASH models that resolve issues arising from inter-species differences between humans and rodents. Read More

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November 2021

Exercise Ameliorates Diabetic Kidney Disease in Type 2 Diabetic Fatty Rats.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Nov 3;10(11). Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Department of Diabetology and Endocrinology, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada 920-0293, Ishikawa, Japan.

Lifestyle improvement, including through exercise, has been recognized as an important mode of therapy for the suppression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). However, the detailed molecular mechanisms by which exercise exerts beneficial effects in the suppression of DKD have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigate the effects of treadmill exercise training (TET) for 8 weeks (13 m/min, 30 min/day, 5 days/week) on kidney injuries of type 2 diabetic male rats with obesity (Wistar fatty (fa/fa) rats: WFRs) at 36 weeks of age. Read More

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November 2021

Total flavonoids of Oxytropis falcata Bunge have a positive effect on idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Nov 23:114858. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Basic Medical College, Gansu University of Chinese Medicine, Gansu, Lanzhou, 730000, China; Basic Subjects of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Gansu University of Chinese Medicine, Gansu, Lanzhou, 730000, China; Provincial-Level Key Laboratory for Molecular Medicine of Major Diseases and the Prevention and Treatment with Traditional Chinese Medicine Research in Gansu Colleges and Universities, Gansu, Lanzhou, 730000, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an interstitial lung disease with unknown etiology. Oxytropis falcata Bunge (O. falcata) is a 1-35 cm high perennial clustered herb, also known as edaxia, has viscosity and a special smell, and is mainly distributed in the western areas of China. Read More

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November 2021

Establishment and Mechanism Study of a Primary Ovarian Insufficiency Mouse Model Using Lipopolysaccharide.

Anal Cell Pathol (Amst) 2021 16;2021:1781532. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Department of Gynaecology, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China.

This study is aimed at establishing a lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) mouse model and investigating the underlying mechanism. C57BL/6N female mice were intraperitoneally injected with low-dose LPS (0.5 mg/kg) once daily for 14 days, high-dose LPS (2. Read More

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November 2021

The Mitochondrial Ca import complex is altered in ADPKD.

Cell Calcium 2021 Nov 19;101:102501. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America. Electronic address:

Mutations in either of the polycystic kidney disease genes, PKD1 or PKD2, engender the growth of cysts, altering renal function. Cystic growth is supported by major changes in cellular metabolism, some of which involve the mitochondrion, a major storage site for Ca and a key organelle in cellular Ca signaling. The goal here was to understand the role of components of the mitochondrial Ca uptake complex in PC1-mutant cells in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Read More

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November 2021

Role of Non-Coding RNAs in Post-Transcriptional Regulation of Lung Diseases.

Front Genet 2021 8;12:767348. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Genetics, School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, United States.

Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), notably microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), have recently gained increasing consideration because of their versatile role as key regulators of gene expression. They adopt diverse mechanisms to regulate transcription and translation, and thereby, the function of the protein, which is associated with several major biological processes. For example, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and metabolic pathways demand fine-tuning for the precise development of a specific tissue or organ. Read More

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November 2021

Transglutaminase 2 mediates lung inflammation and remodeling by transforming growth factor beta 1 alveolar macrophage modulation.

Exp Lung Res 2021 Nov 24:1-11. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) induces pulmonary fibrosis by enhancing epithelial apoptosis and affects the enzymatic activity of transglutaminase 2 (TG2). The aim of this study was to determine the role of TG2 in TGF-β1-induced lung remodeling and alveolar macrophage modulation. We characterized the o effects of TGF-β1 and TG2 on lung inflammation, fibrosis, and macrophage activity using transgenic C57BL/6 mice with wild and null TG2 loci. Read More

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November 2021

Tetrathiomolybdate Partially Alleviates Erectile Dysfunction of Type 1 Diabetic Rats Through Affecting Ceruloplasmin/eNOS and Inhibiting Corporal Fibrosis and Systemic Inflammation.

Sex Med 2021 Nov 21;10(1):100455. Epub 2021 Nov 21.

Department of Urology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Patients with erectile dysfunction induced by diabetes mellitus (DMED) show a poor effect rate for oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5is). Therefore, the new therapeutic strategy is necessary in patients with DMED.

Aim: To investigate whether Tetrathiomolybdate (TM) supplementation could ameliorate DMED by activation of eNOS. Read More

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November 2021

Structural and functional changes in the kidney caused by adverse fetal and neonatal environments.

Authors:
Midori Awazu

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Ohtsuka Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Health and disease risk in the adulthood are known to be affected by the early developmental environment. Kidney diseases are one of these diseases, and kidneys are altered both structurally and functionally by adverse pre- and perinatal events. The most known structural change is low nephron number seen in subjects born low birth weight and/or preterm. Read More

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November 2021

Protection of CAPE-pNO Against Chronic Myocardial Ischemia by the TGF-Β1/Galectin-3 Pathway In Vivo and In Vitro.

Inflammation 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, China.

Although it is known that caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and its derivatives could ameliorate acute myocardial injury, their effects on chronic myocardial ischemia (CMI) were not reported. This study aimed to investigate the potential effect of caffeic acid p-nitro phenethyl ester (CAPE-pNO, a derivative of CAPE) on CMI and underlying mechanisms. SD rats were subjected to high-fat-cholesterol-diet (HFCD) and vitamin D, and the H9c2 cells were treated with LPS to establish CMI model, followed by the respective treatment with saline, CAPE, or CAPE-pNO. Read More

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November 2021

Pcsk9 Deletion Promotes Murine Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis and Hepatic Carcinogenesis: Role of Cholesterol.

Hepatol Commun 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA, USA.

Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (Pcsk9) binds to hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and induces its internalization and degradation. Pcsk9 inhibition increases LDLR expression by hepatocytes, which causes increased uptake of circulating LDL, thereby reducing plasma LDL-cholesterol. However, by increasing the uptake of LDL by the liver, Pcsk9 inhibition increases the exposure of the liver to cholesterol, which may result in higher risk of steatohepatitis and ever carcinogenesis. Read More

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November 2021

Perfluorooctane sulfonate induces heart toxicity involving cardiac apoptosis and inflammation in rats.

Exp Ther Med 2022 Jan 28;23(1):14. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Department of Cardiology, Zhejiang Xiaoshan Hospital, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 311200, P.R. China.

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent pollutant that exerts toxicity and induces cardiogenesis in humans and animals. Yet, the effect of PFOS exposure on cardiac toxicity in adult rats has, to our knowledge, not been reported and the mechanism still remains unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the toxicity of PFOS on rat hearts and any associated mechanisms. Read More

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January 2022

Exosomes derived from miR-129-5p modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells represses ventricular remolding of mice with myocardial infarction.

J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2021 Nov 23. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Department of cardiology, Shijiazhuang People's Hospital, 5 Fangbei Road, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050011, China.

Background: Myocardial infraction (MI) is a severe disease with great mortality. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-derived exosomes display protection against MI. MicroRNA-129-5p was reported to exert anti-inflammation activity by targeting high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). Read More

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November 2021

Alleviating Oxidative Injury of Myocardial Infarction by a Fibrous Polyurethane Patch with Condensed ROS-scavenging Backbone Units.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Nov 22:e2101855. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

MOE Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, China.

Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated after myocardial infarction (MI) result in the oxidative injury in myocardium. Implantation of antioxidant biomaterials, without the use of any type of drugs, is very appealing for clinical translation, leading to the great demand of novel biomaterials with high efficiency of ROS-elimination. In this study, a segmented polyurethane (PFTU) with a high density of ROS-scavenging backbone units is synthesized by reaction of poly(thioketal) dithiol (PTK) and poly(propylene fumarate) diol (PPF) (soft segments), thioketal diamine (chain extender) and 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI). Read More

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November 2021

Matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases in kidney disease.

Adv Clin Chem 2021 9;105:141-212. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Nephrology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a group of zinc and calcium endopeptidases which cleave extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. They are also involved in the degradation of cell surface components and regulate multiple cellular processes, cell to cell interactions, cell proliferation, and cell signaling pathways. MMPs function in close interaction with the endogenous tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs), both of which regulate cell turnover, modulate various growth factors, and participate in the progression of tissue fibrosis and apoptosis. Read More

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Design, synthesis and activity evaluation of prodrug form JBP485 and Vitamin E for alleviation of NASH.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 Nov 19:128464. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

College of Pharmacy, College of Basic Medical Science, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044, PR China. Electronic address:

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a serious form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) characterized by liver steatosis with lobular inflammation, hepatocyte injury and pericellular fibrosis. JBP485 is a hydrophilic dipeptide with protective effects on liver through alleviation of oxidative stress and inhibition of hepatocyte apoptosis and ICAM-1 expression. Vitamin E (VE), as a powerful biological antioxidant, exerts a certain protective effect on cell membranes and lipoproteins from lipid peroxidation. Read More

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November 2021

Identification of a novel native peptide derived from 60S ribosomal protein L23a that translationally regulates p53 to reduce myocardial ischemia-reperfusion.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Nov 19;175:105988. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Hongqiao International Institute of Medicine, Tongren Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200336, China; Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029, China. Electronic address:

Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a severe disease,but its underlying mechanism is not fully elucidated and no effective clinical treatment is available. Utilizing intracellular peptidomics, we identified a novel native peptide PDRL23A (Peptide Derived from RPL23A), that is intimately related to hypoxic stress. We further show that PDRL23A effectively alleviates hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte injury in vitro, along with improvements in mitochondrial function and redox homeostasis, including ROS accumulation, oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial membrane potential. Read More

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November 2021

Emodin alleviates sepsis-mediated lung injury via inhibition and reduction of NF-kB and HMGB1 pathways mediated by SIRT1.

Kaohsiung J Med Sci 2021 Nov 22. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Department of Pediatric, Changzhou No. 2 People's Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Inflammation plays an important role during sepsis, and excessive inflammation can result in organ damage, chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and scarring. The study aimed to investigate the specific mechanism of emodin by constructing in vivo and in vitro septic lung injury models via inhibition and reduction of NF-kB and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) pathways. A cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model was built for adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Read More

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November 2021