15,848 results match your criteria antiviral immunity

Virus-mediated inactivation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members promotes Gasdermin-E-dependent pyroptosis in barrier epithelial cells.

Immunity 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Division of Gastroenterology, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Program in Immunology, Harvard Medical School, Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Two sets of innate immune proteins detect pathogens. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) bind microbial products, whereas guard proteins detect virulence factor activities by the surveillance of homeostatic processes within cells. While PRRs are well known for their roles in many types of infections, the role of guard proteins in most infectious contexts remains less understood. Read More

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Nanobased Platforms for Diagnosis and Treatment of COVID-19: From Benchtop to Bedside.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Centre for Materials Interfaces, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, Pontedera 56025, Pisa, Italy.

Human respiratory viral infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Among the various respiratory viruses, coronaviruses (e.g. Read More

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Glycodendritic structures as DC-SIGN binders to inhibit viral infections.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Glycosystems Laboratory, Instituto de Investigaciones Químicas (IIQ), Centro de Investigaciones Científicas Isla de La Cartuja, CSIC and Universidad de Sevilla, Américo Vespucio, 49, 41092 Sevilla, Spain.

DC-SIGN, a lectin discovered two decades ago, plays a relevant role in innate immunity. Since its discovery, it has turned out to be a target for developing antiviral drugs based on carbohydrates due to its participation in the infection process of several pathogens. A plethora of carbohydrate multivalent systems using different scaffolds have been described to achieve this goal. Read More

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Targeting the biology of ageing with mTOR inhibitors to improve immune function in older adults: phase 2b and phase 3 randomised trials.

Lancet Healthy Longev 2021 May 6;2(5):e250-e262. Epub 2021 May 6.

resTORbio, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the need for therapies that improve immune function in older adults, including interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral immunity that declines with age. In a previous phase 2a trial, RTB101 (previously known as BEZ235), an oral mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, was observed to increase IFN-induced antiviral gene expression and decrease the incidence of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in older adults. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether oral RTB101 upregulated IFN-induced antiviral responses and decreased the incidence of viral RTIs when given once daily for 16 weeks during winter cold and flu season. Read More

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RIG-I triggers a signaling-abortive anti-SARS-CoV-2 defense in human lung cells.

Nat Immunol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Signaling in Cancer and Immunology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Efficient immune responses against viral infection are determined by sufficient activation of nucleic acid sensor-mediated innate immunity. Coronavirus disease 2019, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), remains an ongoing global pandemic. It is an urgent challenge to clarify the innate recognition mechanism to control this virus. Read More

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Identification of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 9 (PARP9) as a noncanonical sensor for RNA virus in dendritic cells.

Nat Commun 2021 May 11;12(1):2681. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Surgery and Immunobiology and Transplant Science Center, Houston Methodist, Houston, TX, USA.

Innate immune cells are critical in protective immunity against viral infections, involved in sensing foreign viral nucleic acids. Here we report that the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 9 (PARP9), a member of PARP family, serves as a non-canonical sensor for RNA virus to initiate and amplify type I interferon (IFN) production. We find knockdown or deletion of PARP9 in human or mouse dendritic cells and macrophages inhibits type I IFN production in response to double strand RNA stimulation or RNA virus infection. Read More

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Critical role of interferons in gastrointestinal injury repair.

Nat Commun 2021 May 11;12(1):2624. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry, and Molecular Genetics, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers-The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, USA.

The etiology of ulcerative colitis is poorly understood and is likely to involve perturbation of the complex interactions between the mucosal immune system and the commensal bacteria of the gut, with cytokines acting as important cross-regulators. Here we use IFN receptor-deficient mice in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model of acute intestinal injury to study the contributions of type I and III interferons (IFN) to the initiation, progression and resolution of acute colitis. We find that mice lacking both types of IFN receptors exhibit enhanced barrier destruction, extensive loss of goblet cells and diminished proliferation of epithelial cells in the colon following DSS-induced damage. Read More

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Inhibition of Antiviral Innate Immunity by VP3 via Blocking TBK1-TRAF3 Complex Formation and IRF3 Activation.

mSystems 2021 May 11;6(3). Epub 2021 May 11.

MOA Key Laboratory of Animal Virology, Zhejiang University Center for Veterinary Sciences, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China

The host innate immune system develops various strategies to antagonize virus infection, and the pathogen subverts or evades host innate immunity for self-replication. In the present study, we discovered that infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) VP3 protein significantly inhibits MDA5-induced beta interferon (IFN-β) expression by blocking IRF3 activation. Binding domain mapping showed that the CC1 domain of VP3 and the residue lysine-155 of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) are essential for the interaction. Read More

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The Intestinal Microbiome Primes Host Innate Immunity against Enteric Virus Systemic Infection through Type I Interferon.

mBio 2021 May 11;12(3). Epub 2021 May 11.

Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Center for Veterinary Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China

Intestinal microbiomes are of vital importance in antagonizing systemic viral infection. However, very little literature has shown whether commensal bacteria play a crucial role in protecting against enteric virus systemic infection from the aspect of modulating host innate immunity. In the present study, we utilized an enteric virus, encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), to inoculate mice treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or given an antibiotic cocktail (Abx) orally or intraperitoneally to examine the impact of microbiota depletion on virulence and viral replication Microbiota depletion exacerbated the mortality, neuropathogenesis, viremia, and viral burden in brains following EMCV infection. Read More

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Genetic variants and immune responses in a cohort of patients with varicella zoster virus encephalitis.

J Infect Dis 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) may involve different central nervous system (CNS) manifestations, including meningitis, encephalitis, and vasculitis. In cases where otherwise healthy individuals are affected, an inborn error of immunity may underlie increased susceptibility or severity of infection.

Methods: We collected a cohort of 17 adults who experienced VZV encephalitis and performed whole exome sequencing. Read More

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[Pathways and mechanisms of RNA interference mediated by viral siRNA].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Apr;37(4):1237-1248

College of Life Sciences, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007, Henan, China.

RNA interference (RNAi) is one of the important mechanisms to regulate gene expression in eukaryotes. One of the original functions of RNAi is to facilitate the antiviral strategy of host. Early studies reveal that invertebrates can use RNAi to resist viruses. Read More

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Health and Art (HEART): Integrating Science and Art to Fight COVID-19.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:937-964

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Netting individuals separated from each other by vast distances; the present condition of COVID-19 needs art and its extraordinary capacity to connect human beings and integrate scientific disciplines. We can predict that the COVID-19 pandemic would leave the mind lonely and vulnerable to diseases, for, on the one hand, the COVID-19 pandemic and related problems, in particular social isolation, are itself stressor. On the other hand, studies confirm the potential of COVID-19 to involve the central nervous system by affecting the immune system, either directly or indirectly. Read More

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Therapeutic Development in COVID-19.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:435-448

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Screening, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2, the disease has spread rapidly worldwide and developed into a global pandemic, causing a significant impact on the global health system and economic development. Scientists have been racing to find effective drugs and vaccines for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19. However, due to the diversity of clinical manifestations caused by COVID-19, no standard antiviral regimen beyond supportive therapy has been established. Read More

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Geriatrics and COVID-19.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:209-222

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Since December 2019, a novel coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has begun to infect people. The virus first occurred in Wuhan, China, but the whole world is now struggling with the pandemic. Over 13 million confirmed cases and 571,000 deaths have been reported so far, and this number is growing. Read More

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Potential Antiviral Immune Response Against COVID-19: Lessons Learned from SARS-CoV.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:149-167

Network of Immunity in Infection, Malignancy and Autoimmunity (NIIMA), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran.

Virus and host innate immune system interaction plays a significant role in forming the outcome of viral diseases. Host innate immunity initially recognizes the viral invasion and induces a rapid inflammatory response, and this recognition activates signaling cascades that trigger the release of antiviral mediators. This chapter aims to explore the mechanisms by which newly emerged coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) activates the host immune system. Read More

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How COVID-19 Has Globalized: Unknown Origin, Rapid Transmission, and the Immune System Nourishment.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:119-147

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) profoundly influences T-cell immunity. The counts of total T cells and T-cell subsets, especially CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, are decreased in patients with COVID-19. Also, the function of these cells becomes less effective as the expression of immune inhibitory receptors, such as Tim3 and PD-1, increases over time during the disease. Read More

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Coronaviruses: What Should We Know About the Characteristics of Viruses?

Wei Ji

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:23-39

Medical school, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, China.

The ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly contagious and fatal, posing a direct threat to human health and the global economy. Most strategies to prevent, control, and eradicate COVID-19 are established based on the specific characteristics of the pathogen. The quest for interruption and eradication of COVID-19 has moved research forward in understanding fundamental aspects of the virus genome, proteome, replication mechanisms, and virus-host interactions, which pave the way for the development of effective antiviral drugs and vaccines. Read More

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Genetic predisposition in the 2'-5'A pathway in the development of type 1 diabetes: potential contribution to dysregulation of innate antiviral immunity.

Diabetologia 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

The Bartholin Institute, Department of Pathology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Aims/hypothesis: The incidence of type 1 diabetes is increasing more rapidly than can be explained by genetic drift. Viruses may play an important role in the disease, as they seem to activate the 2'-5'-linked oligoadenylate (2'-5'A) pathway of the innate antiviral immune system. Our aim was to investigate this possibility. Read More

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Impaired T-cell and antibody immunity after COVID-19 infection in chronically immunosuppressed transplant recipients.

bioRxiv 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Assessment of T-cell immunity to the COVID-19 coronavirus requires reliable assays and is of great interest, given the uncertain longevity of the antibody response. Some recent reports have used immunodominant spike (S) antigenic peptides and anti-CD28 co-stimulation in varying combinations to assess T-cell immunity to SARS-CoV-2. These assays may cause T-cell hyperstimulation and could overestimate antiviral immunity in chronically immunosuppressed transplant recipients, who are predisposed to infections and vaccination failures. Read More

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Single-cell RNA sequencing of blood antigen-presenting cells in severe COVID-19 reveals multi-process defects in antiviral immunity.

Nat Cell Biol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Université de Paris, INSERM U976, Paris, France.

COVID-19 can lead to life-threatening respiratory failure, with increased inflammatory mediators and viral load. Here, we perform single-cell RNA-sequencing to establish a high-resolution map of blood antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in 15 patients with moderate or severe COVID-19 pneumonia, at day 1 and day 4 post admission to intensive care unit or pulmonology department, as well as in 4 healthy donors. We generated a unique dataset of 81,643 APCs, including monocytes and rare dendritic cell (DC) subsets. Read More

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Chlorogenic acid is a positive regulator of MDA5, TLR7 and NF-κB signaling pathways mediated antiviral responses against Gammacoronavirus infection.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 May 7;96:107671. Epub 2021 May 7.

Natural Medicine Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China. Electronic address:

Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a phenolic compound that has been well studied for its antiviral, anti-inflammatory and immune stimulating properties. This research was aimed to focus on the antiviral properties of CGA on infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in vivo and in vitro for the very first time. The outcome of in vitro experiments validated that, out of five previously reported antiviral components, CGA significantly reduced the relative mRNA expression of IBV-N in CEK cells. Read More

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Transcriptome and functional responses to absence of astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon fed low marine diets.

Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics 2021 Apr 26;39:100841. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Nofima AS, Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries & Aquaculture Research, Tromsø, Norway.

High content of carotenoids in tissues of salmonid species suggests possible functional importance, which has so far remained unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of astaxanthin on performance and gene expression of sea water adapted Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed diets with low content of marine ingredients (7.5% fishmeal and 5% fish oil). Read More

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BLB8, an antiviral protein from Brevibacillus laterosporus strain B8, inhibits Tobacco mosaic virus infection by triggering immune response in tobacco.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, China.

Background: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is one of destructive plant viruses, causing serious economic losses in world. Using antiviral protein or elicitor to inhibit viral infection or promote plant immunity is one of efficient strategies against TMV. Our previous study identified that the fermentation broth of Brevibacillus laterosporus strain B8 showed strong antiviral activity against TMV. Read More

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Tetraspanins as Potential Therapeutic Candidates for Targeting Flaviviruses.

Front Immunol 2021 21;12:630571. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, United States.

Tetraspanin family of proteins participates in numerous fundamental signaling pathways involved in viral transmission, virus-specific immunity, and virus-mediated vesicular trafficking. Studies in the identification of novel therapeutic candidates and strategies to target West Nile virus, dengue and Zika viruses are highly warranted due to the failure in development of vaccines. Recent evidences have shown that the widely distributed tetraspanin proteins may provide a platform for the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Read More

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Prolonged high-intensity exercise induces fluctuating immune responses to herpes simplex virus infection via glucocorticoids.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Dermatology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN) and Skin Research Institute of Singapore (SRIS), Technology and Research (A*STAR), Biopolis, Singapore; Lead contact. Electronic address:

Background: Epidemiological studies have yielded conflicting results regarding the influence of a single bout of prolonged high-intensity exercise on viral infection.

Objective: Here, we show that prolonged high-intensity exercise induces either exacerbation or amelioration of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection depending on the interval between viral exposure and exercise.

Methods: Mice were intravaginally infected with HSV-2 and exposed to run on the treadmill. Read More

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Microbiome analysis reveals gut microbiota alteration in mice with the effect of matrine.

Microb Pathog 2021 May 5:104926. Epub 2021 May 5.

College of Animal Science and VeterinaryMedicine, Xinyang Agriculture And Forestry University, Xinyang, China.

Mounting evidence revealed the negative effects of abuse of antibiotic including the induction of decreased immunity and dysbacteriosis. Matrine displayed multiple beneficial effects such as anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antibacterial, but studies of its influence on gut microbiota are still insufficient to report. Here, the present study was conducted to investigate the influence of matrine on the gut microbiota of mice and amoxicillin was used as a positive control. Read More

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Epigenetic regulation in antiviral innate immunity.

Eur J Immunol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Institute of Systems Biomedicine, Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory of Tumor Systems Biology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.

Emerging life-threatening viruses have posed great challenges to public health. It is now increasingly clear that epigenetics plays a role in shaping host-virus interactions and there is a great need for a more thorough understanding of these intricate interactions through the epigenetic lens, which may represent potential therapeutic opportunities in the clinic. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of the roles of key epigenetic regulators-chromatin remodeling and histone modification-in modulating chromatin openness during host defense against virus. Read More

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Therapeutic Approaches for SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Methods 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Centre for Advanced Research (CFAR), Faculty of Medicine, King George's Medical University (KGMU), Lucknow 226003, India. Electronic address:

Therapeutic approaches to COVID-19 treatment leverage on crucial target proteins of SARS-CoV-2 replication machinery. It's been approximately 12 months of pandemic and yet there is no known specific drugs are available. However, research is progressing with time in terms of high throughput virtual screening (HTVS) and rational design of repurposed, novel synthetic and natural products drug discovery by understanding the viral life cycle, immuno-pathological and clinical outcomes in patients based on host's nutritional, metabolic and lifestyle status. Read More

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Resolution of hepatitis E virus infection in CD8+ T cell depleted rhesus macaques.

J Hepatol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Center for Vaccines and Immunity, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, OH, USA; Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Aim: HEV is a significant cause of acute hepatitis globally. Some genotypes establish persistent infection when immunity is impaired. Adaptive immune mechanisms that mediate resolution of infection have not been identified. Read More

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Hepatitis C Virus Relapse After Ultrashort Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy Associates With Expression of Genes Involved With Natural Killer-Cell and CD8 T-Cell Function.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Apr 13;8(4):ofab118. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA.

To identify immunologic correlates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) relapse after direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy, we quantified select immune transcripts in whole blood from noncirrhotic HCV subjects treated with 4-6 weeks of DAAs. We identified specific markers of natural killer-cell and CD8 T-cell function (, , ) with higher expression in subjects who relapsed. These findings suggest a role for host immunity in HCV eradication with ultrashort DAA therapy. Read More

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