2,825 results match your criteria antigens recall

B Cell Responses against Influenza Viruses: Short-Lived Humoral Immunity against a Life-Long Threat.

Viruses 2021 May 22;13(6). Epub 2021 May 22.

Section of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

Antibodies are critical for providing protection against influenza virus infections. However, protective humoral immunity against influenza viruses is limited by the antigenic drift and shift of the major surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Importantly, people are exposed to influenza viruses throughout their life and tend to reuse memory B cells from prior exposure to generate antibodies against new variants. Read More

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Profiling B cell immunodominance after SARS-CoV-2 infection reveals antibody evolution to non-neutralizing viral targets.

Immunity 2021 06 6;54(6):1290-1303.e7. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63130, USA.

Dissecting the evolution of memory B cells (MBCs) against SARS-CoV-2 is critical for understanding antibody recall upon secondary exposure. Here, we used single-cell sequencing to profile SARS-CoV-2-reactive B cells in 38 COVID-19 patients. Using oligo-tagged antigen baits, we isolated B cells specific to the SARS-CoV-2 spike, nucleoprotein (NP), open reading frame 8 (ORF8), and endemic human coronavirus (HCoV) spike proteins. Read More

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Immune Response of Indian Preterm Infants to Pentavalent Vaccine Varies With Component Antigens and Gestational Age.

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:592731. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Communicable Diseases, Interactive Research School for Health Affairs, Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed To Be University) University, Pune, India.

Childhood vaccination plays critical role in protecting infants from several dreaded diseases. Of the global 15 million preterm (PT) infants with compromised immune system born annually, India contributes to >3.5 million. Read More

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CD8 T cells specific for an immunodominant SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid epitope display high naive precursor frequency and TCR promiscuity.

Immunity 2021 05 15;54(5):1066-1082.e5. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, VIC 3084, Australia; Department of Medicine and Radiology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3000, Australia; Data Analytics Research and Evaluation (DARE) Centre, Austin Health and The University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, VIC 3084, Australia.

To better understand primary and recall T cell responses during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it is important to examine unmanipulated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific T cells. By using peptide-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) tetramers for direct ex vivo analysis, we characterized CD8 T cells specific for SARS-CoV-2 epitopes in COVID-19 patients and unexposed individuals. Unlike CD8 T cells directed toward subdominant epitopes (B7/N, A2/S, and A24/S) CD8 T cells specific for the immunodominant B7/N epitope were detected at high frequencies in pre-pandemic samples and at increased frequencies during acute COVID-19 and convalescence. Read More

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Nucleocapsid vaccine elicits spike-independent SARS-CoV-2 protective immunity.

bioRxiv 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Neutralizing antibodies target the receptor binding domain of the spike (S) protein, a focus of successful vaccine efforts. Concerns have arisen that S-specific vaccine immunity may fail to neutralize emerging variants. Read More

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Distinct antibody and memory B cell responses in SARS-CoV-2 naïve and recovered individuals following mRNA vaccination.

Sci Immunol 2021 04;6(58)

Institute for Immunology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Novel mRNA vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 have been authorized for emergency use. Despite their efficacy in clinical trials, data on mRNA vaccine-induced immune responses are mostly limited to serological analyses. Here, we interrogated antibody and antigen-specific memory B cells over time in 33 SARS-CoV-2 naïve and 11 SARS-CoV-2 recovered subjects. Read More

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Phenotypic and Functional Characteristics of a Novel Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin-Specific Memory NK Cell.

J Virol 2021 05 24;95(12). Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Paediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Immune memory represents the most efficient defense against invasion and transmission of infectious pathogens. In contrast to memory T and B cells, the roles of innate immunity in recall responses remain inconclusive. In this study, we identified a novel mouse spleen NK cell subset expressing NKp46 and NKG2A induced by intranasal influenza virus infection. Read More

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Fetal Macrophages Exposed to Antigens Elicit Protective Immunity Against Overwhelming Challenge in A Murine Model.

Biomedicines 2021 Mar 1;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Children's Hospital, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan.

Despite the evidence for fetal immunization following maternal infection, it remained a mystery how the fetal immune system was primed by vertically-transmitted pathogens or microbial antigens, especially before its full maturation. We previously demonstrated the capacity of fetal macrophages for endocytosing oncoprotein and allergens to bridge towards adaptive immunity in postnatal life. To investigate the immunological consequences of fetal contact with microbial antigens and the role of fetal macrophages in the defense against infection before T-cell development, we exposed gestational day 14 murine fetuses and their macrophages to flagellin and heat-killed Typhimurium. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics: Towards a more comprehensive approach to routine patient testing.

J Immunol Methods 2021 07 27;494:113044. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Departments of Immunology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals, UK. Electronic address:

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has provided the stimulus for the rapid development of a variety of diagnostic testing methods. Initially these were deployed as screening tools to evidence spread of the virus within populations. The recent availability of vaccines against the virus and the need to better understand the parameters of post-infection protective immunity requires development of methods, suitable for use in the routine diagnostic laboratory, capable of characterising the viral immune response in greater detail. Read More

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Hepatitis B surface antigen seroprevalence among children in the Philippines, 2018.

Vaccine 2021 04 9;39(14):1982-1989. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Expanded Program on Immunization Unit, Division of Communicable Diseases, World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Manila, Philippines.

The World Health Organization Western Pacific Region (WPR) set a hepatitis B virus (HBV) control target to achieve HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence of <1% among children aged 5 years by 2017. The estimated HBsAg prevalence in the Philippines among adults was 16.7% during the pre-vaccine era. Read More

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TAP 1.0: A robust immunoinformatic tool for the prediction of tumor T-cell antigens based on AAindex properties.

Comput Biol Chem 2021 Apr 8;91:107452. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Universidad de La Frontera, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Ave. Francisco Salazar 01145, Temuco, Chile. Electronic address:

Immunotherapy is a research area with great potential in drug discovery for cancer treatment. Because of the capacity of tumor antigens to activate the immune response and promote the destruction of tumor cells, they are considered excellent immunotherapeutic drugs. In this work, we evaluated fifteen machine learning algorithms for the classification of tumor antigens. Read More

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COVID-19 lung injury as a primer for immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs)-related pneumonia in a patient affected by squamous head and neck carcinoma treated with PD-L1 blockade: a case report.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 02;9(2)

Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center - IRCSS, Humanitas Cancer Center, Milan, Italy

By the beginning of the global pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 infection has dramatically impacted on oncology daily practice. In the current oncological landscape, where immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of several malignancies, distinguishing between COVID-19 and immune-mediated pneumonitis can be hard because of shared clinical, radiological and pathological features. Indeed, their common mechanism of aberrant inflammation could lead to a mutual and amplifying interaction. Read More

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February 2021

The Worm-Specific Immune Response in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Receiving Controlled Ova Immunotherapy.

Life (Basel) 2021 Jan 29;11(2). Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Institute of Immunology, Center for Infection Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin, D-14163 Berlin, Germany.

Considering their potent immunomodulatory properties, therapeutic applications of ova (TSO) are studied as potential alternative treatment of autoimmune disorders like multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Clinical phase 1 and 2 studies have demonstrated TSO treatment to be safe and well tolerated in MS patients, however, they reported only modest clinical efficacy. We therefore addressed the cellular and humoral immune responses directed against parasite antigens in individual MS patients receiving controlled TSO treatment (2500 TSO p. Read More

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January 2021

Evaluation of the introduction of allergen-containing foods: Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study 2016.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2021 05 6;126(5):555-561.e2. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York; Department of Pediatrics, Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Collegium Medicum, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland.

Background: Guidelines on the early introduction of allergen-containing foods are evolving; however, little national data exist defining current allergen-feeding practices.

Objective: To investigate the consumption rates of foods containing egg and peanut among infants and toddlers before the guideline changes in 2017.

Methods: The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study 2016 was conducted nationally among 3235 caregivers with a child under 4 years of age. Read More

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Total Recall: Intestinal T Cells in Health and Disease.

Front Immunol 2020 19;11:623072. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Medicine 1 and Deutsches Zentrum Immuntherapie, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Tissue-resident memory T cells (T cells) have crucial functions in host defense in mucosal tissues. They provide local adaptive immune surveillance and allow the fast initiation of targeted adaptive immune responses in case of antigen re-exposure. Recently, an aberrant activation in the case of immunologically mediated diseases has been increasingly acknowledged. Read More

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January 2021

Persistent cellular immunity to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

J Exp Med 2021 04;218(4)

Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY.

SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for an ongoing pandemic that has affected millions of individuals around the globe. To gain further understanding of the immune response in recovered individuals, we measured T cell responses in paired samples obtained an average of 1.3 and 6. Read More

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CD73 CD127 Long-Term Memory CD4 T Cells Are Highly Proliferative in Response to Recall Antigens and Are Early Targets in HIV-1 Infection.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jan 18;22(2). Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

HIV-1 infection rapidly leads to a loss of the proliferative response of memory CD4+ T lymphocytes, when cultured with recall antigens. We report here that CD73 expression defines a subset of resting memory CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood, which highly express the α-chain of the IL-7 receptor (CD127), but not CD38 or Ki-67, yet are highly proliferative in response to mitogen and recall antigens, and to IL-7, in vitro. These cells also preferentially express CCR5 and produce IL-2. Read More

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January 2021

Functional T Cell Reactivity to Melanocyte Antigens Is Lost during the Progression of Malignant Melanoma, but Is Restored by Immunization.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jan 9;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Research and Development Department, Cellular Technology Limited (CTL), Shaker Heights, OH 44122, USA.

Healthy human subjects develop spontaneous CD8+ T cell responses to melanoma associated antigens (MA) expressed by normal melanocytes, such as Tyrosinase, MAGE-A3, Melan/Mart-1, gp100, and NY-ESO-1. This natural autoimmunity directed against melanocytes might confer protection against the development of malignant melanoma (MM), where MA are present as overexpressed tumor-associated antigens. Consistent with this notion we report here that functional T cell reactivity to MA was found to be significantly diminished to MAGE-A3, Melan-A/Mart-1, and gp100 in untreated MM patients. Read More

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January 2021

Interrupting reactivation of immunologic memory diverts the allergic response and prevents anaphylaxis.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Apr 15;147(4):1381-1392. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

McMaster Immunology Research Centre, Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: IgE production against innocuous food antigens can result in anaphylaxis, a severe life-threatening consequence of allergic reactions. The maintenance of IgE immunity is primarily facilitated by IgG memory B cells, as IgE memory B cells and IgE plasma cells are extremely scarce and short-lived, respectively.

Objective: Our aim was to investigate the critical requirements for an IgE recall response in peanut allergy. Read More

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Controlled Covalent Conjugation of a Tuberculosis Subunit Antigen (ID93) to Liposome Improved Th1-Type Cytokine Recall Responses in Human Whole Blood.

ACS Omega 2020 Dec 20;5(48):31306-31313. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Infectious Disease Research Institute, 1616 Eastlake Avenue East Suite 400, Seattle, Washington 98102, United States.

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a foremost poverty-related disease with a high rate of mortality despite global immunization with Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Several adjuvanted recombinant proteins are in clinical development for TB to protect against the disease in infants and adults. Nevertheless, simple mixing of adjuvants with antigens may not be optimal for enhancing the immune response due to poor association. Read More

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December 2020

Preexisting immunity shapes distinct antibody landscapes after influenza virus infection and vaccination in humans.

Sci Transl Med 2020 12;12(573)

Committee on Immunology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

Humans are repeatedly exposed to variants of influenza virus throughout their lifetime. As a result, preexisting influenza-specific memory B cells can dominate the response after infection or vaccination. Memory B cells recalled by adulthood exposure are largely reactive to conserved viral epitopes present in childhood strains, posing unclear consequences on the ability of B cells to adapt to and neutralize newly emerged strains. Read More

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December 2020

Effect of Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor on efficacy of adjuvanted recombinant hepatitis B and zoster vaccines.

Blood 2021 01;137(2):185-189

Hematology Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

Vaccinations are effective in preventing infections; however, it is unknown if patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) who are treatment naïve (TN) or receiving Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors (BTKi's) respond to novel adjuvanted vaccines. Understanding the effect of BTKi's on humoral immunity is timely because BTKi's are widely used and vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 is urgently needed. In 2 open-label, single-arm clinical trials, we measured the effect of BTKi's on de novo immune response against recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (HepB-CpG) and recall response against recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) in CLL patients who were TN or on BTKi. Read More

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January 2021

Systematic Examination of Antigen-Specific Recall T Cell Responses to SARS-CoV-2 versus Influenza Virus Reveals a Distinct Inflammatory Profile.

J Immunol 2021 01 18;206(1):37-50. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada.

There is a pressing need for an in-depth understanding of immunity to SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we investigated human T cell recall responses to fully glycosylated spike trimer, recombinant N protein, as well as to S, N, M, and E peptide pools in the early convalescent phase and compared them with influenza-specific memory responses from the same donors. All subjects showed SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses to at least one Ag. Read More

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January 2021

TruNeo: an integrated pipeline improves personalized true tumor neoantigen identification.

BMC Bioinformatics 2020 Nov 18;21(1):532. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

YuceBio, 2002#, ShenYan Road, Dabaihui Center, Yantian distict, Shenzhen, 518020, China.

Background: Neoantigen-based personal vaccines and adoptive T cell immunotherapy have shown high efficacy as a cancer treatment in clinical trials. Algorithms for the accurate prediction of neoantigens have played a pivotal role in such studies. Some existing bioinformatics methods, such as MHCflurry and NetMHCpan, identify neoantigens mainly through the prediction of peptide-MHC binding affinity. Read More

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November 2020

Public and private human T-cell clones respond differentially to HCMV antigen when boosted by CD3 copotentiation.

Blood Adv 2020 11;4(21):5343-5356

Department of Surgery, School of Medicine.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) induces long-lasting T-cell immune responses that control but do not clear infection. Typical responses involve private T-cell clones, expressing T-cell antigen receptors (TCRs) unique to a person, and public T-cell clones with identical TCRs active in different people. Here, we report the development of a pretherapeutic immunostimulation modality against HCMV for human T cells, CD3 copotentiation, and the clonal analysis of its effects in recall assays at single-cell resolution. Read More

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November 2020

Case Report: Allergic Reactivity to Mahaleb () Spice in a Subject With Almond and Other Tree Nut Allergies.

Allergy Rhinol (Providence) 2020 Jan-Dec;11:2152656720959083. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Division of Allergy, IEH Laboratories and Consulting Group, Inc (IEH), Lake Forest Park, Washington.

Background: Mahaleb is an aromatic spice prepared from the fruit stone of the St. Lucie Cherry that is used as a flavoring agent in traditional Turkish and Middle Eastern baking. Immunodiagnostic kits for almond, which are based on polyclonal almond-specific IgG antibodies, have been shown to demonstrate considerable cross-reactivity with mahaleb as was incidentally discovered during a cluster of allergen-related food recalls in 2015. Read More

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October 2020

Antigens of Stimulate CXCR6+ Natural Killer Cells.

Front Immunol 2020 28;11:582414. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Laboratory of Immunobiology and Genetics, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias "Ismael Cosío Villegas", Mexico City, Mexico.

Natural killer (NK) cells participate in immunity against several pathogens by exerting cytotoxic and cytokine-production activities. Some NK cell subsets also mediate recall responses that resemble memory of adaptive lymphocytes against antigenic and non-antigenic stimuli. The C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 6 (CXCR6) is crucial for the development and maintenance of memory-like responses in murine NK cells. Read More

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September 2020

Impact of Microbiota: A Paradigm for Evolving Herd Immunity against Viral Diseases.

Viruses 2020 10 10;12(10). Epub 2020 Oct 10.

National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067, India.

Herd immunity is the most critical and essential prophylactic intervention that delivers protection against infectious diseases at both the individual and community level. This process of natural vaccination is immensely pertinent to the current context of a pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection around the globe. The conventional idea of herd immunity is based on efficient transmission of pathogens and developing natural immunity within a population. Read More

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October 2020

Anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-27, IL-10, IL-1Ra and TGF-β in subjects with increasing grades of glucose intolerence (DM-LTB-2).

Cytokine 2021 Jan 9;137:155333. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Dept of Genetics, Dr ALM PG IBMS, University of Madras, Taramani, Chennai, India. Electronic address:

Anti-inflammatory cytokines act as double edged swords- they can dampen inflammation but can also suppress immunity. The role played by these cytokines in latent TB infected (LTBI) subjects, with various grades of glucose intolerance was studied. Both serum levels and recall-secretion of IL-27, IL-10, IL-1Ra and TGF-β in Normal Glucose Tolerance (NGT), Pre-Diabetes (PDM), Newly diagnosed Diabetes (NDM) and Known Diabetes (KDM) subjects, both with and without LTBI (n = 382), were quantified by ELISA. Read More

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January 2021