164,031 results match your criteria antiepileptic drugs

Anti-seizure activity of African medicinal plants: the identification of bioactive alkaloids from the stem bark of Rauvolfia caffra using an in vivo zebrafish model.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 9:114282. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Epilepsy is one of the major chronic diseases that does not have a cure to date. Adverse drug reactions have been reported from the use of available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) which are also effective in only two-thirds of the patients. Accordingly, the identification of scaffolds with promising anti-seizure activity remains an important first step towards the development of new anti-epileptic therapies, with improved efficacy and reduced adverse effects. Read More

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Clinical Characteristics of Patients With Chronic Stevens-Johnson Syndrome Treated at a Major Tertiary Eye Hospital Within the United Kingdom.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 24;8:644795. Epub 2021 May 24.

Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive review of the clinical characteristics in chronic Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) patients within the United Kingdom population, their causative factors, treatment profile and prognosis. This retrospective series included 91 patients with chronic SJS treated at Moorfields Eye Hospital (London, United Kingdom). A chart review included visual acuity and presence of clinical findings (including lid abnormalities and ocular surface findings). Read More

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Interaction between valproic acid and carbapenems: decreased plasma concentration of valproic acid and liver injury.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May;10(5):5417-5424

Department of Pharmacy, Shanxi Bethune Hospital/Shanxi Academy of Medical Sciences, Taiyuan, China.

Background: Several case reports and retrospective studies have indicated that carbapenems decrease the plasma concentration of valproic acid (VPA). This retrospective study examines the effect of carbapenems on VPA levels, and explores whether the drug-drug interaction can influence the liver function of patients.

Methods: The data of 141 patients were collected from the Department of Neurosurgery at Shanxi Bethune Hospital from January 2018 to December 2019. Read More

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[Clinical features of epilepsy in children with IRF2BPL gene variation].

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2021 Jun;59(6):506-510

Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034, China.

To summarize the genotype and phenotype of epilepsy in patients with interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein-like (IRF2BPL) gene variants. Data of 6 epilepsy patients with IRF2BPL gene variants seen from May 2017 to September 2020 in the Department of Pediatrics of Peking University First Hospital were retrospectively collected. The clinical characteristics and genetic test results were analyzed. Read More

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CACNA1A-associated epilepsy: Electroclinical findings and treatment response on seizures in 18 patients.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2021 May 26;33:75-85. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Pediatric Neurology and Neurosurgery, CHU Angers, France; Laboratoire Angevin de Recherche en Ingénierie des Systèmes (LARIS), Université d'Angers, France.

CACNA1A pathogenic mutations are involved in various neurological phenotypes including episodic ataxia (EA2), spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA6), and familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM1). Epilepsy is poorly documented. We studied 18 patients (10 males) carrying de novo or inherited CACNA1A mutations, with median age of 2,5 years at epilepsy onset. Read More

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Lamotrigine and its relationship with Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis

Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2020 ;58(2):202-205

Secretaría de Salud, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Departamento de Dermatología, Ciudad de México, México.

Lamotrigine is an antiepileptic drug that has been widely used for epilepsy, as a mood stabilizer (for type 1 bipolar disorder) and in the management of neuropathic pain, it is used both in monotherapy and in complementary therapy. Considered relatively new, approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 1994, its benefits include a greater margin of safety compared to other anticonvulsants. However, although in a lower percentage, it causes severe adverse skin reactions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Read More

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January 2020

Potential surgical therapies for drug-resistant focal epilepsy.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Drug-resistant focal epilepsy (DRFE), defined by failure of two antiepileptic drugs, affects 30% of epileptic patients. Epilepsy surgeries are alternative options for this population. Preoperative evaluation is critical to include potential candidates, and to choose the most appropriate procedure to maximize efficacy and simultaneously minimize side effects. Read More

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The prognosis of epilepsy patients with CACNA1H missense variants: A longitudinal cohort study.

Seizure 2021 May 28;91:52-59. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Neurology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objective: CACNA1H is regarded as a gene conferring susceptibility to generalised epilepsy. However, the prognosis of epilepsy patients carrying the CACNA1H missense variants of uncertain significance (VUS) is unknown. A prospective cohort was generated to determine the deleterious effects of these variants and to check whether the presence of these variants affects the prognosis of epilepsy patients. Read More

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Two-Year-Old Cognitive Outcomes in Children of Pregnant Women With Epilepsy in the Maternal Outcomes and Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs Study.

JAMA Neurol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: The neurodevelopmental risks of fetal exposure are uncertain for many antiseizure medications (ASMs).

Objective: To compare children at 2 years of age who were born to women with epilepsy (WWE) vs healthy women and assess the association of maximum ASM exposure in the third trimester and subsequent cognitive abilities among children of WWE.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The Maternal Outcomes and Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (MONEAD) study is a prospective, observational, multicenter investigation of pregnancy outcomes that enrolled women from December 19, 2012, to January 13, 2016, at 20 US epilepsy centers. Read More

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Treatment Outcome of Epileptic Patients Receiving Antiepileptic Drugs in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Behav Neurol 2021 13;2021:5586041. Epub 2021 May 13.

Pharmacology and Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Debre Tabor University, P.O. Box 272, Debre Tabor, Amhara, Ethiopia.

Background: The prevalence and incidence rate of epilepsy were found to be higher in low- and middle-income countries. Uncontrolled epilepsy has a high risk of disability, stigma, discrimination, human rights violations, and premature death. The available studies of controlled seizure in Ethiopia have showed inconsistent results which calls for systematic review and meta-analysis. Read More

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Lamotrigine and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome Prevention.

Psychopharmacol Bull 2021 Mar;51(2):96-114

Edinoff, MD, Nguyen, MD, Gerald, MD, Louisiana State University Health Science Center Shreveport, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Shreveport, LA. Crane, BS, Lewis, BS, St Pierre, BS, Louisiana State University Shreveport School of Medicine, Shreveport, LA. Alan D. Kaye, MD, PhD, Louisiana State University New Orleans, Department of Anesthesiology, New Orleans, LA, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Department of Anesthesiology, Shreveport, LA. Gennuso, MD, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Department of Anesthesiology, Shreveport, LA. Adam M. Kaye, PharmD, Jessica S. Kaye, Thomas J. Long School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, University of the Pacific, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Stockton, CA. Rachel J. Kaye, BA, Medical College of South Carolina, Charleston, SC. Varrassi, MD, PhD, FIPP, Paolo Procacci Foundation, Via Tacito 7, Roma, Italy. Viswanath, MD, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Department of Anesthesiology, Shreveport, LA, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, Creighton University School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Omaha, NE, Valley Anesthesiology and Pain Consultants-Envision Physician Services, Phoenix, AZ. Urits, MD, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Department of Anesthesiology, Shreveport, LA, Southcoast Health, Southcoast Physicians Group Pain Medicine, Wareham, MA.

Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) is a rare life-threatening condition characterized by severe mucocutaneous epidermal necrolysis and detachment of the epidermis. The condition centers around a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction with a complex etiology stemming from a variety of causes. The number one cause is medication-related-common ones including sulfonamides, antiepileptics, allopurinol, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Read More

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[Elderly Glioma].

No Shinkei Geka 2021 May;49(3):647-659

Department of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima University Hospital.

Treatment of elderly glioma patients is a challenge in neurosurgery/neuro-oncology. The International Society of Geriatric Oncology(SIOG)recommends that elderly cancer patients undergo comprehensive geriatric assessment(CGA). The CGA score proved to be a significant predictor of mortality in this cohort, and it could be a useful treatment decision tool. Read More

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Rhein attenuates PTZ‑induced epilepsy and exerts neuroprotective activity via inhibition of the TLR4-NFκB signaling pathway.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jun 3:136002. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of basic medicine, Xi'an Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

Background: Epilepsy is a common neurological disease that cannot be well controlled by existing antiepileptic drugs. Studies have implicated oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Rhein has a comprehensive pharmacological function in reducing inflammation and can play a neuroprotective role in many neurological diseases, however little is known about its effects on epilepsy. Read More

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The role of vagus nerve stimulation in the treatment of refractory epilepsy: clinical outcomes and impact on quality of life.

Neurologia (Engl Ed) 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Servicio de Neurocirugía, Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Fundación para el Fomento de la Investigación Sanitaria y Biomédica de la Comunitat Valenciana (FISABIO), Alicante, Spain.

Background: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is used as a complementary therapy to pharmacological treatment in patients with refractory epilepsy. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of VNS in reducing seizure frequency, severity, and duration; reducing the number of antiepileptic drugs administered; and improving patients' quality of life.

Material And Methods: We analysed the clinical progression of 70 patients with refractory epilepsy treated with VNS at Hospital Universitario de Alicante and Hospital Clínico de Valencia. Read More

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Gene co-expression network analysis reveals mechanisms underlying ozone-induced carbamazepine toxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 14;276:130282. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology Section, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18A, 75236, Uppsala, Sweden; Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 9, 00014, Helsinki, Finland.

Sewage effluent ozonation can reduce concentrations of chemical pollutants including pharmaceutical residues. However, the formation of potentially toxic ozonation byproducts (OBPs) is a matter of concern. This study sought to elucidate toxicity mechanisms of ozonated carbamazepine (CBZ), an anti-epileptic drug frequently detected in sewage effluents and surface water, in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio). Read More

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Iris metastasis as the initial presentation of metastatic esophageal cancer diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(22):e26232

Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine.

Rationale: Metastasis of neoplasms to the eye is quite uncommon. In this case report, we describe a patient where primary esophageal cancer was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of an iris tumor.

Patient Concerns: A 70-year-old male complained of redness and discomfort in the right eye. Read More

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A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association of ABCC2/ABCG2 polymorphisms with antiepileptic drug responses in epileptic patients.

Epilepsy Res 2021 May 28;175:106678. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, West China School of Medicine/West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, PR China. Electronic address:

Purpose: Accumulating evidence indicates that genetic polymorphisms in ATP-binding cassette superfamily members, such asABCC2 and ABCG2, alter responses to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs); however, this evidence is controversial and inconclusive. To provide strong evidence of the association between common polymorphisms in ABCC2 and ABCG2 and AED responses in patients with epilepsy, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: A literature search of electronic databases (PubMed, EBSCO, Ovid and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure) was performed. Read More

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Contemporary trends in antiepileptic drug treatment among women of childbearing age with epilepsy in the United States: 2004-2015.

J Neurol Sci 2021 May 18;427:117500. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Neurology, Penn State University Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA.

Objective: Certain antiepileptic drugs are associated with an increased risk for major congenital malformations (MCM). However, little is known regarding recent patterns of antiepileptic drug (ASM) prescriptions to women of childbearing age with epilepsy (WCE) in the United States.

Methods: Data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey was analyzed between the years 2004-2015 to determine trends in national antiepileptic drug prescriptions for WCE. Read More

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Treatment effects of the combination of ceftriaxone and valproic acid on neuronal and behavioral functions in an epilepsy rat model.

Exp Physiol 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Psychology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, 40201, ROC.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Imbalance of activities between GABAergic and glutamatergic systems is involved in epilepsy. It is not known whether simultaneously increasing GABAergic and decreasing glutamatergic activity, by valproic acid and ceftriaxone, leads to better seizure control. What is the central question of this study? Ceftriaxone suppressed seizure and cognitive deficits as well as restored neuronal density and number of new born cells in the hippocampus in an epilepsy rat model. Read More

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Controlled release of enrofloxacin by vanillin-crosslinked chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol blends.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Jul 22;126:112125. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Surface Engineering, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. Electronic address:

In transdermal drug delivery applications uniform drug distribution and sustained release are of great importance to decrease the side effects. In this direction in the present research, vanillin crosslinked chitosan (CS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blend based matrix-type transdermal system was prepared by casting and drying of aqueous solutions for local delivery of enrofloxacin (ENR) drug. Subsequently, the properties including the morphology, chemical structure, thermal behavior, tensile strength, crosslinking degree, weight uniformity, thickness, swelling and drug release of the CS-PVA blend films before and after crosslinking were characterized. Read More

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[Four cases of acute diquat poisoning with prominent epileptoid seizure and literature review].

Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 2021 May;39(5):359-362

Intensive Care Unit, the Characteristic Medical Center of Chinese People's Armed Police Force, Tianjin 300162, China.

To further improve the awareness of the clinical feature of acute diquat poisoning. A retrospective analysis was performed on 4 cases of acute diquat poisoning with epileptoid seizure as the main clinical manifestation, which were admitted and diagnosed by the Characteristic Medical Center of Chinese People's Armed Police Force from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2019. Take "Diquat" or "Deiquat" or "Reward" as keyword search for CNKI, Pubmed, and EMbase in both Chinese and English. Read More

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C-11, a New Antiepileptic Drug Candidate: Evaluation of the Physicochemical Properties and Impact on the Protective Action of Selected Antiepileptic Drugs in the Mouse Maximal Electroshock-Induced Seizure Model.

Molecules 2021 May 24;26(11). Epub 2021 May 24.

Isobolographic Analysis Laboratory, Institute of Rural Health, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-090 Lublin, Poland.

C-11 is a hybrid compound derived from 2-(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl) propanamide, with a wide spectrum of anticonvulsant activity and low neurotoxicity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of C-11 on the protective action of various antiepileptic drugs (i.e. Read More

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Interactions among Lacosamide and Second-Generation Antiepileptic Drugs in the Tonic-Clonic Seizure Model in Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 24;22(11). Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Lublin, 20-090 Lublin, Poland.

Combination therapy with two or three antiseizure medications (ASMs) is sometimes a preferred method of treatment in epilepsy patients. (1) Background: To detect the most beneficial combination among three ASMs, a screen test evaluating in vivo interactions with respect to their anticonvulsant properties, was conducted on albino Swiss mice; (2) Methods: Classification of interactions among lacosamide (LCM) and selected second-generation ASMs (lamotrigine (LTG), pregabalin (PGB), oxcarbazepine (OXC), and topiramate (TPM)) was based on the isobolographic analysis in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure (MES) model. Interactions among LCM and second-generation ASMs were visualized using a polygonogram; (3) Results: In the mouse MES model, synergy was observed for the combinations of LCM + TPM + PGB and LCM + OXC + PGB. Read More

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Genetic Determinants in and Cytochrome P450 Genes in the Risk of Aromatic Antiepileptic-Induced Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions.

J Pers Med 2021 May 7;11(5). Epub 2021 May 7.

Discipline of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang 11800, Malaysia.

Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is a pressing health problem, and one of the main reasons for treatment failure with antiepileptic drugs. This has become apparent in the event of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), which can be life-threatening. In this review, four hypotheses were identified to describe how the immune system is triggered in the development of SCARs, which predominantly involve the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. Read More

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Bioactive Natural Products from the Red Sea.

Mar Drugs 2021 May 21;19(6). Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Deraya University, New Minia 61111, Egypt.

The marine environment has proven to be a rich source of diverse natural products with relevant activities such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiepileptic, immunomodulatory, antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic [... Read More

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Missense Variant in a Cat with L-2-Hydroxyglutaric Aciduria.

Genes (Basel) 2021 May 1;12(5). Epub 2021 May 1.

Anderson Moores Veterinary Specialists, Winchester SO21 2LL, Hampshire, UK.

A 7-month-old, spayed female, domestic longhair cat with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA) was investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical signs, metabolic changes and underlying genetic defect. The owner of the cat reported a 4-month history of multiple paroxysmal seizure-like episodes, characterized by running around the house, often in circles, with abnormal behavior, bumping into obstacles, salivating and often urinating. Read More

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Visual surround suppression in people with epilepsy correlates with attentional-executive functioning, but not with epilepsy or seizure types.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 May 29;121(Pt A):108080. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Epileptology, University Hospital Bonn, Venusberg-Campus 1, 53127 Bonn, Germany.

Purpose: Following reports that an index of visual surround suppression (SI) may serve as a biomarker for an imbalance of cortical excitation and inhibition in different psychiatric and neurological disorders including epilepsy, we evaluated whether SI is associated with seizure susceptibility, seizure spread, and inhibitory effects of antiseizure medication (ASM).

Methods: In this prospective controlled study, we examined SI with a motion discrimination task in people with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) and focal epilepsy with and without focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures. Cofactors such as GABAergic ASM, attentional-executive functioning, and depression were taken into account. Read More

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Toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis overlap in pediatric patients with a focus on newer antiepileptic drugs: A 25-year retrospective study at a single tertiary care center.

Pediatr Dermatol 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Dermatology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.

Background: Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis Syndrome (TEN) are rare immune-mediated diseases. Extensive research on adult triggers of SJS and TEN is available; however, research in children is more limited.

Objective: We sought to investigate and report the experience with pediatric SJS and TEN in our center, identifying associated medications. Read More

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Brivaracetam Retention Rate and Seizure Outcomes in Patients with Drug-Resistant Focal Epilepsy Included in the Medical Need Program in Belgium: A Real-World, Multicenter, Chart Review.

Drugs Real World Outcomes 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

UCB Pharma, Allée de la Recherche 60, 1070, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: New treatments are needed for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy to improve seizure control without decreasing quality of life.

Objective: In Belgium, a Medical Need Program (MNP) was initiated to make a new antiepileptic drug (brivaracetam; high-affinity synaptic vesicle protein 2A ligand) available as adjunctive therapy to treat focal seizures in patients failing treatment with three or more different antiepileptic drugs. This is a real-world chart review of the majority of patients (71%) enrolled in the MNP. Read More

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Status epilepticus secondary to hyperammonaemia: a late presentation of an undiagnosed urea cycle defect.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 31;14(5). Epub 2021 May 31.

Critical Care and Anaesthetics, Whipps Cross University Hospital NHS Trust, London, UK

In this report, we describe the diagnosis, investigation and management of a patient presenting with refractory status epilepticus secondary to a previously unrecognised urea cycle defect, ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, causing a hyperammonaemic encephalopathy. While metabolic disorders will be readily considered in a paediatric population presenting with difficult seizures, it is unusual for such cases to present in adulthood, and maintaining a broad differential in patients with status epilepticus is important. Early recognition and initiation of treatment are vital. Read More

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