5,409 results match your criteria antagonistic role

Evolutionary dynamics of the human pseudoautosomal regions.

PLoS Genet 2021 Apr 19;17(4):e1009532. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute of Investigation and Innovation in Health (i3S). University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Recombination between the X and Y human sex chromosomes is limited to the two pseudoautosomal regions (PARs) that present quite distinct evolutionary origins. Despite the crucial importance for male meiosis, genetic diversity patterns and evolutionary dynamics of these regions are poorly understood. In the present study, we analyzed and compared the genetic diversity of the PAR regions using publicly available genomic sequences encompassing both PAR1 and PAR2. Read More

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Polyene-Producing spp. From the Fungus-Growing Termite Exhibit High Inhibitory Activity Against the Antagonistic Fungus .

Front Microbiol 2021 1;12:649962. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Microbial Technology Institute, Shandong University, Qingdao, China.

Fungus-growing termites are engaged in a tripartite mutualism with intestinal microbes and a monocultivar ( sp.) in the fungus garden. The termites are often plagued by entomopathogen () and fungus garden is always threatened by competitors ( spp. Read More

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The Global Regulation of "Fake News" in the Time of Oxymora: Facts and Fictions about the Covid-19 Pandemic as Coincidences or Predictive Programming?

Int J Semiot Law 2021 Apr 13:1-27. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Global Legal Studies, Faculty of Law, University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Macao SAR, 999078 China.

The beginning of the twenty-first century saw an apparent change in language in public discourses characterised by the rise of so-called "essentially oxymoronic concepts", i.e., mainly oxymora and paradoxes. Read More

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Role of synergy and antagonism in designing multidrug adaptive chemotherapy schedules.

Y Ma P K Newton

Phys Rev E 2021 Mar;103(3-1):032408

Department of Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering, Mathematics, and The Ellison Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-1191, USA.

Chemotherapeutic resistance via the mechanism of competitive release of resistant tumor cell subpopulations is a major problem associated with cancer treatments and one of the main causes of tumor recurrence. Often, chemoresistance is mitigated by using multidrug schedules (two or more combination therapies) that can act synergistically, additively, or antagonistically on the heterogeneous population of cells as they evolve. In this paper, we develop a three-component evolutionary game theory model to design two-drug adaptive schedules that mitigate chemoresistance and delay tumor recurrence in an evolving collection of tumor cells with two resistant subpopulations and one chemosensitive population that has a higher baseline fitness but is not resistant to either drug. Read More

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Diversification of terpenoid emissions proposes a geographic structure based on climate and pathogen composition in Japanese cedar.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8307. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 305-8577, Japan.

Biogenic volatile organic compounds emitted from plants are important constituents of atmospheric chemistry and play a major role in the resistance of plants against various environmental stresses. However, little is known about how abiotic and biotic environments on a geographic scale relate to diversifications of the emission. Here, we present variations of terpenes stored in and emitted from leaves of a single species in a common garden, using genetically differentiated local populations of Japanese cedar, the most dominant and widely distributed tree species in Japan. Read More

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Mechanisms of Cellular Senescence: Cell Cycle Arrest and Senescence Associated Secretory Phenotype.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 29;9:645593. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

MRC Prion Unit at UCL, UCL Institute of Prion Diseases, London, United Kingdom.

Cellular senescence is a stable cell cycle arrest that can be triggered in normal cells in response to various intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli, as well as developmental signals. Senescence is considered to be a highly dynamic, multi-step process, during which the properties of senescent cells continuously evolve and diversify in a context dependent manner. It is associated with multiple cellular and molecular changes and distinct phenotypic alterations, including a stable proliferation arrest unresponsive to mitogenic stimuli. Read More

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Plants-nematodes-microbes crosstalk within soil: A trade-off among friends or foes.

Microbiol Res 2021 Apr 2;248:126755. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, 143005, Punjab, India. Electronic address:

Plants interact with enormous biotic and abiotic components within ecosystem. For instance, microbes, insects, herbivores, animals, nematodes etc. In general, these interactions are studied independently with plants, that condenses only specific information about the interaction. Read More

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Complex interactions of lovastatin with 10 chemotherapeutic drugs: a rigorous evaluation of synergism and antagonism.

BMC Cancer 2021 Apr 6;21(1):356. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Background: Evidence bearing on the role of statins in the prevention and treatment of cancer is confounded by the diversity of statins, chemotherapeutic agents and cancer types included in the numerous published studies; consequently, the adjunctive value of statins with chemotherapy remains uncertain.

Methods: We assayed lovastatin in combination with each of ten commonly prescribed chemotherapy drugs in highly reproducible in vitro assays, using a neutral cellular substrate, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell density (OD) data were analyzed for synergism and antagonism using the Loewe additivity model implemented with the Combenefit software. Read More

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Possible Role of Activin in the Adiponectin Paradox-Induced Progress of Alzheimer's Disease.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Division of Neuroscience, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Accumulating evidence suggests that the adiponectin (APN) paradox might be involved in promoting aging-associated chronic diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In human brain, APN regulation of the evolvability of amyloidogenic proteins (APs), including amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau, in developmental/reproductive stages, might be paradoxically manifest as APN stimulation of AD through antagonistic pleiotropy in aging. The unique mechanisms underlying APN activity remain unclear, a better understanding of which might provide clues for AD therapy. Read More

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Microbial community and abiotic effects on aquatic bacterial communities in north temperate lakes.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 27;781:146771. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Canada; Department of Integrative Biology, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

The aquatic bacterial community (BC) plays a vital role in determining the nature and rate of ecosystem function. However, the biotic and abiotic factors influencing BC structure and function are largely unknown. Hence, the current study characterizes the impact of biotic and abiotic factors on aquatic bacterial biodiversity to determine whether the dominant effects are biotic or abiotic by partitioning their relative effects across temperate Canadian lakes. Read More

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Detection of loci exhibiting pleiotropic effects on body weight and egg number in female broilers.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 2;11(1):7441. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Animal Science and Aquaculture, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 11855, Athens, Greece.

The objective of the present study was to discover the genetic variants, functional candidate genes, biological processes and molecular functions underlying the negative genetic correlation observed between body weight (BW) and egg number (EN) traits in female broilers. To this end, first a bivariate genome-wide association and second stepwise conditional-joint analyses were performed using 2586 female broilers and 240 k autosomal SNPs. The aforementioned analyses resulted in a total number of 49 independent cross-phenotype (CP) significant SNPs with 35 independent markers showing antagonistic action i. Read More

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Metabolome-Wide, Phylogenetically Controlled Comparison Indicates Higher Phenolic Diversity in Tropical Tree Species.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Mar 16;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CSIC-UAB, E-08913 Bellaterra, Spain.

Tropical plants are expected to have a higher variety of defensive traits, such as a more diverse array of secondary metabolic compounds in response to greater pressures of antagonistic interactions, than their temperate counterparts. We test this hypothesis using advanced metabolomics linked to a novel stoichiometric compound classification to analyze the complete foliar metabolomes of four tropical and four temperate tree species, which were selected so that each subset contained the same amount of phylogenetic diversity and evenness. We then built Bayesian phylogenetic multilevel models to test for tropical-temperate differences in metabolite diversity for the entire metabolome and for four major families of secondary compounds. Read More

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Nanopore-Sequencing Characterization of the Gut Microbiota of Larvae: Contribution to Protection against Entomopathogenic Nematodes?

Pathogens 2021 Mar 25;10(4). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Industrial and Environmental Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland.

This study focused on the potential relationships between midgut microbiota of the common cockchafer larvae and their resistance to entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) infection. We investigated the bacterial community associated with control and unsusceptible EPN-exposed insects through nanopore sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the most abundant bacterial phyla within the complex and variable midgut microbiota of the wild larvae. Read More

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Computational Modeling to Explain Why 5,5-Diarylpentadienamides are TRPV1 Antagonists.

Julio Caballero

Molecules 2021 Mar 21;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Centro de Bioinformática, Departamento de Bioinformática, Simulación y Modelado (CBSM), Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Talca, Talca 3460000, Chile.

Several years ago, the crystallographic structures of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in the presence of agonists and antagonists were reported, providing structural information about its chemical activation and inactivation. TRPV1's activation increases the transport of calcium and sodium ions, leading to the excitation of sensory neurons and the perception of pain. On the other hand, its antagonistic inactivation has been explored to design analgesic drugs. Read More

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Soil indigenous microorganisms weaken the synergy of Massilia sp. WF1 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium in phenanthrene biodegradation.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 20;781:146655. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Biodegradation is a promising way to reduce phenanthrene (PHE) in environment. PHE biodegradation by bioaugmentation of axenic and mixed cultures of Massilia sp. WF1 (a highly efficient PHE-degrading bacteria) and Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. Read More

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Catabolic enzyme activities during biodegradation of three-ring PAHs by novel DTU-1Y and DTU-7P strains isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Bawana Road, Shahbad Daulatpur, Delhi, India.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants having health hazards. PAH-utilizing bacterial strains were isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil from siding area, Bijwasan supply location of BPCL, Delhi, India. Bacterial strains with different morphology were isolated and acclimatized to a mixture of low molecular weight PAH compounds in the concentration range of 50-10,000 mg/L. Read More

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TGF-β superfamily co-receptors in cancer.

Dev Dyn 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily signaling via their cognate receptors is frequently modified by TGF-β superfamily co-receptors. Signaling through SMAD-mediated pathways may be enhanced or depressed depending on the specific co-receptor and cell context. This dynamic effect on signaling is further modified by the release of many of the co-receptors from the membrane to generate soluble forms that are often antagonistic to the membrane-bound receptors. Read More

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Knockdown of the plastid-encoded acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene uncovers functions in metabolism and development.

Plant Physiol 2021 Apr;185(3):1091-1110

Max-Planck-Institut für Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie, Potsdam-Golm, Germany.

De novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plants relies on a prokaryotic-type acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) that resides in the plastid compartment. The enzyme is composed of four subunits, one of which is encoded in the plastid genome, whereas the other three subunits are encoded by nuclear genes. The plastid gene (accD) encodes the β-carboxyltransferase subunit of ACCase and is essential for cell viability. Read More

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Antagonistic Activity of spp. Against in Rhizosphere of Triggers the Expression of Host Defense Genes and Improves Its Growth Under Long-Term Monoculture System.

Front Microbiol 2021 15;12:579920. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

College of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

Under consecutive monoculture, the abundance of pathogenic fungi, such as in the rhizosphere of , negatively affects the yield and quality of the plant. Therefore, it is pertinent to explore the role of antagonistic fungi for the management of fungal pathogens such as Our PCR-denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) results revealed that the diversity of spp. was significantly declined due to extended monoculture. Read More

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Comparative study on protective effect of different selenium sources against cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity via regulating the transcriptions of selenoproteome.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jun 27;215:112135. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, PR China; Key Laboratory of the Provincial Education Department of Heilongjiang for Common Animal Disease Prevention and Treatment, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, PR China; Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Laboratory Animals and Comparative Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, PR China. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, which mainly input to the aquatic environment through discharge of industrial and agricultural waste, can be a threat to human and animal health. Selenium (Se) possesses a beneficial role in protecting animals and ameliorating the toxic effects of Cd. However, the comparative antagonistic effects of different Se sources such as inorganic, organic Se and nano-form Se on Cd toxicity are still under-investigated. Read More

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Condition-dependent functional shift of two Mtmr lipid phosphatases in autophagy control.

Autophagy 2021 Mar 28:1-19. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Genetics, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.

Myotubularin (MTM) and myotubularin-related (MTMR) lipid phosphatases catalyze the removal of a phosphate group from certain phosphatidylinositol derivatives. Because some of these substrates are required for macroautophagy/autophagy, during which unwanted cytoplasmic constituents are delivered into lysosomes for degradation, MTM and MTMRs function as important regulators of the autophagic process. Despite its physiological and medical significance, the specific role of individual MTMR paralogs in autophagy control remains largely unexplored. Read More

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[The role of Bmal1 in regulating the aging of mesenchymal stem cells via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway].

Cui Ye Hai-Miao Wu

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue 2020 Dec;29(6):601-605

Department of Orthodontics, Shanghai Stomatological Hospital. Shanghai 200031, China.

Purpose: To investigate whether Bmal1 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway has synergistic or antagonistic effects on the aging of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs).

Methods: The cells were divided into two groups. The expression of β - catenin and TCF1 in the transfected group and the blank group were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR and Western blot. Read More

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December 2020

Patients with -positive gastric cancer with human cytomegalovirus infection have a low tendency of advanced lymphatic metastasis in a Chinese population.

Oncol Lett 2021 May 19;21(5):402. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, School of Basic Medical Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000, P.R. China.

Recognized as a group I carcinogen for gastric cancer (GC) and a factor involved in the development of GC, serves a major part in GC research. However, most studies have focused on itself, ignoring the complicated pathogenic microbiological environment of GC and neglecting the synergistic or antagonistic effects of with other pathogenic microorganisms. Increasing evidence has revealed that the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is present in several types of tumors and serves an important role in the neoplastic process of certain human malignant tumors, including GC. Read More

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The use of probiotics in animal feeding for safe production and as potential alternatives to antibiotics.

Vet World 2021 Feb 3;14(2):319-328. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of microbiology and virology, Institute of Medicine, RUDN University, Moscow, Russia.

Although the production of safe food for human consumption is the primary purpose for animal rearing, the environment and well-being of the animals must also be taken into consideration. Based on microbiological point of view, the production of healthy food from animals involves considering foodborne pathogens, on the one hand and on the other hand, the methods used to fight against germs during breeding. The conventional method to control or prevent bacterial infections in farming is the use antibiotics. Read More

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February 2021

Contrasting roles for BMP-4 and ventromorphins (BMP agonists) in TGFβ-induced lens EMT.

Exp Eye Res 2021 Mar 24;206:108546. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

School of Medical Sciences, The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; Save Sight Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling play opposing roles in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells, a cellular process integral to the pathogenesis of fibrotic cataract. We previously showed that BMP-7-induced Smad1/5 signaling blocks TGFβ-induced Smad2/3-signaling and EMT in rat lens epithelial cell explants. To further explore the antagonistic role of BMPs on TGFβ-signaling, we tested the capability of BMP-4 or newly described BMP agonists, ventromorphins, in blocking TGFβ-induced lens EMT. Read More

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Mutant glucocorticoid receptor binding elements on the interleukin-6 promoter regulate dexamethasone effects.

BMC Immunol 2021 Mar 26;22(1):24. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Emergency Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.

Background: Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been extensively used as essential modulators in clinical infectious and inflammatory diseases. The GC receptor (GR) is a transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor family that regulates anti-inflammatory processes and releases pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6.

Results: Five putative GR binding sites and other transcriptional factor binding sites were identified on theIL-6 promoter, and dexamethasone (DEX) was noted to reduce the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-6 production. Read More

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Autophagy in Viral Development and Progression of Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 8;11:603224. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Departamento de Fisiología y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Autophagy is a complex degradative process by which eukaryotic cells capture cytoplasmic components for subsequent degradation through lysosomal hydrolases. Although this catabolic process can be triggered by a great variety of stimuli, action in cells varies according to cellular context. Autophagy has been previously linked to disease development modulation, including cancer. Read More

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Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of an Ambrosia Beetle to Volatiles of its Nutritional Fungal Symbiont.

J Chem Ecol 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Horticultural Insects Research Laboratory, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, 1680 Madison Ave, Wooster, OH, 44691, USA.

Ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) cultivate their fungal symbiont within host substrates as the sole source of nutrition on which the larvae and adults must feed. To investigate a possible role for semiochemicals in this interaction, we characterized electrophysiological and behavioral responses of Xylosandrus germanus to volatiles associated with its fungal symbiont Ambrosiella grosmanniae. During still-air walking bioassays, X. Read More

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mir-71 mediates age-dependent opposing contributions of the stress-activated kinase KGB-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Genetics 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department Integrative Biology, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

Studying the evolutionary processes that shaped aging offers a path for understanding the causes of aging. The Antagonistic Pleiotropy theory for the evolution of aging proposes that the inverse correlation between age and natural selection strength allows positive selection of gene variants with early-life beneficial contributions to fitness in spite of detrimental late-life consequences. However, mechanistic understanding of how this principle manifests in aging is still lacking. Read More

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Disease-Suppressive Soils-Beyond Food Production: a Critical Review.

J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 2021 Mar 12:1-29. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Indian Council of Agricultural Research, KAB-II, New Delhi, India.

In the pursuit of higher food production and economic growth and increasing population, we have often jeopardized natural resources such as soil, water, vegetation, and biodiversity at an alarming rate. In this process, wider adoption of intensive farming practices, namely changes in land use, imbalanced fertilizer application, minimum addition of organic residue/manure, and non-adoption of site-specific conservation measures, has led to declining in soil health and land degradation in an irreversible manner. In addition, increasing use of pesticides, coupled with soil and water pollution, has led the researchers to search for an environmental-friendly and cost-effective alternatives to controlling soil-borne diseases that are difficult to control, and which significantly limit agricultural productivity. Read More

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