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Multiple sclerosis is associated with higher comorbidity and healthcare resource use: a population-based, case-control study in a western Mediterranean region.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Servei de Neurología-Neuroimmunología, Centre d'Esclerosi Múltiple de Catalunya (Cemcat), Vall d'Hebron Hospital Universitari, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Comorbidities are common in multiple sclerosis (MS), and have been associated with worse outcomes and increased healthcare resource usage. We studied the frequency of comorbidities and adverse health behaviors (AHB) in MS patients in the Mediterranean region of Catalonia.

Methods: Population-based, case-control study using primary healthcare information covering 80% of Catalonia's population. Read More

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Biomass as source for hydrochar and biochar production to recover phosphates from wastewater: A review on challenges, commercialization, and future perspectives.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 15;286(Pt 1):131490. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, United States. Electronic address:

Excessive phosphate run-off with total phosphorus concentration greater than 20 μg P L triggers the growth of harmful algal species in waterbodies and potentially leads to eutrophication. This has severe negative implications on aquatic environment and impacts human health. The annual economic impact of harmful algal blooms is reported to be as high as $25 million for public health and commercial fishery sector, $29 million for recreation/tourism sector and $2 million for monitoring and management. Read More

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The interactions between childhood adversities and recent stress were associated with early-adulthood depression among Chinese undergraduate students.

Depress Anxiety 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Mental Health Center and Psychiatric Laboratory, the State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Background: It is widely acknowledged that childhood adversities (CAs) and recent stress are potential risk factors for adult depression. However, the mechanism(s) by which interactions of CAs with recent stress affect adult depression remain unclear.

Aims: To investigate the predictive association of the interaction among CAs and recent stress with early-adult depression. Read More

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Comparing sexual misconduct incidents in Annual Security Reports and Title IX coordinator data: Do policies increase reporting.

J Am Coll Health 2021 Jul 22:1-12. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Nebraska Omaha, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.

Objective: Few studies have compared measures of sexual misconduct reporting, and there are few assessments of campus policies on reporting.

Methods: Using data from New York institutions of higher education (IHEs) ( = 209) we compare the number of sexual misconduct incidents reported in Annual Security Reports (ASRs) and to Title IX coordinators, and explore the relationship between policies and reporting across both measures, while controlling for institutional factors.

Results: The majority of IHEs had higher numbers of sexual misconduct incidents reported to Title IX coordinators than reported in ASR data. Read More

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Emerging Technologies for In Vitro Inhalation Toxicology.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Jul 22:e2100633. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Rayen School of Engineering, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH, 44555, USA.

Respiratory toxicology remains a major research area in the 21st century since current scenario of airborne viral infection transmission and pollutant inhalation is expected to raise the annual morbidity beyond 2 million. Clinical and epidemiological research connecting human exposure to air contaminants to understand adverse pulmonary health outcomes is, therefore, an immediate subject of human health assessment. Important observations in defining systemic effects of environmental contaminants on inhalation metabolic dysfunction, liver health, and gastrointestinal tract have been well explored with in vivo models. Read More

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Variation in outcomes across surgeons meeting the Leapfrog volume standard for complex oncologic surgery.

Cancer 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio.

Background: A large body of evidence supports regionalization of complex oncologic surgery to high-volume surgeons at high-volume hospitals. However, whether there is heterogeneity of outcomes among high-volume surgeons at high-volume hospitals remains unknown.

Methods: Patients who underwent esophagectomy, lung resection, pancreatectomy, or proctectomy for primary cancer were identified within the Medicare 100% Standard Analytic File (2013-2017). Read More

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EXPRESS: A Prospective Population-Based Study of Stroke in the Central Region of Iran: The Qom Incidence of Stroke Study (QSIS).

Int J Stroke 2021 Jul 22:17474930211037526. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Qom University of Medical Sciences and Health Services School of Medicine, Neurology, Qom, Qom, Iran (the Islamic Republic of).

Objective: The present study is one of the few population-based studies that have been conducted in the Middle East, aimed to determine the incidence of stroke in Qom, one of the central provinces of Iran.

Methods: The Qom province includes an estimated at-risk population of about 1 million. During a twelve-month period (November 2018âNovember 2019), all first-ever strokes occurring in the target population were registered. Read More

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Cross-Cultural Associations of Four Parenting Behaviors With Child Flourishing: Examining Cultural Specificity and Commonality in Cultural Normativeness and Intergenerational Transmission Processes.

Child Dev 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Temple University.

Families from nine countries (N = 1,338) were interviewed annually seven times (M child = 7-15) to test specificity and commonality in parenting behaviors associated with child flourishing and moderation of associations by normativeness of parenting. Participants included 1,338 children (M = 8.59 years, SD = 0. Read More

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Changes in AZGP1 Serum Levels and Correlation With Pulse Wave Velocity After Kidney Transplantation.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 5;8:692213. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Hannover Medical School, Hanover, Germany.

Zinc-alpha 2-glycoprotein (AZGP1), a secreted protein with ubiquitous tissue expression, has been controversially linked to the risk of cardiovascular disease. In a cohort of kidney transplant recipients, we measured serum AZGP1 levels after transplantation over a 2 year period and tested for an association with pulse wave velocity as an important parameter indicating future cardiovascular events. Annual blood sampling and pulse wave velocity measurements were longitudinally performed in 113 kidney transplant recipients. Read More

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Metabolomics Analyses Provide Insights Into Nutritional Value and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Halophyte .

Front Plant Sci 2021 5;12:703255. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Gansu Provincial Key Lab of Aridland Crop Science/Gansu Key Lab of Crop Improvement and Germplasm Enhancement, Lanzhou, China.

is a succulent annual herbaceous halophyte belonging to the Chenopodiaceae family, has attracted wide attention as a promising candidate for phytoremediation and as an oilseed crop and noodle-improver. More importantly, has important medicinal value in traditional Chinese medicine. However, there are few comprehensive studies on the nutrients, particularly secondary metabolites. Read More

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Do Vaccines Need a Gender Perspective? Influenza Says Yes!

Front Immunol 2021 5;12:715688. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

National Influenza Center of Valladolid, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.

Background: Sex differences in immune responses are well known. However, the humoral response in males and females in the case of influenza vaccination is yet to be characterized since studies have shown uneven results.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in 2,243 individuals (46. Read More

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Work-life balance: a comparison of women in cardiology and other specialties.

Open Heart 2021 Jul;8(2)

Westmead Applied Research Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Objective: Significant gender disparities exist in some medical specialties, particularly cardiology. We assessed work, personal life and work-life balance in women in cardiology in Australia and New Zealand (NZ), compared with other specialties, to determine factors that may contribute to the lack of women in the specialty.

Methods: This study is a prospective survey-based cohort study comparing cardiology and non-cardiology specialties. Read More

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Evaluating the implementation of a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease management program using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research: a case study.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Jul 21;21(1):717. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

School of Health Studies, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Family Medicine, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, The Schulich Interfaculty Program in Public Health, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Canada.

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prevalent chronic disease that requires comprehensive approaches to manage; it accounts for a significant portion of Canada's annual healthcare spending. Interprofessional teams are effective at providing chronic disease management that meets the needs of patients. As part of an ongoing initiative, a COPD management program, the Best Care COPD program was implemented in a primary care setting. Read More

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Characterizing baseline legacy chemical contamination in urban estuaries for disaster-research through systematic evidence mapping: A case study.

Chemosphere 2021 Oct 22;281:130925. Epub 2021 May 22.

Texas A&M University Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, 4458 TAMU, College Station, TX, 77843, USA; Texas A&M University Interdisciplinary Faculty of Toxicology (IFT), College Station, TX, 77843, USA. Electronic address:

Natural disasters such as floods and hurricanes impact urbanized estuarine environments. Some impacts pose potential environmental and public health risks because of legacy or emerging chemical contamination. However, characterizing the baseline spatial and temporal distribution of environmental chemical contamination before disasters remains a challenge. Read More

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October 2021

Community: The Heart of Family Medicine.

Authors:
Santina Wheat

Fam Med 2021 Jul 11;53(7):528-531. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

McGaw Northwestern Family Medicine Residency Program at Humboldt Park, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL.

Family physicians have the privilege of caring for patients throughout their lifespan and witness the impact all facets of life have on the health of individuals and the health of communities. The importance of engaging the community in the success of population-based initiatives to drive social change has been proven repeatedly and family medicine residencies should include community as the fifth "C." At a minimum, this includes incorporating the following three recommendations: (1) define community on initial accreditation, at self-study, and whenever major community changes occur; (2) utilize a community needs assessment as part of goal setting of activities with Annual Action Plan; and (3) evaluate residents and faculty on understanding of and cooperation with community needs. Read More

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Racial Inequality in Prescription Opioid Receipt - Role of Individual Health Systems.

N Engl J Med 2021 07;385(4):342-351

From the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, Lebanon, NH (N.E.M., D.C., A.W., E.M.); UnitedHealthcare, Minnetonka, MN (N.E.M.); and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston (E.M.), and the National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge (E.M.) - both in Massachusetts.

Background: Historically, the receipt of prescription opioids has differed among racial groups in the United States. Research has not sufficiently explored the contribution of individual health systems to these differences by examining within-system prescription opioid receipt according to race.

Methods: We used 2016 and 2017 Medicare claims data from a random 40% national sample of fee-for-service, Black and White beneficiaries 18 to 64 years of age who were attributed to health systems. Read More

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Cognitive decline is associated with an accelerated rate of bone loss and increased fracture risk in women: a prospective study from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Osteoporosis and Bone Biology, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, Australia.

Cognitive decline and osteoporosis often coexist and some evidence suggests a causal link. However, there are no data on the longitudinal relationship between cognitive decline, bone loss and fracture risk, independent of aging. This study aimed to determine the association between: (i) cognitive decline and bone loss; and (ii) clinically significant cognitive decline (≥3 points) on Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) over the first 5 years and subsequent fracture risk over the following 10 years. Read More

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High-risk transmission clusters of leprosy in an endemic area in the Northeastern Brazil: a retrospective spatiotemporal modelling (2001 - 2019).

Trop Med Int Health 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Health Science Graduate Program, Aracaju, Brazil.

Objectives: To analyze and map the leprosy risk areas in the state of Alagoas, an endemic region in the Northeastern Brazil, between 2001 and 2019.

Methods: Eecological and time series study, using spatial analysis techniques. First, we analyze the epidemiological aspects of leprosy cases, using the data available in the Notifiable Diseases Information System; then we used the segmented log-linear regression model to assess time trends. Read More

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Diagnostic accuracy of Ara h 2 for detecting peanut allergy in children.

Clin Exp Allergy 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Dermatology/Allergology, University Medical Center Utrecht, University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Specific IgE to Ara h 2 is a diagnostic test for peanut allergy which may reduce the need for double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC), however guidance for using Ara h 2 in place of DBPCFCs has not been validated.

Objective: To prospectively evaluate 1) diagnostic accuracy of previously published Ara h 2 cutoff levels to diagnose peanut allergy in children and 2) costs.

Methods: A consecutive series of 150 children age 3. Read More

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Recognizing the Enemy: Do Predator Cues Influence Hatching in Neotropical Annual Killifish?

J Fish Biol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Postgraduate Program in Biology of Continental Aquatic Environments, Federal University of Rio Grande, FURG, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Annual fish species have evolved complex adaptations to survive in temporary wetlands. The main adaptation of these fish is the ability to produce embryos that survive dry periods. Embryo development of this fish can show variation at multiple levels influenced by many environmental factors, such as photoperiod, temperature. Read More

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Work absenteeism and disability associated with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis in the USA-a retrospective study of claims data from 2009 TO 2020.

Clin Rheumatol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

University of Utah School of Medicine, George E. Wahlen Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Objectives: To compare work absenteeism and short-term disability among adults with psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis (PsA), versus controls in the USA.

Methods: Adults eligible for work absenteeism and/or short-term disability benefits between 1/1/2009 and 4/30/2020 were screened in the IBM® MarketScan® Commercial and Health and Productivity Management Databases. The following groups were defined: (1) psoriasis: ≥ 2 psoriasis diagnoses ≥ 30 days apart and no PsA diagnoses; (2) PsA: ≥ 2 PsA diagnoses ≥ 30 days apart; (3) control: absence of psoriasis and PsA diagnoses. Read More

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Assessment of Racial Disparities in the Risks of Septic and Aseptic Revision Total Knee Replacements.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jul 1;4(7):e2117581. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Division of Rheumatology, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York.

Importance: Black patients are at higher risk of revision total knee replacement (TKR) than White patients, but whether racial disparities exist for both septic and aseptic revision TKR and the reason for any disparities are unknown.

Objective: To assess the risk of septic and aseptic revision TKR in Black and White patients and to examine interactions among race and socioeconomic and hospital-related variables that are associated with revision TKR risk.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study included residents of New York, California, and Florida who underwent TKR. Read More

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Measuring Catastrophic Costs Due to Tuberculosis in Myanmar.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2021 Jul 14;6(3). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

TB Unit, WHO, Yangon 11201, Myanmar.

Background: This is the first survey to use the World Health Organization (WHO) methodology to document the magnitude and main drivers of tuberculosis (TB) patient costs in order to guide policies on cost mitigation and to produce a baseline measure for the percentage of TB-affected households experiencing catastrophic costs in Myanmar.

Methods: A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was administered to 1000 TB patients in health facilities from December 2015 to February 2016, focusing on costs of TB treatment (direct and indirect), household income, and coping strategies. A total cost was estimated for each household by extrapolating reported costs and comparing them to household income. Read More

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Using the Multi-Theory Model (MTM) of Health Behavior Change to Explain the Correlates of Mammography Screening among Asian American Women.

Pharmacy (Basel) 2021 Jul 15;9(3). Epub 2021 Jul 15.

School of Health and Applied Human Sciences, University of North Carolina Wilmington, Wilmington, NC 28403, USA.

Globally, breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women. The incidence of breast cancer has been growing among Asian American women. Mammography is a screening procedure that provides early diagnosis for the timely treatment to reduce premature mortality due to breast cancer. Read More

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36th Annual CAPO Conference: Advocating for All: Psychosocial Oncology at the Intersections of Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion, 8-10 June 2021.

Authors:
Peter Traversa

Curr Oncol 2021 Jul 15;28(4):2579-2698. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Canadian Association of Psychosocial Oncology, Toronto, ON M5A 1S2, Canada.

On behalf of the Canadian Association of Psychosocial Oncology, we are pleased to present the Abstracts from the 2021 Annual Conference, titled "Advocating for All: Psychosocial Oncology at the Intersections of Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion". The Conference was held virtually from 8 June 2021 to 10 June 2021. This conference brought together key stakeholders including multidisciplinary professionals from nursing, psychology, psychiatry, social work, spiritual care, nutrition, medicine, rehabilitation medicine, occupational health and radiation therapy for both adult and pediatric populations. Read More

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Estimates of Toxoplasmosis Incidence Based on Healthcare Claims Data, Germany, 2011-2016.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 08;27(8):2097-2106

Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic infection contracted through Toxoplasma gondii-contaminated food, soil, or water. Seroprevalence in Germany is high, but estimates of disease incidence are scarce. We investigated incidences for various toxoplasmosis manifestations using anonymized healthcare claims data from Germany for 2011-2016. Read More

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Trend Analysis on Road Traffic Collision Occurrence in Nigeria.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021 Jul 21:1-7. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

BIDMC Fellowship in Disaster Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Objectives: Road traffic collisions (RTC) result in a significant number of preventable deaths worldwide. In 2010, the United Nations General Assembly launched, "The Decade of Action for Road Safety (2011-2020)" with the stated goal to "reduce road traffic deaths and injuries by 50% by 2020." This study aims to analyze trends in RTC numbers and subsequent deaths with respect to road safety laws in Nigeria and to suggest suitable interventions. Read More

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[Effects of environmental factors on the distribution of suitable habitats of in China].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2021 Jun;33(3):281-286

School of Public Health and Management, Weifang Medical University, China.

Objective: To identify the environmental factors affecting the distribution of suitable habitats of , and to examine the effects of environmental changes on the distribution of suitable habitats of .

Methods: Data pertaining to the distribution of in China were captured by literature review. The distribution of suitable habitats of in China was simulated using the maximum entropy model with the environmental variable data and the distribution data. Read More

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[Surveillance of malaria vector in Guizhou Province from 2005 to 2019].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2021 Jul;33(3):274-280

Guizhou Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, China.

Objective: To understand the density, populations and habitats of malaria vector in Guizhou Province from 2005 to 2019, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the countermeasures to tackle the risk of local transmission of imported malaria in the province.

Methods: The malaria vector density and populations were monitored using human bait trapping and light trapping techniques in Guizhou Province from 2005 to 2019, and all captured was morphologically identified and counted. In addition, the distribution of habitats was investigated. Read More

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