2,383 results match your criteria annealing growth

Structure-property relationships in 3D-printed poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) degradable polymer.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 Jun 18;121:104650. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, USA.

The recent growth of polymer 3D-printing has brought innovation to the medical implant field. Implants with complex porous structures can be fabricated by printing to tune mechanical behavior and enable diffusion, consequently improving integration with tissues in the human body. Poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) is a 3D-printable polymer that possess a wide range of possible mechanical properties depending on its monomer composition. Read More

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Nb Texture Evolution and Interdiffusion in Nb/Si-Layered Systems.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Industrial Focus Group XUV Optics, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands.

In this paper, we present a detailed study on the microstructure evolution and interdiffusion in Nb/Si-layered systems. Interlayer formation during the early stages of growth in sputter-deposited Nb-on-Si and Si-on-Nb bilayer systems is studied using a high-sensitivity low-energy ion-scattering technique. An asymmetric intermixing behavior is observed, where the Si-on-Nb interface is ∼2× thinner than the Nb-on-Si interface, and it is explained by the surface-energy difference between Nb and Si. Read More

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Highly Dense and Stable p-Type Thin-Film Transistor Based on Atomic Layer Deposition SnO Fabricated by Two-Step Crystallization.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763, Republic of Korea.

Over the past several decades, tin monoxide (SnO) has been studied extensively as a p-type thin film transistor (TFT). However, its TFT performance is still insufficient for practical use. Many studies suggested that the instability of the valence state of Sn (Sn/Sn) is a critical reason for the poor performance such as limited mobility and low on/off ratio. Read More

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Rate-Determining Process at Electrode/Electrolyte Interfaces for All-Solid-State Fluoride-Ion Batteries.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Yoshida Nihonmatsu Cho, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.

Developing high-performance solid electrolytes that are operable at room temperature is one of the toughest challenges related to all-solid-state fluoride-ion batteries (FIBs). In this study, tetragonal β-PbSnF, a promising solid electrolyte material for mild-temperature applications, was modified through annealing under various atmospheres using thin-film models. The annealed samples exhibited preferential growth and enhanced ionic conductivities. Read More

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Hot-Casting Large-Grain Perovskite Film for Efficient Solar Cells: Film Formation and Device Performance.

Nanomicro Lett 2020 Jul 31;12(1):156. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

School of Materials and Energy, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054, People's Republic of China.

Organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have recently been considered as one of the most competitive contenders to commercial silicon solar cells in the photovoltaic field. The deposition process of a perovskite film is one of the most critical factors affecting the quality of the film formation and the photovoltaic performance. A hot-casting technique has been widely implemented to deposit high-quality perovskite films with large grain size, uniform thickness, and preferred crystalline orientation. Read More

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Solvent effects leading to a variety of different 2D structures in the self-assembly of a crystalline-coil block copolymer with an amphiphilic corona-forming block.

Chem Sci 2020 Apr 21;11(18):4631-4643. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto Toronto Ontario M5S 3H6 Canada

We describe a polyferrocenyldimethylsilane (PFS) block copolymer (BCP), PFS--P(TDMA--OEGMA) (the subscripts refer to the mean degrees of polymerization), in which the corona-forming block is a random brush copolymer of hydrophobic tetradecyl methacrylate (TDMA) and hydrophilic oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA). Thus, the corona is amphiphilic. This BCP generates a remarkable series of different structures when subjected to crystallization-driven self-assembly (CDSA) in solvents of different polarity. Read More

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High-performance microwave absorption of MOF-derived [email protected] carbon anchored on carbon foam.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jun 3;602:197-206. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, PR China. Electronic address:

Absorbing materials can convert electromagnetic wave (EMW) energy into heat and other energy and dissipate it. Carbon materials can attenuate EMW by generating large conduction losses due to their high conductivity. The introduction of low dielectric materials can improve impedance matching caused by high conductivity. Read More

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High-Performance Indium Gallium Tin Oxide Transistors with an AlO Gate Insulator Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition at a Low Temperature of 150 °C: Roles of Hydrogen and Excess Oxygen in the AlO Dielectric Film.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 11;13(24):28451-28461. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Electronic Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, South Korea.

In this work, high-performance amorphous InGaSnO (-IGTO) transistors with an atomic layer-deposited AlO dielectric layer were fabricated at a maximum processing temperature of 150 °C. Hydrogen (H) and excess oxygen (O) in the AlO film, which was controlled by adjusting the oxygen radical density (P: flow rate of O/[Ar+O]) in the radio-frequency (rf) plasma during ALD growth of AlO, significantly affected the performance and stability of the resulting IGTO transistors. The concentrations of H and O in AlO/IGTO stacks according to P were characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and thermal desorption spectroscopy. Read More

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Molten Salt Assisted Annealing for Making Colloidal ZnGa2O4:Cr Nanocrystals with High Persistent Luminescence.

Chemistry 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Illinois Institute of Technology College of Science, Chemistry, 3101 S Dearborn Street, Pritzker Science Center 136, 60616, Chicago, UNITED STATES.

Persistent luminescent nanocrystals (PLNCs) in sub-10 nm domain are considered most fascinating inventions in lighting technology owing to their excellent performance in anti-counterfeiting, luminous paints, bioimaging, security applications, etc. Further improvement of persistent luminescence (PersL) intensity and lifetime is needed to achieve the desired success while keeping uniform sub-10 nm size of PLNCs. In this work, we have introduced the concept of molten salt confinement to thermally anneal as-synthesized ZnGa 2 O 4 :Cr 3+ (ZGOC) colloidal NCs (CNCs) in a molten salt media at 650 o C for the first time. Read More

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Fabrication of Cobaltous Sulfide Nanoparticle-Modified 3D MXene/Carbon Foam Hybrid Aerogels for All-Solid-State Supercapacitors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 9;13(24):28222-28230. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

College of Material Science and Engineering, Institute for Graphene Applied Technology Innovation, Collaborative Innovation Centre for Marine Biomass Fibers, Materials and Textiles of Shandong Province, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, Shandong, China.

MXene is a neoteric type of bidimensional (2D) transition metal carbide/nitride with broad application prospects, in particular with electrochemical energy storage. The electrochemical performance of MXene is unsatisfactory because it is easy to stack resulting in the difficulty of electrolyte penetration and ion transport. In this study, the cobaltous sulfide-modified 3D MXene/N-doped carbon foam ([email protected]/CF) hybrid aerogel is projected and manufactured via simple in situ growth and thermal annealing strategies. Read More

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Microwave Synthesis of Spinel MgFeO Nanoparticles and the Effect of Annealing on Photocatalysis.

Inorg Chem 2021 Jun 4;60(12):8704-8709. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, 930 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, United States.

Through microwave heating in ethanol and with subsequent annealing, crystalline MgFeO nanoparticles are produced rapidly and in high yields >99%. Under varied annealing temperatures, the degree of Mg and Fe site inversion changes the optical, electronic, and composition of the nanoparticles. A small particle size of ∼10 nm is achievable with the aid of an ammonium salt mineralizer that caps the particles during nucleation and growth. Read More

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Lewis Base-Mediated Perovskite Crystallization as Revealed by In Situ, Real-Time Optical Absorption Spectroscopy.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jun 2;12(22):5357-5362. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Chemistry, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China.

The strategy of Lewis base modification has been shown to be rather effective in fabricating high-quality perovskite crystals; however, the underlying mechanisms remain controversial owing to the lack of any systematic characterization of the crystallization process. Herein, we report a novel non-invasive optical technique, termed vertical reflection-type in situ, real-time absorption spectroscopy, to investigate the mechanisms of Lewis base-mediated optimization of perovskite crystallinity by visualizing the entire energetic landscape of crystal growth. We show that by virtue of the urea additive, a prototypical Lewis base, the growth kinetics is accelerated prominently by decreasing the activation energy from 73. Read More

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On the Disintegration of A1050/Ni201 Explosively Welded Clads Induced by Long-Term Annealing.

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 29;14(11). Epub 2021 May 29.

Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, 25 Reymonta St., 30-059 Cracow, Poland.

The paper presents the microstructure and phase composition of the interface zone formed in the explosive welding process between technically pure aluminum and nickel. Low and high detonation velocities of 2000 and 2800 m/s were applied to expose the differences of the welded zone directly after the joining as well as subsequent long-term annealing. The large amount of the melted areas was observed composed of a variety of Al-Ni type intermetallics; however, the morphology varied from nearly flat to wavy with increasing detonation velocity. Read More

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Strain Modulation of Selectively and/or Globally Grown Ge Layers.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 May 28;11(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

Key laboratory of Microelectronic Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China.

This article presents a novel method to grow a high-quality compressive-strain Ge epilayer on Si using the selective epitaxial growth (SEG) applying the RPCVD technique. The procedures are composed of a global growth of Ge layer on Si followed by a planarization using CMP as initial process steps. The growth parameters of the Ge layer were carefully optimized and after cycle-annealing treatments, the threading dislocation density (TDD) was reduced to 3 × 10 cm. Read More

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Dynamics and Structure Formation of Confined Polymer Thin Films Supported on Solid Substrates.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 May 17;13(10). Epub 2021 May 17.

State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

The stability/instability behavior of polystyrene (PS) films with tunable thickness ranging from higher as-cast to lower residual made on Si substrates with and without native oxide layer was studied in this paper. For further extraction of residual PS thin film (h) and to investigate the polymer-substrate interaction, Guiselin's method was used by decomposing the polymer thin films in different solvents. The solvents for removing loosely adsorbed chains and extracting the strongly adsorbed irreversible chains were selected based on their relative desorption energy difference with polymer. Read More

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Selective Laser Melted M300 Maraging Steel-Material Behaviour during Ballistic Testing.

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 20;14(10). Epub 2021 May 20.

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Robots & Machine Design, Military University of Technology, 2 Gen. S. Kaliskiego Street, 00-908 Warsaw, Poland.

Significant growth in knowledge about metal additive manufacturing (AM) affects the increase of interest in military solutions, where there is always a need for unique technologies and materials. An important section of materials in the military are those dedicated to armour production. An AM material is characterised by different behaviour than those conventionally made, especially during more dynamic loading such as ballistics testing. Read More

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Reduction of Hysteresis in Hybrid Perovskite Transistors by Solvent-Controlled Growth.

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 15;14(10). Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Information Display, College of Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

The effect of crystallization process speed on the morphology of solution-processed methyl ammonium lead iodide (MAPbI) thin films is investigated. Crystallization speed is controlled by varying the number of annealing steps, temperature, and resting time between steps. The resting period allows solvent-controlled growth (SCG) in which crystallization progresses slowly via an intermediate phase-during which solvents slowly evaporate away from the films. Read More

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Effects of Pb assisted cation chemistry on the superconductivity of BSCCO thin films.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Jun;23(22):12822-12833

Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102, Tamil Nadu, India. and Homi Bhabha National Institute, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102, Tamil Nadu, India.

Thin films of Bi-based superconductors, highly c-axis oriented, were deposited on single crystalline substrates of SrTiO3, LaAlO3, and MgO using a pulsed laser deposition technique with a Bi-2223 target of nominal composition Bi1.75Pb0.25Sr2Ca2Cu3O10±δ prepared by the solid state reaction method. Read More

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Hybrid Binary Dragonfly Algorithm with Simulated Annealing for Feature Selection.

SN Comput Sci 2021 25;2(4):295. Epub 2021 May 25.

Center for Artificial Intelligence Research and Optimization, Torrens University Australia, Fortitude Valley, Brisbane, QLD 4006 Australia.

There are various fields are affected by the growth of data dimensionality. The major problems which are resulted from high dimensionality of data including high memory requirements, high computational cost, and low machine learning classifier performance. Therefore, proper selection of relevant features from the set of available features and the removal of irrelevant features will solve these problems. Read More

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Crystal Growth and High-Pressure Effects of Bi-Based Superconducting Whiskers.

ACS Omega 2021 May 23;6(18):12179-12186. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

National Institute of Technology, Yonago College, 4448 Hikona, Yonago, Tottori 683-8502, Japan.

Three growth methods were tested for producing high-transition temperature superconducting BiSrCa Cu O whiskers, employing different ways to focus a compressive stress and size effect of the precursors. First, thermographic imaging was used to investigate thermal stress from temperature distribution in the precursors during growth annealing. To enhance thermal stress in the precursors, a thermal cycling method and a Ag-paste coating method were proposed and found to significantly accelerate the whisker growth. Read More

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Construction of Porous Tubular [email protected] with Plasma Treatment-Derived Oxygen Vacancies for Efficient Photocatalytic HO Production in Pure Water Via Two-Electron Reduction.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 28;13(22):25868-25878. Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Life Sciences, Huzhou University, Huzhou, Zhejiang 313000, P. R. China.

Tubular InO was fabricated by the annealing of In-MIL-68 and further treated by Ar plasma to yield oxygen vacancies (O) followed by the growth of InS nanoflowers. Unexpectedly, the resulting porous [email protected] composites were discovered to display a broad visible-light response and especially enhanced capacities for efficient photocatalytic production of HO in pure water, with a rate of 4.59 μmol·g·min. Read More

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Unravelling the growth mechanism of (3,1) graphene nanoribbons on a Cu(111) surface.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jun 25;57(49):6043-6045. Epub 2021 May 25.

Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, FEMTO-ST, UFC, CNRS, 15B avenue des Montboucons, 25030 Besançon Cedex, France.

The growth of graphene nanoribbons has been widely investigated on metal surfaces in an ultrahigh vacuum. Here, we re-investigate the growth of graphene nanoribbons obtained by thermal annealing of 9,9'-bianthryl derivatives on a Cu(111) surface by using scanning tunnelling microscopy. On the basis of our results, we propose to complete the reaction mechanism commonly accepted in the literature by adding an intramolecular hydrogen atom transfer from the 2,2'-positions to the 10,10'-positions as a key-step in the formation of (3,1)-graphene nanoribbons on a Cu(111) surface. Read More

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Topotactic Growth of Free-Standing Two-Dimensional Perovskite Niobates with Low Symmetry Phase.

Nano Lett 2021 Jun 21;21(11):4700-4707. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, United States.

Here, we report a novel topotactic method to grow 2D free-standing perovskite using KNbO (KN) as a model system. Perovskite KN with monoclinic phase, distorted by as large as ∼6 degrees compared with orthorhombic KN, is obtained from 2D KNbO after oxygen-assisted annealing at relatively low temperature (530 °C). Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) measurements confirm that the 2D KN sheets show strong spontaneous polarization () along [101̅] direction and a weak in-plane polarization, which is consistent with theoretical predictions. Read More

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Simulated annealing fitting: a global optimization method for quantitatively analyzing growth kinetics of colloidal Ag nanoparticles.

Nanoscale Horiz 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Chemistry, Temple University, 1901 North 13th Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122, USA.

The involvement of heterogeneous solid/liquid reactions in growing colloidal nanoparticles makes it challenging to quantitatively understand the fundamental steps that determine nanoparticles' growth kinetics. A global optimization protocol relying on simulated annealing fitting and the LSW growth model is developed to analyze the evolution data of colloidal silver nanoparticles synthesized from a microwave-assisted polyol reduction reaction. Fitting all data points of the entire growth process determines with high fidelity the diffusion coefficient of precursor species and the heterogeneous reduction reaction rate parameters on growing silver nanoparticles, which represent the principal functions to determine the growth kinetics of colloidal nanoparticles. Read More

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GAGrank: Software for Glycosaminoglycan Sequence Ranking Using a Bipartite Graph Model.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2021 May 14;20:100093. Epub 2021 May 14.

Program in Bioinformatics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Biochemistry, Center for Biomedical Mass Spectrometry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Electronic address:

The sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are long, linear polysaccharide chains that are typically found as the glycan portion of proteoglycans. These GAGs are characterized by repeating disaccharide units with variable sulfation and acetylation patterns along the chain. GAG length and modification patterns have profound impacts on growth factor signaling mechanisms central to numerous physiological processes. Read More

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In situ correlation between metastable phase-transformation mechanism and kinetics in a metallic glass.

Nat Commun 2021 May 14;12(1):2839. Epub 2021 May 14.

IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, Dresden, Germany.

A combination of complementary high-energy X-ray diffraction, containerless solidification during electromagnetic levitation and transmission electron microscopy is used to map in situ the phase evolution in a prototype Cu-Zr-Al glass during flash-annealing imposed at a rate ranging from 10 to 10 K s and during cooling from the liquid state. Such a combination of experimental techniques provides hitherto inaccessible insight into the phase-transformation mechanism and its kinetics with high temporal resolution over the entire temperature range of the existence of the supercooled liquid. On flash-annealing, most of the formed phases represent transient (metastable) states - they crystallographically conform to their equilibrium phases but the compositions, revealed by atom probe tomography, are different. Read More

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Spontaneous shape transition of Mn Ge islands to long nanowires.

Beilstein J Nanotechnol 2021 28;12:366-374. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Advanced Materials Metrology and Life Science Division, INRiM (Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica), Strada delle Cacce 91, Torino, Italy.

We report experimental evidence for a spontaneous shape transition, from regular islands to elongated nanowires, upon high-temperature annealing of a thin Mn wetting layer evaporated on Ge(111). We demonstrate that 4.5 monolayers is the critical thickness of the Mn layer, governing the shape transition to wires. Read More

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Rapid hybrid perovskite film crystallization from solution.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 Jun;50(12):7108-7131

Laboratory of Photomolecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

The use of a solution process to grow perovskite thin films allows to extend the material processability. It is known that the physicochemical properties of the perovskite material can be tuned by altering the solution precursors as well as by controlling the crystal growth of the film. This advancement necessarily implies the need for an understanding of the kinetic phenomena for the thin-film formation. Read More

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Deposition and Characterization of RP-ALD SiO Thin Films with Different Oxygen Plasma Powers.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Opto-Electronic and Communication Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024, China.

In this study, silicon oxide (SiO) films were deposited by remote plasma atomic layer deposition with Bis(diethylamino)silane (BDEAS) and an oxygen/argon mixture as the precursors. Oxygen plasma powers play a key role in the quality of SiO films. Post-annealing was performed in the air at different temperatures for 1 h. Read More

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Grain Size Effect of the γ Phase Precipitation on Martensitic Transformation and Mechanical Properties of Ni-Mn-Sn-Fe Heusler Alloys.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 30;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009, Australia.

Isothermal annealing of a eutectic dual phase Ni-Mn-Sn-Fe alloy was carried out to encourage grain growth and investigate the effects of grain size of the γ phase on the martensitic transformation behaviour and mechanical properties of the alloy. It is found that with the increase of the annealing time, the grain size and volume fraction of the γ phase both increased with the annealing time predominantly by the inter-diffusion of Fe and Sn elements between the γ phase and the Heusler matrix. The isothermal anneals resulted in the decrease of the e/a ratio and suppression of the martensitic transformation of the matrix phase. Read More

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