248,106 results match your criteria animals described


Borrelia duttonii-like spirochetes parasitize Meriones persicus in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 Sep 4;12(6):101825. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran; National Reference Laboratory for Plague, Tularemia and Q Fever, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Akanlu, Kabudar Ahang, Hamadan, Iran.

In Iran, Borrelia persica and Borrelia microti/microti-like borreliae have been established as causative agents of tickborne relapsing fever (TBRF). However, the epidemiology of two previously described species, Borrelia balthazardi and Borrelia latyschewii (latychevi), has remained elusive for many years. We investigated Borrelia infection in various rodents and small mammals in the TBRF endemic East Azerbaijan Province, northwestern Iran, where B. Read More

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September 2021

Talaromyces stipitatus, a novel agent causing superficial mycosis in a diabetic patient from North India.

Microbes Infect 2021 Sep 15:104887. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, 180006, India. Electronic address:

Among millions of reported fungal species, only a few hundred species are capable of causing diseases in humans and animals that range from superficial to life-threatening infections. Both immunocompetent as well as immunocompromised patients with underlying diseases, such as AIDS, diabetes, etc., are at higher risk of acquiring fungal infections. Read More

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September 2021

Radiographic and anatomical morphometric assessments of heart size in presumed healthy pet guinea pigs.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department for Small Animals, Division of Cardiology, Clinic for Small Animal Internal Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Cardiac disease in guinea pigs has been reported in the literature; however, reference intervals for normal radiographic heart size obtained using objective measurement methods have not been provided for this species. The aim of this prospective, reference interval study was to describe cardiac dimensions in presumed healthy guinea pigs using the vertebral heart scale (VHS) from thoracic radiographs, as described for dogs and cats. Furthermore, an anatomical study was carried out to compare the radiographic and anatomical findings. Read More

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September 2021

X-linked immunodeficient (XID) mice exhibit high susceptibility to Cryptococcus gattii infection.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 15;11(1):18397. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 21941-900, Brazil.

Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic disease caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. It starts as a pulmonary infection that can spread to other organs, such as the brain, leading to the most serious occurrence of the disease, meningoencephalitis. The humoral response has already been described in limiting the progression of cryptococcosis where the B-1 cell seems to be responsible for producing natural IgM antibodies, crucial for combating fungal infections. Read More

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September 2021

Presence of a cryptic Onchocerca species in black flies of northern California, USA.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Sep 15;14(1):478. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA.

Background: Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) serve as arthropod vectors for various species of Onchocerca (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) that may be associated with disease in humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. The emergence of zoonotic Onchocerca lupi in North America and reports of cervid-associated zoonotic onchocerciasis by Onchocerca jakutensis highlight the need for increased entomological surveillance. In addition, there is mounting evidence that Onchocerca diversity in North America is far greater than previously thought, currently regarded as Onchocerca cervipedis species complex. Read More

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September 2021

Authentication of a novel antibody to zebrafish collagen type XI alpha 1 chain (Col11a1a).

BMC Res Notes 2021 Sep 15;14(1):359. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Biological Sciences, Biomolecular Sciences Graduate Program, and Biomolecular Research Center, Boise State University, Boise, ID, 83725, USA.

Objective: Extracellular matrix proteins play important roles in embryonic development and antibodies that specifically detect these proteins are essential to understanding their function. The zebrafish embryo is a popular model for vertebrate development but suffers from a dearth of authenticated antibody reagents for research. Here, we describe a novel antibody designed to detect the minor fibrillar collagen chain Col11a1a in zebrafish (AB strain). Read More

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September 2021

sp. nov., subsp. subsp. nov. and subsp. subsp. nov. isolated from entomopathogenic nematodes.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 Sep;71(9)

Division of Nematology, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Indian Agricultural Research Institute (ICAR-IARI), New Delhi, India.

Two Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria, H1 and H3, isolated from the digestive tract of entomopathogenic nematodes were biochemically and molecularly characterized to determine their taxonomic positions. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of these strains indicate that they belong to the Gammaproteobacteria, to the family , and to the genus. Deeper analyses using whole genome-based phylogenetic reconstructions show that strains H1 and H3 are closely related to DSM 15138, to DSM 22397, and to PB45. Read More

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September 2021

Human Fascioliasis (Liver Fluke Disease) in Hawai'i: Case Report and Review of Human Fascioliasis Acquired in the United States.

Authors:
Joel D Brown

Hawaii J Health Soc Welf 2021 Sep;80(9):212-217

Department of Medicine, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i, Honolulu, HI.

Fascioliasis is a foodborne zoonotic infection caused by the trematode liver flukes: Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica). Infections may cause acute and chronic hepatobiliary tract diseases in herbivore animals and humans. Read More

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September 2021

Protein kinase A regulation of pigment granule motility in retinal pigment epithelial cells from fish, spp.

Vis Neurosci 2021 09 15;38:E013. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Biology, Saint Joseph's University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Retinomotor movements include elongation and contraction of rod and cone photoreceptors, and mass migration of melanin-containing pigment granules (melanosomes) of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) within the eyes of fish, frogs, and other lower vertebrates. Eyes of these animals do not contain dilatable pupils; therefore the repositioning of the rods and cones and a moveable curtain of pigment granules serve to modulate light intensity within the eye. RPE from sunfish (Lepomis spp. Read More

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September 2021

Dopamine regulates adult neurogenesis in the ventricular-subventricular zone via dopamine D3 angiotensin type 2 receptor interactions.

Stem Cells 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology of Parkinson's disease, Research Center for Molecular Medicine and Chronic diseases (CIMUS), IDIS, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Adult neurogenesis is a dynamic and highly regulated process and different studies suggest that dopamine modulates ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) neurogenesis. However, the specific role of dopamine and the mechanisms/factors underlying its effects on physiological and pathological conditions such as Parkinson's disease (PD) are not fully understood. Recent studies have described counterregulatory interactions between renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and dopamine in peripheral tissues and in the nigro-striatal system. Read More

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September 2021

The pharmacological assessment of resveratrol on preclinical models of rheumatoid arthritis through a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Sep 11:174504. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Division of Endocrinology and Centre for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Sector 10, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow¸ 226031, India. Electronic address:

Resveratrol/RES (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a natural compound found in many foods and red wine and has pleiotropic biological effects. Several preclinical studies evaluating the efficacy of RES in animal models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been described, but the diversity of experimental conditions and of outcomes preclude definitive conclusions about RES's efficacy. We, therefore, performed a meta-analysis to assess its efficacy in mitigating experimental RA. Read More

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September 2021

Acanthospermum hispidum DC: An Updated Review on Phytochemistry and Biological Activities.

Mini Rev Med Chem 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco. Brazil.

Background: Acanthospermum hispidum DC is a medicinal plant present in America, Africa, Australia, India, Hawaii, and Brazil. In Brazil, the species is used in the treatment of gastrointestinal, respiratory disorders and has expectorant action. In the literature there are studies on the chemical composition of the species, with reports of the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, hydrolyzable tannins, terpenes, and steroids. Read More

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September 2021

Can olive oil prevent distal colon mucosal atrophy caused by disuse in rats with colostomy? An experimental animal study.

Pol Przegl Chir 2021 May;93(4):35-40

Mustafa Kemal University, School of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Antakya, Hatay, Turkey.

Aim: This study aims to investigate the effects of pure olive oil on mucosal atrophy of the distal colon in rats. <br/><br/>Material and methods: The study included 28 male albino Wistar rats weighing 300-350 g. A total of 28 animals were randomly allocated to four groups: group 1: control group (n = 6); group 2: ostomy group (n = 6); group 3: ostomy + saline group (n = 8); group 4: ostomy + olive oil group (n = 8). Read More

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The Northern Ireland Control Programmes for Infectious Cattle Diseases Not Regulated by the EU.

Front Vet Sci 2021 26;8:694197. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Royal GD, Deventer, Netherlands.

The disease control programmes for Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD), Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR), Johne's Disease (JD), Leptospirosis and Neosporosis are described including the approved diagnostic tools, diagnostic quality systems, and the role of vaccination (where appropriate). This paper describes the control programmes within NI, the challenges relating them, as well as assessing their impact and effectiveness, taking into consideration the quality of data available and number of herds participating. With the NI agricultural industry experiencing increasing financial pressures and post Brexit changes, the necessity of working to maximise the performance of bovine disease control programmes at the individual farm level as well as at the regional level is increasingly important. Read More

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Acute kidney injury caused by venomous animals: inflammatory mechanisms.

J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2021 25;27:20200189. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Clinical and Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing, Federal University of São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Either bites or stings of venomous animals comprise relevant public health problems in tropical countries. Acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by animal toxins is related to worse prognostic and outcomes. Being one the most important pathways to induce AKI following envenoming due to animal toxins, inflammation is an essential biological response that eliminates pathogenic bacteria and repairs tissue after injury. Read More

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Forced Normalization Revisited: New Concepts About a Paradoxical Phenomenon.

Front Integr Neurosci 2021 27;15:736248. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, Service of Neurology, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

The phenomenon of Forced Normalization (FN) was first described by Landolt in 1953, who described the disappearance of epileptiform discharges in the EEG of patients with epilepsy, concomitant with the development of psychotic symptoms. Later, Tellenbach coined the term "alternative psychosis" referring specifically to the alternation between clinical phenomena. Finally, in 1991, Wolf observed a degenerative process involved in the phenomenon, which he called "paradoxical normalization. Read More

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Identification of multiple proteins whose interaction with mannitol dehydrogenase is induced by salicylic acid: Implications for unconventional secretion.

Proteomics 2021 Sep 12:e2100091. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Horticultural Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, 27695, USA.

Although protein secretion was previously believed to be solely via ER/Golgi pathways, Golgi-independent secretion has now been described in both animals and plants. Secretion of the mannitol catabolic enzyme mannitol dehydrogenase (MTD) in response to the endogenous pathogen response signal salicylic acid (SA) was one of the first reports of unconventional protein secretion in plants. To begin assessing potential secretion-associated MTD protein interactors, we present here high-quality databases describing changes in MTD-interacting proteins following SA treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana cells expressing MTD. Read More

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September 2021

Phenotypic and genomic adaptations to the extremely high elevation in plateau zokor (Myospalax baileyi).

Mol Ecol 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650223, China.

The evolutionary outcomes of high-elevation adaptation have been extensively described. However, whether widely distributed high-elevation endemic animals adopt uniform mechanisms during adaptation to different elevational environments remains unknown, especially with respect to extreme high elevation environments. To explore this, we analyze phenotypic and genomic data of seven populations of plateau zokor (Myospalax baileyi) along elevations ranging from 2700 to 4300 m. Read More

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September 2021

Serum anti-Müllerian hormone concentration as a diagnostic tool to identify testicular tissue in canine disorders of sexual development.

Domest Anim Endocrinol 2021 Jul 31;78:106654. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Chair of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Department of Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Disorders of sexual development (DSD) may have their origin in alterations of the chromosomal, gonadal or phenotypic sex. Affected animals are usually presented because of ambiguous external genitalia, seldom because of reproductive disorders. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is secreted in the gonads with higher amounts in males than in females and can be used to identify gonadal tissue in sexually normally developed dogs. Read More

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Cellulitis-related Rhodococcus equi in a cat harboring VAPA-type plasmid pattern.

Microb Pathog 2021 Sep 9;160:105186. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

UNESP-São Paulo State University, Department of Animal Production and Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Rhodococcus equi is a well-known intracellular facultative bacterium that is opportunistic in nature, and a contagious disease-causing agent of pyogranulomatous infections in humans and multihost animals. Feline rhodococcosis is an uncommon or unnoticed clinical condition, in which the organism is usually refractory to conventional antimicrobial therapy. The pathogenicity of the agent is intimately associated with plasmid-governed infectivity, which is attributed to the presence of plasmid-encoded virulence-associated proteins (Vap). Read More

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September 2021

Suspicious Case of a Body packer "Mule" in a Low Resource Country: A Case Report.

JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc 2021 Jul 1;59(238):585-588. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Nepal Medical College, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Body packing is the process of smuggling illicit drugs in the form of packages concealed within the gastrointestinal tract via ingestion or inserting into body orifices. These individuals are described as "body packers", "stuffers", "mules" or "swallowers" and resort to carrying drugs like heroin, cocaine and cannabis. They present to the hospital following the development of complications or brought dead due to the rupture of packets or directly from detention for further investigations. Read More

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Genome-wide identification of endogenous viral sequences in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

Virol J 2021 09 9;18(1):185. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

USDA/ARS, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory, Beltsville, MD, 20705, USA.

Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) have been for the most part described in animals and to a less extent in plants. The endogenization was proposed to contribute toward evolution of living organisms via horizontal gene transfer of novel genetic material and resultant genetic diversity. During the last two decades, several full-length and fragmented EVEs of pararetroviral and non-retroviral nature have been identified in different plant genomes, both monocots and eudicots. Read More

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September 2021

Early Detection of Aphid Infestation and Insect-Plant Interaction Assessment in Wheat Using a Low-Cost Electronic Nose (E-Nose), Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Machine Learning Modeling.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Sep 4;21(17). Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Digital Agriculture Food and Wine Group, School of Agriculture and Food, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia.

Advances in early insect detection have been reported using digital technologies through camera systems, sensor networks, and remote sensing coupled with machine learning (ML) modeling. However, up to date, there is no cost-effective system to monitor insect presence accurately and insect-plant interactions. This paper presents results on the implementation of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and a low-cost electronic nose (e-nose) coupled with machine learning. Read More

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September 2021

Closing the Performance Gap between Siamese Networks for Dissimilarity Image Classification and Convolutional Neural Networks.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Aug 29;21(17). Epub 2021 Aug 29.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering (DISI), University of Bologna, Via dell'Università 50, 47521 Cesena, Italy.

In this paper, we examine two strategies for boosting the performance of ensembles of Siamese networks (SNNs) for image classification using two loss functions (Triplet and Binary Cross Entropy) and two methods for building the dissimilarity spaces (FULLY and DEEPER). With FULLY, the distance between a pattern and a prototype is calculated by comparing two images using the fully connected layer of the Siamese network. With DEEPER, each pattern is described using a deeper layer combined with dimensionality reduction. Read More

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Raptor: A Design of a Drain Inspection Robot.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Aug 26;21(17). Epub 2021 Aug 26.

LionsBot International Pte. Ltd., #03-02, 11 Changi South Street 3, Singapore 486122, Singapore.

Frequent inspections are essential for drains to maintain proper function to ensure public health and safety. Robots have been developed to aid the drain inspection process. However, existing robots designed for drain inspection require improvements in their design and autonomy. Read More

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Physiological Effects of Neonicotinoid Insecticides on Non-Target Aquatic Animals-An Updated Review.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Sep 4;22(17). Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Center for Nanotechnology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 320314, Taiwan.

In this paper, we review the effects of large-scale neonicotinoid contaminations in the aquatic environment on non-target aquatic invertebrate and vertebrate species. These aquatic species are the fauna widely exposed to environmental changes and chemical accumulation in bodies of water. Neonicotinoids are insecticides that target the nicotinic type acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the central nervous systems (CNS) and are considered selective neurotoxins for insects. Read More

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September 2021

Efficient Generation of Knock-In Zebrafish Models for Inherited Disorders Using CRISPR-Cas9 Ribonucleoprotein Complexes.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 30;22(17). Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Radboud University Medical Center, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

CRISPR-Cas9-based genome-editing is a highly efficient and cost-effective method to generate zebrafish loss-of-function alleles. However, introducing patient-specific variants into the zebrafish genome with CRISPR-Cas9 remains challenging. Targeting options can be limited by the predetermined genetic context, and the efficiency of the homology-directed DNA repair pathway is relatively low. Read More

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Endogenous feline leukemia virus siRNA transcription may interfere with exogenous FeLV infection.

J Virol 2021 Sep 8:JVI0007021. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology; Colorado State University; Fort Collins, CO 80523; USA.

Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are increasingly recognized for biological impacts on host cell function and susceptibility to infectious agents, particularly in relation to interactions with exogenous retroviral progenitors (XRVs). ERVs can simultaneously promote and restrict XRV infections using mechanisms that are virus- and host-specific. The majority of endogenous-exogenous retroviral interactions have been evaluated in experimental mouse or chicken systems which are limited in their ability to extend findings to naturally infected outbred animals. Read More

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September 2021

Double-Strand RNA (dsRNA) Delivery Methods in Insects: Diaphorina citri.

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2360:253-277

Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS, USA.

RNAi is a gene-silencing mechanism conserved in the vast majority of eukaryotes. It is widely used to study gene function in animals due to the ease of eliciting gene knockdown. Beyond research applications, RNAi technology based on exogenous dsRNA is a promising candidate for next generation insect pest control. Read More

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January 2022

Identification of terrestrial gastropods families found in district Swat, Pakistan.

Braz J Biol 2021 6;83:e248420. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Abdul Wali Khan University, Department of Zoology, Mardan, Pakistan.

Very little is known about the malacofauna in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, situated in the Northern part of Pakistan. The Swat valley possesses a variety of suitable environmental conditions, providing different types of habitats for both flora and fauna. Taken into consideration these points, the present study was conducted to explore the terrestrial snails diversity in agricultural and non-agricultural fields in the lower Swat valley. Read More

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September 2021