65,048 results match your criteria animals depends

Altered Food Habits? Understanding the Feeding Preference of Free-Ranging Gray Langurs Within an Urban Settlement.

Front Psychol 2021 26;12:649027. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Environmental Science, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India.

Urbanization affects concurrent human-animal interactions as a result of altered resource availability and land use pattern, which leads to considerable ecological consequences. While some animals have lost their habitat due to urban encroachment, few of them managed to survive within the urban ecosystem by altering their natural behavioral patterns. The feeding repertoire of folivorous colobines, such as gray langur, largely consists of plant parts. Read More

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UNC-2 CaV2 channel localization at presynaptic active zones depends on UNC-10/RIM and SYD-2/Liprin-α in .

J Neurosci 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Center for Cancer Cell Biology, Immunology, and Infection, Department of Cell Biology & Anatomy, Chicago Medical School, School of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, Illinois 60064, USA

Presynaptic active zone proteins couple calcium influx with synaptic vesicle exocytosis. However, the control of presynaptic calcium channel localization by active zone proteins is not completely understood. In a forward genetic screen, we find that UNC-10/RIM (Rab3-interacting molecule) and SYD-2/Liprin-α regulate presynaptic localization of UNC-2, the CaV2 channel ortholog. Read More

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Comparative Analyses of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 gene: Implications for the Risk for Which Vertebrate Animals Are Susceptible to SARS-CoV-2.

J Med Virol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Diagnosis, School of Medicine, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China.

Along with the control and prevention of COVID-19 transmission, infected animals might have another potential to carry virus to spark new outbreaks. However, very few studies explore the susceptibility of animals to SARS-CoV-2. Viral attachment as a crucial step for cross-species infection requires ACE2 as a receptor and depends on TMPRSS2 protease activity. Read More

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The Effects of Chronic Exposure to Ambient Traffic-Related Air Pollution on Alzheimer's Disease Phenotypes in Wildtype and Genetically Predisposed Male and Female Rats.

Environ Health Perspect 2021 May 10;129(5):57005. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of California Davis (UC Davis) School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, California, USA.

Background: Epidemiological data link traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) to increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Preclinical data corroborating this association are largely from studies of male animals exposed acutely or subchronically to high levels of isolated fractions of TRAP. What remains unclear is whether chronic exposure to ambient TRAP modifies AD risk and the influence of sex on this interaction. Read More

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Murine endometrial-derived mesenchymal stem cells suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis depending on indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase expression.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2021 May;135(9):1065-1082

Neuroimmune Interactions Laboratory, Department of Immunology, University of São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Cellular therapy with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a huge challenge for scientists, as little translational relevance has been achieved. However, many studies using MSCs have proved their suppressive and regenerative capacity. Thus, there is still a need for a better understanding of MSCs biology and the establishment of newer protocols, or to test unexplored tissue sources. Read More

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Osseointegration of porous titanium and tantalum implants in ovariectomized rabbits: A biomechanical study.

World J Orthop 2021 Apr 18;12(4):214-222. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NYU Langone Orthopedic Hospital, Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY 10003, United States.

Background: Today, biological fixation of uncemented press-fit acetabular components plays an important role in total hip arthroplasty. Long-term stable fixation of these implants depends on the osseointegration of the acetabular cup bone tissue into the acetabular cup implant, and their ability to withstand functional loads.

Aim: To compare the strength of bone-implant osseointegration of four types of porous metal implants in normal and osteoporotic bone in rabbits. Read More

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Visual marking in mammals first proved by manipulations of brown bear tree debarking.

Sci Rep 2021 May 4;11(1):9492. Epub 2021 May 4.

Research Unit of Biodiversity (UMIB, CSIC-UO-PA), Mieres Campus, 33600, Mieres, Spain.

The rather limited human ability to understand animal vision and visual signalling has frequently clouded our expectations concerning the visual abilities of other animals. But there are multiple reasons to suspect that visual signalling is more widely employed by animals than previously thought. Because visibility of visual marks depends on the background in which they are seen, species spending most of their time living in dark conditions (e. Read More

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Bloom Time Effect Depends on Muscle Type and May Determine the Results of pH and Color Instrumental Evaluation.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Institute of Animal Breeding, Faculty of Biology and Animal Sciences, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 51-630 Wroclaw, Poland.

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 30 min bloom time and the type of muscle on pH and color parameters together with the possibility of estimating these measurements. The research material consisted of 270 samples from 6 muscle types: LD- , LL-, IL-, SEM-, CT-, LTD-. Measurements included pH and color of fresh pork at 0 min, and after 30 min bloom time. Read More

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iRFP (near-infrared fluorescent protein) imaging of subcutaneous and deep tissue tumours in mice highlights differences between imaging platforms.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 May 3;21(1):247. Epub 2021 May 3.

Tumour Suppressors Group, CRUK Manchester Institute, University of Manchester, Alderley Park, Manchester, SK10 4TG, UK.

Background: In vivo imaging using fluorescence is used in cancer biology for the detection, measurement and monitoring of tumours. This can be achieved with the expression of fluorescent proteins such as iRFP, which emits light at a wavelength less attenuated in biological tissues compared to light emitted by other fluorescent proteins such as GFP or RFP. Imaging platforms capable of detecting fluorescent tumours in small animals have been developed but studies comparing the performance of these platforms are scarce. Read More

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Molecular Characterization of MHC Class I Genes in Four Species of the Family to Assess Genetic Diversity and Selection.

Biomed Res Int 2021 10;2021:5585687. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

In vertebrate animals, the molecules encoded by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes play an essential role in the adaptive immunity. MHC class I deals with intracellular pathogens (virus) in birds. MHC class I diversity depends on the consequence of local and global environment selective pressure and gene flow. Read More

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Dose-Dependent Impact of Bee Pollen Supplementation on Macroscopic and Microscopic Structure of Femoral Bone in Rats.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 28;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Botany and Genetics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, 949 74 Nitra, Slovakia.

Bee pollen has been successfully used as a feed additive with beneficial impacts on productive, reproductive, and immune conditions of animals. However, its effect on bone structure and bone health remains controversial. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to examine the impact of bee pollen supplementation on macroscopic and microscopic structure of a femoral bone using rats as suitable animal models. Read More

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Imaging of Canine Neoplastic Reproductive Disorders.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 22;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Messina, 98168 Messina, Italy.

Diagnostic imaging plays an essential role in the diagnosis and management of reproductive neoplasia in dogs and cats. The initial diagnosis, staging, and planning of surgical and radiation treatment and the response to therapy all involve imaging to varying degrees. Routine radiographs, ultrasound, nuclear medicine, and cross-sectional imaging in the form of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used in canine reproductive disorders. Read More

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Current Status of Putative Animal Sources of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Humans: Wildlife, Domestic Animals and Pets.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 17;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 17.

IHU-Méditerranée Infection, 13005 Marseille, France.

SARS-CoV-2 is currently considered to have emerged from a bat coronavirus reservoir. However, the real natural cycle of this virus remains to be elucidated. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to novel opportunities for SARS-CoV-2 transmission between humans and susceptible animal species. Read More

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Effects of 3FTx Protein Fraction from Venom on the Model and Native Membranes: Recognition and Implications for the Mechanisms of Toxicity.

Molecules 2021 Apr 9;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Faculty of Chemistry, Rzeszow University of Technology, Powstańców Warszawy 6, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland.

Three-finger toxins are naturally occurring proteins in Elapidae snake venoms. Nowadays, they are gaining popularity because of their therapeutic potential. On the other hand, these proteins may cause undesirable reactions inside the body's cells. Read More

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Electrophysiological Activity and Survival Rate of Rats Nervous Tissue Cells Depends on D/H Isotopic Composition of Medium.

Molecules 2021 Apr 2;26(7). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Kuban State University, 350040 Krasnodar, Russia.

The deuterium content modification in an organism has a neuroprotective effect during the hypoxia model, affecting anxiety, memory and stress resistance. The aim of this work was to elucidate the possible mechanisms of the medium D/H composition modification on nerve cells. We studied the effect of an incubation medium with a 50 ppm deuterium content compared to a medium with 150 ppm on: (1) the activity of Wistar rats' hippocampus CA1 field neurons, (2) the level of cultured cerebellar neuron death during glucose deprivation and temperature stress, (3) mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the generation of reactive oxygen species in cultures of cerebellar neurons. Read More

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A cluster of tetrodotoxin poisoning in Oman.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2021 Apr 29:1-5. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Introduction: Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent sodium channel blocker, with significant neurotoxicity, found in marine animals like pufferfish and blue-ringed octopus. The severity of toxicity depends on the amount of toxin ingested and the outcome depends on the time-lapse to appropriate medical care.

Cases Report: We report five patients who presented with tetrodotoxin poisoning after consuming fried internal organs of local pufferfish from the coast of Oman. Read More

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Specific vagus nerve stimulation parameters alter serum cytokine levels in the absence of inflammation.

Bioelectron Med 2020 Apr 10;6(1). Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Laboratory of Biomedical Science, Feinstein Institutes for Medical Research, Northwell Health, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY, 11030, USA.

Background: Electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves is a widely used technique to treat a variety of conditions including chronic pain, motor impairment, headaches, and epilepsy. Nerve stimulation to achieve efficacious symptomatic relief depends on the proper selection of electrical stimulation parameters to recruit the appropriate fibers within a nerve. Recently, electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve has shown promise for controlling inflammation and clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Read More

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Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH)-subunit C Regulates Muscle Oxygen Consumption and Fatigability in an Animal Model of Pulmonary Emphysema.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Albany Medical College Center for Cardiovascular Sciences, 150554, Medicine, Albany, New York, United States;

Patients with pulmonary emphysema often develop locomotor muscle dysfunction, which is independently associated with disability and higher mortality in that population. Muscle dysfunction entails reduced force-generation capacity which partially depends on fibers' oxidative potential, yet very little mechanistic research has focused on muscle respiration in pulmonary emphysema. Using a recently established animal model of pulmonary emphysema-driven skeletal muscle dysfunction, we found downregulation of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunit C in association with lower oxygen consumption and fatigue-tolerance in locomotor muscles. Read More

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The furin cleavage site in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is required for transmission in ferrets.

Nat Microbiol 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Imperial College London, London, UK.

SARS-CoV-2 entry requires sequential cleavage of the spike glycoprotein at the S1/S2 and the S2' cleavage sites to mediate membrane fusion. SARS-CoV-2 has a polybasic insertion (PRRAR) at the S1/S2 cleavage site that can be cleaved by furin. Using lentiviral pseudotypes and a cell-culture-adapted SARS-CoV-2 virus with an S1/S2 deletion, we show that the polybasic insertion endows SARS-CoV-2 with a selective advantage in lung cells and primary human airway epithelial cells, but impairs replication in Vero E6, a cell line used for passaging SARS-CoV-2. Read More

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Sight of parasitoid wasps accelerates sexual behavior and upregulates a micropeptide gene in Drosophila.

Nat Commun 2021 04 27;12(1):2453. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

Parasitoid wasps inflict widespread death upon the insect world. Hundreds of thousands of parasitoid wasp species kill a vast range of insect species. Insects have evolved defensive responses to the threat of wasps, some cellular and some behavioral. Read More

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The Electrical Conductivity of Bone Marrow Cells Suspension Associated with Proliferative Activity and Depends on the Donor's Age and the Functional Activity of the Liver.

Cell Biochem Biophys 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Biochemistry Department, V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv, Ukraine.

Copper ions play various roles in mammalian cells. Some investigations indicated that copper correlates with liver fibrosis and changes in bone marrow cells. Here, we explored the role of bone marrow cell parameters in copper liver fibrosis development and possible underlying mechanisms. Read More

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Auxin Does the SAMba: Auxin Signaling in the Shoot Apical Meristem.

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Laboratoire Reproduction et Développement des Plantes, University at Lyon, ENS de Lyon, UCB Lyon 1, CNRS, INRAE, 69342 Lyon, France.

Plants, in contrast to animals, are unique in their capacity to postembryonically develop new organs due to the activity of stem cell populations, located in specialized tissues called meristems. Above ground, the shoot apical meristem generates aerial organs and tissues throughout plant life. It is well established that auxin plays a central role in the functioning of the shoot apical meristem. Read More

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siRNA enrichment in Argonaute 2-depleted Blattella germanica.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech 2021 Apr 22;1864(6-7):194704. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Institute of Evolutionary Biology (CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra), Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta 37-49, 08003 Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: RNA interference (RNAi) is a cellular mechanism used to fight various threats, including transposons, aberrant RNAs, and some types of viruses. This mechanism relies on the detection of dsRNA molecules, which through a pathway involving Dicer-2 (Dcr-2) and Argonaute 2 (AGO2), produces small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that bind to the complementary RNAs triggering their degradation.

Methods: Using the cockroach Blattella germanica as a model, we examined AGO2 activity by depleting its mRNA using RNAi and analyzing the phenotypes produced. Read More

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Prelimbic prefrontal cortical encoding of reward predictive cues.

Synapse 2021 Apr 24:e22202. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Animals appoint incentive value and learn to approach otherwise behaviorally inert stimuli if these stimuli come to predict the delivery of reward. Interestingly, this adaptive Pavlovian learning process has been implicated in behavioral control disorders, such as drug addiction. One brain region implicated in directing conditioned approach behavior is the prelimbic region of the prefrontal cortex. Read More

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Is oven bag really advantageous in terms of heterocyclic aromatic amines and bisphenol-A? Chicken meat perspective.

Food Chem 2021 Sep 23;355:129646. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey. Electronic address:

Herein, the effects of oven bag use belong to different brands on heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) formation and bisphenol-A (BPA) migration in cooked chicken meats (breast and leg) were investigated. Samples were also analyzed in terms of some qualitative properties (fatty acid profile, water, fat, pH, TBARS, cooking loss). Both oven bag use and meat type had an effect on qualitative properties of the samples. Read More

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September 2021

Impact of regulatory light chain mutation K104E on the ATPase and motor properties of cardiac myosin.

J Gen Physiol 2021 Jul;153(7)

Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA.

Mutations in the cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (RLC, MYL2 gene) are known to cause inherited cardiomyopathies with variable phenotypes. In this study, we investigated the impact of a mutation in the RLC (K104E) that is associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Previously in a mouse model of K104E, older animals were found to develop cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction, suggesting a slow development of HCM. Read More

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Inoculation of pear flowers with Metschnikowia reukaufii and Acinetobacter nectaris enhances attraction of honeybees and hoverflies, but does not increase fruit and seed set.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(4):e0250203. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Laboratory for Process Microbial Ecology and Bioinspirational Management, Department of Microbial and Molecular Systems, Center of Microbial and Plant Genetics, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Currently, one of the most important challenges is to provide sufficient and affordable food and energy for a fast-growing world population, alongside preserving natural habitats and maintaining biodiversity. About 35% of the global food production depends on animals for pollination. In recent years, an alarming worldwide decline in pollinators has been reported, putting our food production under additional pressure. Read More

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[Application of the log-Logistic Model to Dose Response Relation in Microbial Risk Assessment].

Hiroshi Fujikawa

Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi 2021 ;62(2):37-43

Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology.

Microbial risk assessment in food safety is a valuable tool to reduce the risks of infection by pathogens. The dose-response relation is aimed to establish the relationship between the dose of a pathogen that populations are exposed to and the probability of the adverse health effect by the pathogen. Among many dose-response models ever proposed, the exponential and beta-Poisson models have been internationally applied, but the decision on which model is selected between them solely depends on the goodness of fit to specific data sets. Read More

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The sensory impacts of climate change: bathymetric shifts and visually mediated interactions in aquatic species.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 Apr 21;288(1949):20210396. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Biology Department, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA.

Visual perception is, in part, a function of the ambient illumination spectrum. In aquatic environments, illumination depends upon the water's optical properties and depth, both of which can change due to anthropogenic impacts: turbidity is increasing in many aquatic habitats, and many species have shifted deeper in response to warming surface waters (known as bathymetric shifts). Although increasing turbidity and bathymetric shifts can result in similarly large changes to a species' optical environment, no studies have yet examined the impact of the latter on visually mediated interactions. Read More

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Plant-associated CO mediates long-distance host location and foraging behaviour of a root herbivore.

Elife 2021 04 20;10. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Biology, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

Insect herbivores use different cues to locate host plants. The importance of CO in this context is not well understood. We manipulated CO perception in western corn rootworm (WCR) larvae through RNAi and studied how CO perception impacts their interaction with their host plant. Read More

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