1,165,643 results match your criteria animal studies


Additivity of digestible energy and nutrient concentrations in hatchery byproducts fed to nursery pigs.

Anim Biosci 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Animal Science and Technology, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea.

Objective: The objective was to test additivity of digestible energy and nutrient concentrations in the hatchery byproduct mixture fed to nursery pigs.

Methods: In the previous studies, energy, phosphorus, calcium, and amino acid digestibility of infertile eggs, unhatched eggs, culled chicks, and a mixture of 3 hatchery byproduct ingredients was determined in nursery pigs (initial body weight = 9.4 to 14. Read More

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Long-term BTX-A effects on bi-articular muscle: Higher passive force, limited length range of active force production and unchanged intermuscular interactions.

J Biomech 2021 Jul 12;126:110627. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Boğaziçi University, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address:

Botulinum toxin type-A (BTX-A) is commonly used for spasticity management aiming at reducing joint stiffness and increasing joint range of motion in CP patients. However, previous animal studies showed acutely increased passive forces and a narrowerlength range of active force exertion (l) for muscles exposed. BTX-A can spread affecting mechanics of several muscles in a compartment, but it was shown acutely to diminishepimuscular myofascial force transmission (EMFT). Read More

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Tissue engineered artificial liver model based on viscoelastic hyaluronan-collagen hydrogel and the effect of EGCG intervention on ALD.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Jul 16;206:111980. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, College of Biomedical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064, Sichuan, China.

In alcoholic liver disease (ALD) research, animal models, as one of the most popular methods to explore pathology and therapeutic drug screening, show the limitations of expensive cost and ethic, as well as long modeling time. To minimize the use of animal models in ALD research, an artificial liver model has been developed by incorporating HepG2 cells into hydrogel matrix based on difunctional hyaluronan and collagen. And on this basis an alcohol-induced ALD model in vitro by adding alcohol in the engineering process has been established. Read More

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Thrombotic risk in children with COVID-19 infection: A systematic review of the literature.

Thromb Res 2021 Jul 16;205:92-98. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Carlo Poma Hospital, Mantova, Italy. Electronic address:

Objective: Coagulation and inflammatory parameters are mildly altered in children with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection, and laboratory evidence of a proinflammatory and procoagulant state has been noted in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). It is not clear whether this pediatric condition is related to thrombotic events. With this study we reviewed the literature for thrombotic complications in children with COVID-19 infection and MIS-C. Read More

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Envelope following response measurements in young veterans are consistent with noise-induced cochlear synaptopathy.

Hear Res 2021 Jul 10;408:108310. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

VA RR&D National Center for Rehabilitative Auditory Research (NCRAR), VA Portland Health Care System, Portland, OR, USA. Electronic address:

Animal studies have demonstrated that noise exposure can lead to the loss of the synapses between the inner hair cells and their afferent auditory nerve fiber targets without impacting auditory thresholds. Although several non-invasive physiological measures appear to be sensitive to cochlear synaptopathy in animal models, including auditory brainstem response (ABR) wave I amplitude, the envelope following response (EFR), and the middle ear muscle reflex (MEMR), human studies of these measures in samples that are expected to vary in terms of the degree of noise-induced synaptopathy have resulted in mixed findings. One possible explanation for the differing results is that synaptopathy risk is lower for recreational noise exposure than for occupational or military noise exposure. Read More

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Formulation development, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of topical hydrogel formulation of econazole nitrate-loaded β-cyclodextrin nanosponges.

J Pharm Sci 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, 110062, India. Electronic address:

Econazole nitrate, an antifungal drug used in the handling of skin ailments, is commercially not efficient as these ailments typically require a more elevated concentration of the drug to offer an effective pharmacological retort. Like so, it is proposed to assess the effectiveness of the topical hydrogel of econazole-loaded nanosponge in the management of skin ailment(s). Econazole nitrate-laden β-cyclodextrin nanosponges were developed by employing the melt method using β-cyclodextrin as the organic polymer and N,N-carbonyldiimidazole as the crosslinker. Read More

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Targeted gene disruption in a marsupial, Monodelphis domestica, by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing.

Curr Biol 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Laboratory for Animal Resources and Genetic Engineering, RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research, 2-2-3 Minatojima Minami-machi, Chuou-ku, Kobe 650-0047, Japan; Mouse Genetics Core Facility, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA.

Marsupials represent one of three extant mammalian subclasses with very unique characteristics not shared by other mammals. Most notably, much of the development of neonates immaturely born after a relatively short gestation takes place in the external environment. Among marsupials, the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica; hereafter "the opossum") is one of very few established laboratory models. Read More

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Genetically predicted insulin-like growth factor-I in relation to muscle mass and strength.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Unit of Cardiovascular and Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objective: Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has been associated with muscle status in animal- and population-based studies. We conducted a Mendelian randomisation study to assess the causality of the associations of IGF-I with muscle strength and mass.

Design And Patients: Genetic variants associated with serum IGF-I at genome-wide significance in the UK Biobank study (358,072 individuals of European descent) were selected as instrumental variables. Read More

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Angularis oris axial pattern flap as a reliable and versatile option for rostral facial reconstruction in cats.

Vet Surg 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, São Paulo State University, Botucatu, Brazil.

Objective: To evaluate outcomes associated with the use of an angularis oris axial pattern flap (AOAPF) for rostral facial reconstruction in cats.

Animals: Nine adult client-owned cats.

Study Design: Short case series. Read More

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Long-term dietary protein intake and subjective cognitive decline in US men and women.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Diet is one of the modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline. However, studies on dietary protein intake and cognitive decline have remained limited and inconclusive.

Objectives: In this study, we aimed to investigate the associations between long-term dietary protein intake and subsequent subjective cognitive decline (SCD). Read More

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Dispersive effects and focused biodistribution of recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20: A locally acting and transiently active permeation enhancer.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254765. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Halozyme Therapeutics, Inc., San Diego, CA, United States of America.

Background: Recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20 (rHuPH20) facilitates the dispersion and absorption of subcutaneously administered therapeutic agents. This study aimed to characterize the transient, local action of rHuPH20 in the subcutaneous (SC) space using focused biodistribution and dye dispersion studies conducted in mice.

Materials And Methods: To evaluate the biodistribution of rHuPH20, mice were intradermally administered rHuPH20 (80 U). Read More

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Addressing antimicrobial resistance by improving access and quality of care-A review of the literature from East Africa.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jul 22;15(7):e0009529. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

The Boyd Orr Centre for Population and Ecosystem Health, Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health & Comparative Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary & Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Universal access to healthcare, including quality medicines, is a fundamental human right but is still out of reach for many in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). An existing framework capturing variability of access to healthcare in low-resource settings includes the 5 dimensions: availability, accessibility, affordability, adequacy, and acceptability. This framework encompasses key components, including health infrastructure and means to access it as well as service organisation, costs, and factors that influence users' satisfaction. Read More

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Emerging Brominated Flame Retardants 2-Ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTBB) and Bis(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP) in Chinese Food and Their Health Implications.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Diagnostic and Traceability Technologies for Food Poisoning, Beijing Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100013, China.

2-Ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTBB) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP) have been frequently detected in the environment, whereas studies in food are scare. The European Food Safety Authority has requested data for their risk assessment. Herein, dietary exposure and hazard quotient (HQ) were studied based on the 5th (2009-2012) and 6th (2015-2018) Chinese total diet studies (TDSs). Read More

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Investigating Endocrine Disrupting Properties of Chemicals in Fish and Amphibians: Opportunities to Apply the 3Rs.

Integr Environ Assess Manag 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Shell Health, Shell International B.V., Carel van Bylandtlaan 16, 2596 HR, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Many regulations are beginning to explicitly require investigation of a chemical's endocrine disrupting properties as a part of the safety assessment process, for substances already on or about to be placed on the market. Different jurisdictions are applying distinct approaches. However, all share a common theme requiring testing for endocrine activity and adverse effects, typically involving in vitro and in vivo assays on selected endocrine pathways. Read More

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Long-term increases in pathogen seroprevalence in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) influenced by climate change.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Wildlife Research Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

The influence of climate change on wildlife disease dynamics is a burgeoning conservation and human health issue, but few long-term studies empirically link climate to pathogen prevalence. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are vulnerable to the negative impacts of sea ice loss as a result of accelerated Arctic warming. While studies have associated changes in polar bear body condition, reproductive output, survival, and abundance to reductions in sea ice, no long-term studies have documented the impact of climate change on pathogen exposure. Read More

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Morphological and microstructural characteristics of scales in longnose goby Awaous jayakari (Teleostei: Gobiidae): Light and scanning electron microscopy approaches.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.

The scale morphology of a native goby, Awaous jayakari (Gobiidae) was studied using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. The morphological descriptions were based on the scale's type, shape, and features of the anterior, posterior, and lateral fields. Further characteristics of the focus, circuli, radii, lepidonts, and cteni, were investigated. Read More

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Data inaccessibility at sub-county scale limits implementation of manuresheds.

J Environ Qual 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1575 Linden Drive, Madison, WI, 53705.

The manureshed concept aims to rebalance surplus manure nutrients produced at animal feeding operations (sources) and the demands from nutrient-deficient croplands (sinks) to reduce negative environmental impacts and utilize nutrients more efficiently. Due to water quality implications, studies focused on this re-balancing have typically created domain boundaries that match a particular watershed. However, a majority of agricultural datasets that are used to inform these analyses - specifically, livestock populations - are only available at the county scale, which generally do not match watershed boundaries. Read More

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Salidroside activates the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway to suppress non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

Hepatology 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Background & Aims: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is becoming a leading cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Salidroside (p-hydroxyphenethyl-β-d-glucoside) has various biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer activities. However, the therapeutic effect and underlying molecular mechanism of salidroside in NASH remain to be further clarified. Read More

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Habitat use and nursery evaluation for the longnose stingray Hypanus guttatus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) using vertebral microchemistry.

J Fish Biol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Laboratório de Dinâmica de Populações Marinhas (DIMAR), Departamento de Pesca e Aquicultura, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

Here, we use vertebral microchemistry to investigate the habitat use patterns of the longnose stingray Hypanus guttatus in the northern and northeastern regions of Brazil, and to evaluate the existence of potential nurseries of the species. Samples were collected in Maranhão, Rio Grande do Norte, and Pernambuco states between 2008 and 2019. Trace element concentrations of Ba:Ca, Mg:Ca, Mn:Ca, and Sr. Read More

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Clinical Study on Plant Galactagogue Worldwide in Promoting Women's Lactation: a Scoping Review.

Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Medical Biotechnology Laboratory, Central Research Laboratories, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Human milk is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the general well-being of infants. However, many mothers face an insufficient milk supply to breastfeed their children. Galactagogue, in particular, plant galactagogue, serves as a method to promote lactation. Read More

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Qingbo, a common cyprinid fish, responds diversely in behavior and locomotion to predators with different hunting modes.

Fish Physiol Biochem 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Laboratory of Evolutionary Physiology and Behavior, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Animal Biology, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing, 401331, China.

Almost all prey live in habitats with predators with different hunting modes; however, most studies on predation have investigated the effects of only one predator at a time. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis), a common cyprinid fish, responds differently to active hunting and ambush predators and how qingbo responds when both types of predators coexist. Juvenile qingbo were subjected to catfish (Clarias fuscus, active hunter) exposure, snakehead fish (Channa argus, ambush hunter) exposure, or mixed predator exposure (catfish and snakehead coexistence) for a duration of 60 days. Read More

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Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in nerve injury repair-a new era in therapeutic agents and regenerative treatments.

Neurol Sci 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Physiology and Biophysics, Department of Basic Life Sciences, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, 35010-177, Governador Valadares-MG, Brazil.

Background: Traumatic nerve injuries may result in severe motor dysfunctions. Although the microenvironment of peripheral axons favors their regeneration, regenerative process is not always successful.

Purpose: We reviewed and discussed the main findings obtained with low-level laser therapy (LLLT), a therapeutic intervention that has been employed in order to achieve an optimized regeneration process in peripheral axons. Read More

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Prebiotic inulin as a treatment of obesity related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through gut microbiota: a critical review.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jul 22:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition, Ministry of Education, Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan, People's Republic of China.

The microbial-derived products, including short chain fatty acids, lipopolysaccharide and secondary bile acids, have been shown to participate in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. Previous studies have demonstrated that prebiotics, such as oligosaccharide and inulin, have abilities to change the concentration of microbial-derived products through modulating the microbial community structure, thus controlling body weight and alleviating hepatic fat accumulation. However, recent evidence indicates that there are individual differences in host response upon inulin treatment due to the differences in host microbial composition before dietary intervention. Read More

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Complete Closed Genome Sequence of the Extremely Heat-Resistant Strain Escherichia coli AW1.7.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2021 Jul 22;10(29):e0050221. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, Clay Center, Nebraska, USA.

Escherichia coli isolate AW1.7 is an extremely heat-resistant bacterium and has been widely used as a reference strain in extreme heat resistance studies for almost a decade. Here, we report its complete closed genome sequence. Read More

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A meta-analytical evaluation of the effects of high-salt water intake on beef cattle.

J Anim Sci 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Adequate drinking water is essential to maintain acceptable production levels in beef cattle operations. In the context of global climate change, the water scarcity forecasted for the future is a growing concern and it would determine an increase in the use of poorer quality water by the agricultural sector in many parts of the world. However, consumption of high-salt water by cattle have consequences often overlooked. Read More

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Nutritional facts regarding commercially available gluten-free bread worldwide: Recent advances and future challenges.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jul 22:1-13. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Biosciences, Federal University of São Paulo, Santos, São Paulo, Brazil.

Recently, there has been an increase in demand for gluten-free (GF) products due to the growing number of gluten-intolerant and healthy individuals choosing to follow a gluten-free diet. Gluten-free bread (GFB) is a staple food product; therefore, many recent studies have reported the nutritional properties of GFB. However, an overview of the current ingredients and nutritional labeling of GFB worldwide has not yet been provided. Read More

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Liver microphysiological platforms for drug metabolism applications.

Cell Prolif 2021 Jul 22:e13099. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

School of Sciences and Humanities, Nazarbayev University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.

Drug development is a costly and lengthy process with low success rates. To improve the efficiency of drug development, there has been an increasing need in developing alternative methods able to eliminate toxic compounds early in the drug development pipeline. Drug metabolism plays a key role in determining the efficacy of a drug and its potential side effects. Read More

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Genome-wide epistatic interactions of litter size at birth in Chinese indigenous pigs.

Anim Genet 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Animal Science, College of Animal Science, Zhejiang University, 866# Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou, East, 310058, China.

Improving litter size at birth (TNB) and the number of piglets born alive (NBA) are the main breeding goals related to litter traits, which are economically important. A better understanding of genetic architecture underlying TNB and NBA traits could increase pig production efficiency. However, most previous studies on these traits focus on additive genetic effects, while epistatic interactions underlying TNB and NBA traits has not yet been well investigated, which are essential to understand how traits-related genes interact. Read More

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The potential risk of antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus iniae in sturgeon cultivation in Sichuan, China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Huimin Road No. 211, Wenjiang, Chengdu, Sichuan, 611130, People's Republic of China.

Sichuan, located in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, is the gathering place of many rivers and plays an important role in sturgeon aquaculture and wild sturgeon protection in China, where it suffered the severe influence of Streptococcus iniae infection in sturgeon. However, the annual thousands of tons of antibiotic usage in Sichuan may accumulate in water and cause obstacles to the prevention of S. iniae infection. Read More

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The Effect of Nixtamalization Extrusion Process and Tortillas Making on the Stability of Anthocyanins from Blue Corn through the Kinetic and Thermodynamic Parameters.

Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Departamento de Biotecnología y Ciencias Alimentarias, Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora (ITSON), Sonora, 85000, Cd. Obregón, México.

The blue corn-based products are considered functional foods due to their high concentration of anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to estimate the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the thermal degradation of anthocyanins from extruded nixtamalized corn products. A comparative study of anthocyanins thermal stability in these matrices in a buffer solution (pH 2. Read More

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