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A novel swine model of the acute respiratory distress syndrome using clinically relevant injury exposures.

Physiol Rep 2021 May;9(9):e14871

Michigan Center for Integrative Research in Critical Care, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

To date, existing animal models of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have failed to translate preclinical discoveries into effective pharmacotherapy or diagnostic biomarkers. To address this translational gap, we developed a high-fidelity swine model of ARDS utilizing clinically relevant lung injury exposures. Fourteen male swine were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and surgically instrumented for hemodynamic monitoring, blood, and tissue sampling. Read More

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Serial Lipocalin 2 and Oncostatin M levels reflect inflammation status and treatment response in axial spondyloarthritis.

Arthritis Res Ther 2021 May 14;23(1):141. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Informative serum biomarkers for monitoring inflammatory activity and treatment responses in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) are lacking. We assessed whether Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) and Oncostatin M (OSM), both having roles in inflammation and bone remodeling, may accurately reflect chronic joint inflammation and treatment response in axSpA. Previous reports in animal models showed involvement of LCN2 and OSM in joint/gut inflammation. Read More

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Decrease in Skin Prion-Seeding Activity of Prion-Infected Mice Treated with a Compound Against Human and Animal Prions: a First Possible Biomarker for Prion Therapeutics.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Departments of Pathology and Neurology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA.

Previous studies have revealed that the infectious scrapie isoform of prion protein (PrP) harbored in the skin tissue of patients or animals with prion diseases can be amplified and detected through the serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) or real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assays. These findings suggest that skin PrP-seeding activity may serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis of prion diseases; however, its utility as a biomarker for prion therapeutics remains largely unknown. Cellulose ethers (CEs, such as TC-5RW), widely used as food and pharmaceutical additives, have recently been shown to prolong the lifespan of prion-infected mice and hamsters. Read More

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Tooth wear, growth and height in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) fed pelleted or extruded diets with or without added abrasives.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Clinic for Zoo Animals, Exotic Pets and Wildlife, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Among the different factors thought to affect dental wear, dietary consistency is possibly the least investigated. To understand tooth wear of herbivorous animals consuming different dietary consistencies with different abrasive potential, we fed 14 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) exclusively with a timothy grassmeal-based diet in either pelleted or extruded form, or the same diets with an addition of 5% fine sand abrasives (mean size 130 µm). First, we offered the rabbits the pelleted and extruded diets as well as the pelleted control and pelleted abrasive diet in a two-stage preference experiment. Read More

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Comparative anatomical studies on the cranial nerves of the fully formed embryos of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Ostiechthyes-Cichlidae). I. Nervus glossopharyngeus.

Braz J Biol 2021 10;82:e245509. Epub 2021 May 10.

Taif University, College of Sciences, Department of Biology, Taif, Saudi Arabia.

The organization of the roots, ganglia and the peripheral distribution of the cranial nerves of the fully formed embryos of Oreochromis niloticus are examined in the transverse serial sections. These nerves carry fibers, which were also analyzed. The results of this study demonstrated that the glossopharyngeal nerve originates by means of only one root, which leaves the cranium through the glossopharyngeal foramen. Read More

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Evaluation of intravitreal topotecan dose levels, toxicity and efficacy for retinoblastoma vitreous seeds: a preclinical and clinical study.

Br J Ophthalmol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA

Background: Current melphalan-based intravitreal regimens for retinoblastoma (RB) vitreous seeds cause retinal toxicity. We assessed the efficacy and toxicity of topotecan monotherapy compared with melphalan in our rabbit model and patient cohort.

Methods: Rabbit experiments: empiric pharmacokinetics were determined following topotecan injection. Read More

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No interplay between gut microbiota composition and the lipopolysaccharide-induced innate immune response in humans .

Clin Transl Immunology 2021 29;10(4):e1278. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen The Netherlands.

Objective: Animal studies have demonstrated the extensive interplay between the gut microbiota and immunity. Moreover, in critically ill patients, who almost invariably suffer from a pronounced immune response, a shift in gut microbiota composition is associated with infectious complications and mortality. We examined the relationship between interindividual differences in gut microbiota composition and variation in the cytokine response induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Read More

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Repurposing Nintedanib for Pathological Cardiac Remodeling and Dysfunction.

Pharmacol Res 2021 May 6:105605. Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL 35294-1913, USA. Electronic address:

Heart Failure (HF) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Myocardial fibrosis, one of the clinical manifestations implicated in almost every form of heart disease, contributes significantly to HF development. However, there is no approved drug specifically designed to target cardiac fibrosis. Read More

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Lateral habenula cannabinoid CB1 receptor involvement in drug-associated impulsive behavior.

Neuropharmacology 2021 May 6:108604. Epub 2021 May 6.

Electrophysiology Research Section, Cellular Neurobiology Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Animal and human studies show that cannabis or its derivatives can increase relapse to cocaine seeking following withdrawal. Moreover, cannabis use in humans is associated with impulse control deficits and animal studies implicate endogenous cannabinoids (eCB) in several impulsivity constructs. However, the brain areas where cannabinoids might control impulsivity or cocaine seeking are largely unknown. Read More

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Ultrastructural and phenotypical diversity of macrophages in the rat ileal mucosa.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Laboratory of Animal Molecular Morphology, Department of Bioresource Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 657-8501, Japan.

Several types of macrophages have been reported in the intestinal mucosa, but their histological localization remains ambiguous. Here, we obtained detailed information about ultrastructural and phenotypical diversity of macrophage-like cells (MLCs) in the rat ileal mucosa using immunofluorescent analysis and serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM). The results revealed that the cells immunopositive for CD68, the pan-macrophage marker, included CD163CD4, CD163CD4, and CD163CD4 cells in the lamina propria (LP) of the intestinal villus and around the crypt. Read More

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Technical Note: In vivo estimation of lipogenesis using a bolus injection of [U- 13C]glucose in pigs.

J Anim Sci 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Sherbrooke Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada.

The use of radioactive isotopes to measure de novo lipogenesis in pigs has been well established. Different from radioactive isotopes, stable isotopes present little or no risk to human and animal subjects. Therefore, the objective of this study was to adapt the method of bolus injection of radioactive glucose ( 14C) to use 13C-labelled glucose to estimate de novo lipogenesis in finishing pigs. Read More

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Comparison of murine retroorbital plexus and facial vein blood collection to mitigate animal ethics issues.

Lab Anim Res 2021 May 6;37(1):12. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Laboratory Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, 05029, Republic of Korea.

Background: Blood collection is an important procedure used in animal experiments. Blood collection methods that reduce pain, injury, and stress in experimental animals are important with regard to animal ethics. Various comparative studies of blood collection methods have been reported; however, there are no comparative studies on serial blood collection considering animal ethics. Read More

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Global population genetic structure and demographic trajectories of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens.

BMC Biol 2021 May 5;19(1):94. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Livestock Sciences, Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Frick, Switzerland.

Background: The black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) is the most promising insect candidate for nutrient-recycling through bioconversion of organic waste into biomass, thereby improving sustainability of protein supplies for animal feed and facilitating transition to a circular economy. Contrary to conventional livestock, genetic resources of farmed insects remain poorly characterised. We present the first comprehensive population genetic characterisation of H. Read More

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The regression of the bovine tuberculin reaction: Results from the Reactor Quality Assurance study in Northern Ireland.

Vet J 2021 Jun 26;272:105664. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Veterinary Epidemiology Unit, Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs, Upper Newtownards Road, Belfast, BT4 3SB, Northern Ireland, UK.

Tuberculin skin tests remain widely used in the control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle. Little is known about the rate of regression of tuberculin reactions after the comparative intradermal cervical test (CICT) in cattle. This study aimed to collect data to describe tuberculin regression in reactors following the CICT at 72 ± 4 h post injection. Read More

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Increased Compulsivity in Adulthood after Early Adolescence Immune Activation: Preclinical Evidence.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 28;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Psychology and Health Research Centre, University of Almería, Carretera de Sacramento s/n, 04120 Almería, Spain.

Immune activation during early developmental stages has been proposed as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism in both human and animal studies. However, its relationship with the vulnerability to inhibitory control deficit, which is a shared feature among those conditions, remains unclear. The present work studied whether postnatal immune activation during early adolescence, combined with exposure to early-life adverse events, could lead to adult vulnerability to impulsive and/or compulsive behaviors. Read More

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Imaging of Canine Neoplastic Reproductive Disorders.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 22;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Messina, 98168 Messina, Italy.

Diagnostic imaging plays an essential role in the diagnosis and management of reproductive neoplasia in dogs and cats. The initial diagnosis, staging, and planning of surgical and radiation treatment and the response to therapy all involve imaging to varying degrees. Routine radiographs, ultrasound, nuclear medicine, and cross-sectional imaging in the form of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used in canine reproductive disorders. Read More

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A Virulent PEDV Strain FJzz1 with Genomic Mutations and Deletions at the High Passage Level Was Attenuated in Piglets via Serial Passage In Vitro.

Virol Sin 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Swine Infectious Diseases, Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai, 200241, China.

Highly virulent porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strains re-emerged and circulated in China at the end of 2010, causing significant economic losses in the pork industry worldwide. To understand the genetic dynamics of PEDV during its passage in vitro, the PEDV G2 strain FJzz1 was serially propagated in Vero cells for up to 200 passages. The susceptibility and adaptability of the FJzz1 strain increased gradually as it was serially passaged in vitro. Read More

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Investigation of the use of microwave ablation with and without cooling urethral perfusion for thermal ablation of the prostate gland in canine cadavers.

Am J Vet Res 2021 May;82(5):395-404

Objective: To investigate the use of microwave ablation (MWA) with cooling urethral perfusion and with no perfusion (MWA-UP and MWA-NP, respectively) for prostate gland ablation in canine cadavers.

Animals: Cadavers of 18 sexually intact male dogs.

Procedures: After technique refinement in 2 cadavers, laparotomy with ultrasound-guided MWA-UP (n = 8) or MWA-NP (8) of the prostate gland was performed in 16 cadavers. Read More

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Asymptomatic elevated parathyroid hormone level due to immunoassay interference.

Osteoporos Int 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

IDIM, Universidad del Salvador, Libertad 836, C1012 AAR, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Background: Parathyroid hormone (PTH) measurement using immunoassays is inherently vulnerable to interferences due to the presence of different proteins such as heterophile antibodies, human anti-animal antibodies, auto-analyte antibodies, the rheumatoid factor, and others. The frequency of immunoassay interference can be as high as 6%. We report the case of a patient showing persistent high levels of PTH without impact on calcium and bone metabolism. Read More

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Can Changes in the Plasma Sodium Concentration Be Predicted Based on the Mass Balance of Sodium, Potassium, and Water in the Face of Osmotically Inactive Sodium Storage?

Nephron 2021 Apr 19:1-4. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Dai-Scott Nguyen and Minh-Kevin Nguyen David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Context: Alterations in the plasma sodium concentration ([Na+]p) is predicted based on changes in the mass balance of Na+, K+, and H2O. However, it is well appreciated that Na+ retention results in both osmotically active and osmotically inactive Na+ storage and that only osmotically active Na+ contributes to the modulation of the [Na+]p. Subject of Review: Recent clinical studies suggested that prediction of changes in the [Na+]p based on the mass balance of Na+, K+, and H2O is inaccurate since the osmotically inactive Na+ storage pool is dynamically regulated. Read More

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Effect of the dose on the toxicokinetics of a quaternary mixture of rare earth elements administered to rats.

Toxicol Lett 2021 Jul 20;345:46-53. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Chair in Toxicological Risk Assessment and Management, and Public Health Research Center (CReSP), University of Montreal, Roger-Gaudry Building, U424, P.O. Box 6128, Main Station, Montreal, QC, H3C 3J7, Canada. Electronic address:

Large human biomonitoring studies are starting to assess exposure to rare earth elements (REEs). Yet, there is a paucity of data on the toxicokinetics of these substances to help interpret biomonitoring data. The objective of the study was to document the effect of the administered dose on the toxicokinetics of REEs. Read More

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3D reconstruction and histopathological analyses on murine corporal body.

Reprod Med Biol 2021 Apr 9;20(2):199-207. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Developmental Genetics Institute of Advanced Medicine Wakayama Medical University Wakayama Japan.

Purpose: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is one of the increasing diseases with aging society. The basis of ED derived from local penile abnormality is poorly understood because of the complex three-dimensional (3D) distribution of sinusoids in corpus cavernosum (CC). Understanding the 3D histological structure of penis is thus necessary. Read More

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In vitro antibacterial activity of Loxostylis alata extracts and isolated compounds against Salmonella species.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2021 Apr 13;21(1):121. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Phytomedicine Programme, Department of Paraclinical Sciences, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, Pretoria, South Africa.

Background: Owing to antibiotic resistance, alternative antimicrobials from medicinal plants are receiving attention as leads for anti-infective agents. This study aimed to investigate selected tree species and their constituents for activity against bacterial foodborne pathogens, particularly Salmonella serovars.

Methods: Antibacterial activity of ten plant species was determined by serial microdilution against bacteria implicated in causing gastrointestinal ailments. Read More

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Serial serum creatinine, SDMA and urinary acute kidney injury biomarker measurements in dogs envenomated by the European adder (Vipera berus).

BMC Vet Res 2021 Apr 12;17(1):154. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Preclinical sciences and Pathology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with high morbidity and mortality in dogs, but diagnosis may be impaired due the insensitivity of routine renal function biomarkers to detect earlier or milder forms of injury. Snake envenomation is one of several causes of AKI in dogs and humans. Dogs are commonly envenomated by the European adder (Vipera berus) between April and October each year, but few studies exist examining serial serum creatinine (sCr) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) measurements and AKI biomarkers in these dogs. Read More

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An Orthotopic Mouse Model of Ovarian Cancer using Human Stroma to Promote Metastasis.

J Vis Exp 2021 03 23(169). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh; Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, Magee-Womens' Hospital, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center;

Ovarian cancer is characterized by early, diffuse metastasis with 70% of women having metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. While elegant transgenic mouse models of ovarian cancer exist, these mice are expensive and take a long time to develop tumors. Intraperitoneal injection xenograft models lack human stroma and do not accurately model ovarian cancer metastasis. Read More

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Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy (SBF-SEM) of Biological Tissue Samples.

J Vis Exp 2021 03 26(169). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

College of Optometry, University of Houston; Children's Nutrition Center, Baylor College of Medicine.

Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM) allows for the collection of hundreds to thousands of serially-registered ultrastructural images, offering an unprecedented three-dimensional view of tissue microanatomy. While SBF-SEM has seen an exponential increase in use in recent years, technical aspects such as proper tissue preparation and imaging parameters are paramount for the success of this imaging modality. This imaging system benefits from the automated nature of the device, allowing one to leave the microscope unattended during the imaging process, with the automated collection of hundreds of images possible in a single day. Read More

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Strategy for generation of replication-competent recombinant rotaviruses expressing multiple foreign genes.

J Gen Virol 2021 Apr;102(4)

Department of Virology and Parasitology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi 470-1192, Japan.

With the recent establishment of robust reverse genetics systems for rotavirus, rotavirus is being developed as a vector to express foreign genes. However, insertion of larger sequences such as those encoding multiple foreign genes into the rotavirus genome has been challenging because the virus segments are small. In this paper, we attempted to insert multiple foreign genes into a single gene segment of rotavirus to determine whether it can efficiently express multiple exogenous genes from its genome. Read More

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Circle or semi-circle hyper-intensity on T1 high-resolution isovolumetric examination (THRIVE) indicates the young age of experimentally induced caval thrombus.

J Thromb Thrombolysis 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Vascular and Interventional, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, No.68 Changle Road, Nanjing, 210006, China.

To evaluate the age of caval thrombus that experimentally induced in swine by use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Caval thrombus was experimentally created in 15 swine by autologous clot injection assisted with caval net knitting. Serial high-resolution MR images were obtained using magnetic resonance venography (MRV) and T1 high-resolution isotropic volume examination (THRIVE) sequences in a 3. Read More

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[Effect of Long-time Postnatal Exposure to Sevoflurane on Causing Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Rats].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):207-215

Department of Anesthesiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: To investigate whether long-term exposure to inhaled sevoflurane, a volatile anesthetic, causes abnormal activities and memory impairment related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in neonatal rats.

Methods: On postnatal day 5 (P5), Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two sevoflurane subgroups and two control subgroups and underwent experimental intervention. The two sevoflurane (SEVO) subgroups were exposed to 3% sevoflurane for 2 h and 4 h respectively, while the two control subgroups were given pure oxygen for the same amount and duration. Read More

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An in vitro model for assessment of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity by defining the correlation between virus isolation and quantitative PCR value: isolation success of SARS-CoV-2 from oropharyngeal swabs correlates negatively with Cq value.

Virol J 2021 04 7;18(1):71. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Medical Laboratory, Department of Virology, Dr. Gernot Walder GmbH, 9931, Außervillgraten 30, Austria.

Background: At the beginning of the pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), little was known about its actual rate of infectivity and any COVID-19 patient positive in laboratory testing was supposed to be highly infective and a public health risk factor.

Methods: One hundred oropharyngeal samples were obtained during routine work flow of testing symptomatic persons by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and were inoculated onto cell culture of VeroB4 cells to study the degree of infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Quantification by virus titration and an external standard using synthetic RNA gave the breaking point of infectivity in SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Read More

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