757,393 results match your criteria animal models


Prenatal case of Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome with a de novo 370Kb-sized microdeletion of Xq26.2 compassing partial GPC3 gene and review.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2021 Jul 22:e1750. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Medical Genetics, Hunan Provincial Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Background: Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 1 (SGBS1) is a rare X-linked recessive disorder characterized by pre- and postnatal overgrowth and a broad spectrum of anomalies including craniofacial dysmorphism, heart defects, renal, and genital anomalies. Due to the ultrasound findings are not pathognomonic for this syndrome, most clinical diagnosis of SGBS1 are made postnatally.

Methods: A pregnant woman with abnormal prenatal sonographic findings was advised to perform molecular diagnosis. Read More

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Tissue engineered artificial liver model based on viscoelastic hyaluronan-collagen hydrogel and the effect of EGCG intervention on ALD.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Jul 16;206:111980. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, College of Biomedical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064, Sichuan, China.

In alcoholic liver disease (ALD) research, animal models, as one of the most popular methods to explore pathology and therapeutic drug screening, show the limitations of expensive cost and ethic, as well as long modeling time. To minimize the use of animal models in ALD research, an artificial liver model has been developed by incorporating HepG2 cells into hydrogel matrix based on difunctional hyaluronan and collagen. And on this basis an alcohol-induced ALD model in vitro by adding alcohol in the engineering process has been established. Read More

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Envelope following response measurements in young veterans are consistent with noise-induced cochlear synaptopathy.

Hear Res 2021 Jul 10;408:108310. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

VA RR&D National Center for Rehabilitative Auditory Research (NCRAR), VA Portland Health Care System, Portland, OR, USA. Electronic address:

Animal studies have demonstrated that noise exposure can lead to the loss of the synapses between the inner hair cells and their afferent auditory nerve fiber targets without impacting auditory thresholds. Although several non-invasive physiological measures appear to be sensitive to cochlear synaptopathy in animal models, including auditory brainstem response (ABR) wave I amplitude, the envelope following response (EFR), and the middle ear muscle reflex (MEMR), human studies of these measures in samples that are expected to vary in terms of the degree of noise-induced synaptopathy have resulted in mixed findings. One possible explanation for the differing results is that synaptopathy risk is lower for recreational noise exposure than for occupational or military noise exposure. Read More

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Application of in vitro data in physiologically-based kinetic models for quantitative in vitro-in vivo extrapolation: A case-study for baclofen.

Toxicol In Vitro 2021 Jul 19:105223. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.177, 3508TD Utrecht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Physiologically-based kinetic (PBK) models can simulate concentrations of chemicals in tissues over time without animal experiments. Nevertheless, in vivo data are often used to parameterise PBK models. This study aims to illustrate that a combination of kinetic and dynamic readouts from in vitro assays can be used to parameterise PBK models simulating neurologically-active concentrations of xenobiotics. Read More

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Neurochemical abnormalities in the hippocampus of male rats displaying audiogenic seizures, a genetic model of epilepsy.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jul 19:136123. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Laboratório de Neurofarmacologia, Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Av Antonio Carlos 6627, Campus Pampulha, CEP 30190-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Epilepsy is a disorder characterized by recurrent seizures that affects 1% of the population. However, the neurochemical alterations observed in epilepsy are not fully understood. There are different animal models of epilepsy, such as genetic or drug induced. Read More

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Targeted gene disruption in a marsupial, Monodelphis domestica, by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing.

Curr Biol 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Laboratory for Animal Resources and Genetic Engineering, RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research, 2-2-3 Minatojima Minami-machi, Chuou-ku, Kobe 650-0047, Japan; Mouse Genetics Core Facility, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA.

Marsupials represent one of three extant mammalian subclasses with very unique characteristics not shared by other mammals. Most notably, much of the development of neonates immaturely born after a relatively short gestation takes place in the external environment. Among marsupials, the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica; hereafter "the opossum") is one of very few established laboratory models. Read More

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Strategies for managing asherman's syndrome and endometrial atrophy: Since the classical experimental models to the new bioengineering approach.

Mol Reprod Dev 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Fundación Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad (FIVI), La Fe Health Research Institute, Valencia, Spain.

Endometrial function is essential for embryo implantation and pregnancy, but managing endometrial thickness that is too thin to support pregnancy or an endometrium of compromised functionality due to intrauterine adhesions is an ongoing challenge in reproductive medicine. Here, we review current and emerging therapeutic and experimental options for endometrial regeneration with a focus on animal models used to study solutions for Asherman's syndrome and endometrial atrophy, which both involve a damaged endometrium. A review of existing literature was performed that confirmed the lack of consensus on endometrial therapeutic options, though promising new alternatives have emerged in recent years (platelet-rich plasma, exosomes derived from stem cells, bioengineering-based techniques, endometrial organoids, among others). Read More

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Ectopic Lymphoid Follicles in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: From Patients to Animal Models.

Immunology 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Institute of Anatomy, Rostock University Medical Center, Rostock, Germany.

Ectopic lymphoid follicles (ELFs), resembling germinal center-like structures, emerge in a variety of infectious and autoimmune as well as neoplastic diseases. ELFs can be found in the meninges of around 40% of the investigated progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) postmortem brain tissues and are associated with the severity of cortical degeneration and clinical disease progression. Of predominant importance for progressive neuronal damage during the progressive MS phase appears to be meningeal inflammation, comprising diffuse meningeal infiltrates, B cell aggregates, and compartmentalized ELFs. Read More

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Development of emodepside as a possible adulticidal treatment for human onchocerciasis-The fruit of a successful industrial-academic collaboration.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jul 22;17(7):e1009682. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States of America.

Current mass drug administration (MDA) programs for the treatment of human river blindness (onchocerciasis) caused by the filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus rely on ivermectin, an anthelmintic originally developed for animal health. These treatments are primarily directed against migrating microfilariae and also suppress fecundity for several months, but fail to eliminate adult O. volvulus. Read More

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Powerful detection of polygenic selection and evidence of environmental adaptation in US beef cattle.

PLoS Genet 2021 Jul 22;17(7):e1009652. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, United States of America.

Selection on complex traits can rapidly drive evolution, especially in stressful environments. This polygenic selection does not leave intense sweep signatures on the genome, rather many loci experience small allele frequency shifts, resulting in large cumulative phenotypic changes. Directional selection and local adaptation are changing populations; but, identifying loci underlying polygenic or environmental selection has been difficult. Read More

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Oral immunization of Escherichia albertii strain DM104 induces protective immunity against Shigella dysenteriae type 4 in mouse model.

Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

2Department of Biological Sciences, University of Bergen, Bergen 5020, Norway.

The recent rise of antibiotic resistance and lack of an effective vaccine make the scenario of shigellosis alarming in developing countries like Bangladesh. In recent years, our group reported the vaccine efficacy of a non-pathogenic Escherichia albertii strain DM104 in different animal models, where an ocularly administered vaccine in the guinea pig eye model against Shigella dysenteriae type 4 challenge showed high protective efficacy and also induced a high titer of serum IgG against S. dysenteriae type 4 whole cell lysate (WCL) and LPS. Read More

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DIA-Based Proteome Profiling of Nasopharyngeal Swabs from COVID-19 Patients.

J Proteome Res 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, United States.

Since the recent outbreak of COVID-19, there have been intense efforts to understand viral pathogenesis and host immune response to combat SARS-CoV-2. It has become evident that different host alterations can be identified in SARS-CoV-2 infection based on whether infected cells, animal models or clinical samples are studied. Although nasopharyngeal swabs are routinely collected for SARS-CoV-2 detection by RT-PCR testing, host alterations in the nasopharynx at the proteomic level have not been systematically investigated. Read More

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Investigating Endocrine Disrupting Properties of Chemicals in Fish and Amphibians: Opportunities to Apply the 3Rs.

Integr Environ Assess Manag 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Shell Health, Shell International B.V., Carel van Bylandtlaan 16, 2596 HR, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Many regulations are beginning to explicitly require investigation of a chemical's endocrine disrupting properties as a part of the safety assessment process, for substances already on or about to be placed on the market. Different jurisdictions are applying distinct approaches. However, all share a common theme requiring testing for endocrine activity and adverse effects, typically involving in vitro and in vivo assays on selected endocrine pathways. Read More

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Ligands of the Neuropeptide Y Y2 Receptors as a Potential Multitarget Therapeutic Approach for the Protection of the Neurovascular Unit Against Acute Ischemia/Reperfusion: View from the Perspective of the Laboratory Bench.

Transl Stroke Res 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Laboratory of Experimental and Clinical Neurosurgery, Mossakowski Medical Research Institute Polish Academy of Sciences, A. Pawińskiego Str. 5, 02-106, Warsaw, Poland.

Ischemic stroke is the third leading cause of death and disability worldwide, with no available satisfactory prevention or treatment approach. The current treatment is limited to the use of "reperfusion methods," i.e. Read More

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Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in nerve injury repair-a new era in therapeutic agents and regenerative treatments.

Neurol Sci 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Physiology and Biophysics, Department of Basic Life Sciences, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, 35010-177, Governador Valadares-MG, Brazil.

Background: Traumatic nerve injuries may result in severe motor dysfunctions. Although the microenvironment of peripheral axons favors their regeneration, regenerative process is not always successful.

Purpose: We reviewed and discussed the main findings obtained with low-level laser therapy (LLLT), a therapeutic intervention that has been employed in order to achieve an optimized regeneration process in peripheral axons. Read More

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AID overexpression leads to aggressive murine CLL and nonimmunoglobulin mutations that mirror human neoplasms.

Blood 2021 Jul;138(3):246-258

Research Laboratory on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Institut Pasteur de Montevideo, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Most cancers become more dangerous by the outgrowth of malignant subclones with additional DNA mutations that favor proliferation or survival. Using chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a disease that exemplifies this process and is a model for neoplasms in general, we created transgenic mice overexpressing the enzyme activation-induced deaminase (AID), which has a normal function of inducing DNA mutations in B lymphocytes. AID not only allows normal B lymphocytes to develop more effective immunoglobulin-mediated immunity, but is also able to mutate nonimmunoglobulin genes, predisposing to cancer. Read More

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The role of amikacin in the treatment of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2021 Jul 22:1-14. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Radboudumc Center for Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

: Guidelines recommend the use of amikacin in the treatment of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease. The authors have evaluated the evidence for the position of amikacin in NTM disease treatment.: The authors performed a literature search for original research on amikacin in NTM disease, including its mechanism of action, emergence of resistance, pre-clinical and clinical investigations. Read More

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Exploring epigenetic and microRNA approaches for γ-globin gene regulation.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2021 Jul 22:15353702211028195. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.

Therapeutic interventions aimed at inducing fetal hemoglobin and reducing the concentration of sickle hemoglobin is an effective approach to ameliorating acute and chronic complications of sickle cell disease, exemplified by the long-term use of hydroxyurea. However, there remains an unmet need for the development of additional safe and effective drugs for single agent or combination therapy for individuals with β-hemoglobinopathies. Regulation of the γ-globin to β-globin switch is achieved by chromatin remodeling at the locus on chromosome 11 and interactions of major DNA binding proteins, such as KLF1 and BCL11A in the proximal promoters of the globin genes. Read More

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Repeated, moderate footshock reduces the propensity to relapse to alcohol seeking in female, but not male, iP rats.

Behav Neurosci 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Florey Department of Neuroscience and Mental Health.

Persistent alcohol use despite negative consequences is a key feature of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and is typically assessed using punishment in animal models. This study examined relapse-like behavior in male and female alcohol-preferring iP rats following punishment-imposed voluntary abstinence to alcohol seeking. We focused on alcohol seeking in the punishment-associated environment after prolonged abstinence. Read More

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Microbial Find, Inform, and Test Model for Identifying Spatially Distributed Contamination Sources: Framework Foundation and Demonstration of Ruminant Abundance in River Sediments.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Gillings School of Global Public Health, Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7400, United States.

Microbial pollution in rivers poses known ecological and health risks, yet causal and mechanistic linkages to sources remain difficult to establish. Host-associated microbial source tracking (MST) help to assess the microbial risks by linking hosts to contamination but do not identify the source locations. Land-use regression (LUR) models have been used to screen the source locations using spatial predictors but could be improved by characterizing transport (i. Read More

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A meta-analytical evaluation of the effects of high-salt water intake on beef cattle.

J Anim Sci 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Adequate drinking water is essential to maintain acceptable production levels in beef cattle operations. In the context of global climate change, the water scarcity forecasted for the future is a growing concern and it would determine an increase in the use of poorer quality water by the agricultural sector in many parts of the world. However, consumption of high-salt water by cattle have consequences often overlooked. Read More

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Liver microphysiological platforms for drug metabolism applications.

Cell Prolif 2021 Jul 22:e13099. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

School of Sciences and Humanities, Nazarbayev University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.

Drug development is a costly and lengthy process with low success rates. To improve the efficiency of drug development, there has been an increasing need in developing alternative methods able to eliminate toxic compounds early in the drug development pipeline. Drug metabolism plays a key role in determining the efficacy of a drug and its potential side effects. Read More

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Evaluation of the in vivo antihypertensive effect and antioxidant activity of HL-7 and HL-10 peptide in mice.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: The tendency to use bioactive peptides has increased in recent decades, and research would be essential for recognizing the therapeutic effects of peptides present in animals or food resource. In this study, the in vivo antioxidant and antihypertensive properties of peptides HL-7 with the sequence of YLYELR and HL-10 with the sequence of AFPYYGHHLG were identified from scorpion venom of H. lepturus were evaluated. Read More

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Development and validation of a mouse model of contemporary cannabis smoke exposure.

ERJ Open Res 2021 Jul 19;7(3). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Dept of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Cannabis is widely used for both recreational and medicinal purposes. Inhalation of combusted cannabis smoke is the most common mode of drug consumption, exposing the lungs to the pharmacologically active ingredients, including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). While the relationship between cannabis smoke exposure and compromised respiratory health has yet to be sufficiently defined, previous investigations suggest that cannabis smoke may dysregulate pulmonary immunity. Read More

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From Science to Success? Targeting Tyrosine Kinase 2 in Spondyloarthritis and Related Chronic Inflammatory Diseases.

Front Genet 2021 5;12:685280. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Molecular Immunology and Inflammation Unit, VIB Centre for Inflammation Research, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a family of inflammatory arthritic diseases, which includes the prototypes of psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. SpA is commonly associated with systemic inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease. Immunological studies, murine models and the genetics of SpA all indicate a pathogenic role for the IL-23/IL-17 axis. Read More

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Non-human Primate Models to Investigate Mechanisms of Infection-Associated Fetal and Pediatric Injury, Teratogenesis and Stillbirth.

Front Genet 2021 5;12:680342. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.

A wide array of pathogens has the potential to injure the fetus and induce teratogenesis, the process by which mutations in fetal somatic cells lead to congenital malformations. Rubella virus was the first infectious disease to be linked to congenital malformations due to an infection in pregnancy, which can include congenital cataracts, microcephaly, hearing impairment and congenital heart disease. Currently, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the leading infectious cause of congenital malformations globally, affecting 1 in every 200 infants. Read More

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Testing if Micro-CT Is Capable of Quantitating the Extent of Proteoglycan-Aggrecan Induced Axial Spondyloarthritis in Mice.

Front Immunol 2021 5;12:681217. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Clinical Immunology, PLA Specialized Research Institute of Rheumatology & Immunology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Objective: Injections of proteoglycan aggrecan (PGA) have been reported to induce axial spondyloarthritis (ax-SpA) in BALB/c mice. It is considered to be a model for radiographic ax-SpA. However, evaluation of the extent of axial disease by histopathological assessment of every intervertebral space is labor-intensive. Read More

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From the Clinic to the Laboratory, and Back Again: Investigations on Cannabinoids and Endocannabinoid System Modulators for Treating Schizophrenia.

Front Psychiatry 2021 5;12:682611. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Centro de Investigación en Reproduccion Animal, Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala-Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV'-IPN), Tlaxcala, Mexico.

The present mini-review focuses on animal models of schizophrenia that have explored the effects of cannabidiol (CBD; a non-psychoactive component of cannabis) or the pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid system on behavioral and cognitive outcome measures. First, results of some relevant clinical studies in this area are summarized, and then pre-clinical work on animal models of schizophrenia based on NMDA receptor antagonism or neurodevelopmental manipulations are discussed. A brief overview is given of the theoretical framework on which these models are based, along with a concise summary of results that have been obtained. Read More

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Endocannabinoids in Bladder Sensory Mechanisms in Health and Diseases.

Front Pharmacol 2021 5;12:708989. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Discipline of Human Physiology, College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders Health and Medical Research Institute, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

The recent surge in research on cannabinoids may have been fueled by changes in legislation in several jurisdictions, and by approval for the use of cannabinoids for treatment of some chronic diseases. Endocannabinoids act largely, but not exclusively on cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CBR1 and CBR2) which are expressed in the bladder mainly by the urothelium and the axons and endings of motor and sensory neurons. A growing body of evidence suggests that endocannabinoid system constitutively downregulates sensory bladder function during urine storage and micturition, under normal physiological conditions. Read More

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Expression of the ACE2 Virus Entry Protein in the Nervus Terminalis Reveals the Potential for an Alternative Route to Brain Infection in COVID-19.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 5;15:674123. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

L. Rydygier Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz, Poland.

Previous studies suggested that the SARS-CoV-2 virus may gain access to the brain by using a route along the olfactory nerve. However, there is a general consensus that the obligatory virus entry receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is not expressed in olfactory receptor neurons, and the timing of arrival of the virus in brain targets is inconsistent with a neuronal transfer along olfactory projections. We determined whether nervus terminalis neurons and their peripheral and central projections should be considered as a potential alternative route from the nose to the brain. Read More

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