839,281 results match your criteria animal model

Assessing the contribution of mangrove carbon and of other basal sources to intertidal flats adjacent to one of the largest West African mangrove forests.

Mar Environ Res 2021 Apr 9;169:105331. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (CESAM), Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.

Mangrove forests are productive habitats and major potential exporters of organic matter and nutrients to adjacent habitats. Here we examine the extent to which mangrove carbon is transferred to adjacent intertidal food webs in the second largest mangrove-covered area in Africa, in Guinea-Bissau. Applying stable isotope analysis and mixing models, we made comparisons at two spatial scales: (1) a large scale, comparing intertidal flats with (mangrove sites) and without (control sites) adjacent mangrove forests regarding the carbon isotopic signature of macrozoobenthos and sediment organic matter (SOM), and the relative importance of potential primary food sources in sustaining macrozoobenthos, and (2) a fine scale, performing stable carbon isotope measurements along 200 m transects from the coastline out to open intertidal flats, to trace mangrove carbon in macrozoobenthos and in the SOM. Read More

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Decursin alleviates the aggravation of osteoarthritis via inhibiting PI3K-Akt and NF-kB signal pathway.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Apr 17;97:107657. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Orthopedics Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China. Electronic address:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disease that takes joint degeneration or aging as its pathological basis, and joint swelling, pain or dysfunction as its main clinical manifestations. Decursin (DE), the major active component isolated from Angelica gigas Nakai, has been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory effect in many diseases. But, the specific physiological mechanism of DE on OA is not clear yet. Read More

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Human mesenchymal stem cells for the management of systemic sclerosis. Systematic review.

Autoimmun Rev 2021 Apr 17:102831. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Research Institute, Fundación Universitaria De Ciencias De La Salud, University of Health Sciences, Bogota, Colombia.

Introduction: Sistemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease with a high rate of progression and therapeutic failure, and treatment is a challenge, new therapeutic proposals being needed, being mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) considered as alternative therapy for SSc for its immunomodulatory capacity. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of human MSC (hMSC) in patients with SSc through a systematic literature review (SLR).

Methods: SLR (PRISMA guideline) on MEDLINE/OVID, LILACS, EMBASE, and Cochrane/OVID bases (until July 2020, without limits). Read More

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Sclerostin and Its Role as a Bone Modifying Agent in Periodontal Disease.

J Oral Biosci 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Periodontology, Rajah Muthiah Dental College & Hospital, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram - 608002, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Background: Periodontitis is a highly prevalent inflammatory disease affecting the periodontium that results from an imbalance between periodontopathogens and host mechanisms. Continuous progression of the disease may lead to tissue and bone destruction, eventually resulting in tooth loss. The extent of bone loss depends on the dysregulated host immune response. Read More

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Challenges in tackling energy expenditure as obesity therapy - from preclinical models to clinical application.

Mol Metab 2021 Apr 17:101237. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

CardioMetabolic Diseases Research, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co KG, Biberach, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: A chronic imbalance of energy intake and energy expenditure results in excess fat storage. The obesity often caused by this overweight is detrimental to the health of millions of people. Understanding both sides of the energy balance equation and their counter-regulatory mechanisms is critical to the development of effective therapies to treat this epidemic. Read More

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Mechanisms of Doxorubicin-Mediated Reproductive Toxicity - A Review.

Reprod Toxicol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Centre for Cardiovascular and Adverse Drug Reactions, Department of Biotechnology, School of Bio and Chemical Engineering, Kalasalingam Academy of Research and Education, Krishnankoil, Tamil Nadu, PIN 626126, India. Electronic address:

The anticancer drug Doxorubicin has been associated with several adverse side-effects including reproductive toxicity in both genders. The current review has complied the mechanisms of doxorubicin induced reproductive toxicity. The articles cited in the review were searched using Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct. Read More

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A single intra-articular dose of vitamin D analog calcipotriol alleviates synovitis without adverse effects in rats.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(4):e0250352. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Cancer Research and Translational Medicine Research Unit, Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3 and its derivatives have shown anti-arthritic and chondroprotective effects in experimental animal models with prophylactic dosing. The purpose of this preliminary study was to test the efficacy and safety of calcipotriol, vitamin D analog, as a treatment for a fully-developed knee arthritis in Zymosan-induced arthritis (ZIA) model. Forty 5-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three arthritis groups and a non-arthritic control group with no injections (10 rats/group). Read More

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The effects of flavonoids, green tea polyphenols and coffee on DMBA induced LINE-1 DNA hypomethylation.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(4):e0250157. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Public Health Medicine, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.

The intake of carcinogenic and chemopreventive compounds are important nutritional factors related to the development of malignant tumorous diseases. Repetitive long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) DNA methylation pattern plays a key role in both carcinogenesis and chemoprevention. In our present in vivo animal model, we examined LINE-1 DNA methylation pattern as potential biomarker in the liver, spleen and kidney of mice consuming green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract (catechins 80%), a chinese bayberry (Morella rubra) extract (myricetin 80%), a flavonoid extract (with added resveratrol) and coffee (Coffee arabica) extract. Read More

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Predicting the animal hosts of coronaviruses from compositional biases of spike protein and whole genome sequences through machine learning.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Apr 20;17(4):e1009149. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Health Data Science, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated the serious potential for novel zoonotic coronaviruses to emerge and cause major outbreaks. The immediate animal origin of the causative virus, SARS-CoV-2, remains unknown, a notoriously challenging task for emerging disease investigations. Coevolution with hosts leads to specific evolutionary signatures within viral genomes that can inform likely animal origins. Read More

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Two mouse lines selected for large litter size display different lifetime fecundities.

Reproduction 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

J Weitzel, Institut für Fortpflanzungsbiologie, FBN Dummerstorf, Dummerstorf, Germany.

We recently described two outbred mouse lines that were selected for large litter size at first delivery. However, lifetime fecundity appears to be economically more important for the husbandry of many polytocous species for which mouse lines might serve as bona fide animal models (e.g. Read More

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Rapid Establishment of Tracheal Stenosis in Pigs Using Endotracheal Tube Cuff Overpressure and Electrocautery.

Curr Med Sci 2021 Apr 20;41(2):329-335. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan, 44033, Korea.

To apply a new airway treatment to humans, preclinical studies in an appropriate animal model is needed. Canine, porcine and leporine tracheas have been employed as animal airway stenosis models using various methods such as chemical caustic agents, laser, and electrocautery. However, existing models take a long time to develop (3-8 weeks) and the mechanism of stenosis is different from that in humans. Read More

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The cold truth: the role of cryotherapy in the treatment of injury and recovery from exercise.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Nicholas Institute of Sports Medicine and Athletic Trauma, Lenox Hill Hospital, New York, NY, USA.

Cryotherapy is utilized as a physical intervention in the treatment of injury and exercise recovery. Traditionally, ice is used in the treatment of musculoskeletal injury while cold water immersion or whole-body cryotherapy is used for recovery from exercise. In humans, the primary benefit of traditional cryotherapy is reduced pain following injury or soreness following exercise. Read More

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Intravital Imaging of Neocortical Heterotopia Reveals Aberrant Axonal Pathfinding and Myelination around Ectopic Neurons.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.

Neocortical heterotopia consist of ectopic neuronal clusters that are frequently found in individuals with cognitive disability and epilepsy. However, their pathogenesis remains poorly understood due in part to a lack of tractable animal models. We have developed an inducible model of focal cortical heterotopia that enables their precise spatiotemporal control and high-resolution optical imaging in live mice. Read More

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Quantitative Comparison of the Anterior-Posterior Patterning System in the Embryos of Five Drosophila Species.

G3 (Bethesda) 2019 Jul;9(7):2171-2182

Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 20115.

Complex spatiotemporal gene expression patterns direct the development of the fertilized egg into an adult animal. Comparisons across species show that, in spite of changes in the underlying regulatory DNA sequence, developmental programs can be maintained across millions of years of evolution. Reciprocally, changes in gene expression can be used to generate morphological novelty. Read More

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Screening of probiotic candidates in a simulated piglet small intestine in vitro model.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Aarhus University, Department of Animal Science, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele, Denmark.

The CoMiniGut in vitro model mimicking the small intestine of piglets was used to evaluate four probiotic strains for their potential as a preventive measure against development of diarrhea in weaned pigs. In the in vitro system, piglet digesta was inoculated with pathogenic enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 (ETEC F4), and the short-chain fatty acid profile and the gut microbiota composition were assessed. Four probiotic strains were evaluated: Enterococcus faecium (CHCC 10669), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (CHCC 11994), Bifidobacterium breve (CHCC 15268) and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (CHCC 28556). Read More

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The role of rye bran and antibiotics on the digestion, fermentation process and short-chain fatty acid production and absorption in an intact pig model.

Food Funct 2021 Apr 19;12(7):2886-2900. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Animal Science, Aarhus University, DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark.

The effects of arabinoxylan (AX)-rich rye bran based diet (RB) and antibiotics on digestion, fermentation and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) absorption were studied compared with an iso-dietary fibre (DF) cellulose based diet (CEL). Thirty female pigs (body weight 72.5 ± 3. Read More

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Inflammation-driven brain and gut barrier dysfunction in stress and mood disorders.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine and CERVO Brain Research Center, Université Laval, Quebec City, Canada.

Regulation of emotions is generally associated exclusively with the brain. However, there is evidence that peripheral systems are also involved in mood, stress vulnerability vs resilience and emotion-related memory encoding. Prevalence of stress and mood disorders such as major depression, bipolar disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder is increasing in our modern societies. Read More

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4E-BP2-dependent translation in parvalbumin neurons controls epileptic seizure threshold.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(15)

Department of Anesthesia and Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2B4, Canada;

The mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) integrates multiple signals to regulate critical cellular processes such as mRNA translation, lipid biogenesis, and autophagy. Germline and somatic mutations in mTOR and genes upstream of mTORC1, such as , , , , and components of GATOR1 and KICSTOR complexes, are associated with various epileptic disorders. Increased mTORC1 activity is linked to the pathophysiology of epilepsy in both humans and animal models, and mTORC1 inhibition suppresses epileptogenesis in humans with tuberous sclerosis and animal models with elevated mTORC1 activity. Read More

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Integrins protect sensory neurons in models of paclitaxel-induced peripheral sensory neuropathy.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(15)

Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Jerome L. Greene Science Center, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027.

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a major side effect from cancer treatment with no known method for prevention or cure in clinics. CIPN often affects unmyelinated nociceptive sensory terminals. Despite the high prevalence, molecular and cellular mechanisms that lead to CIPN are still poorly understood. Read More

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Brucellosis in dairy herds: farm characteristics and practices in relation to likely adoption of three potential Private-Public Partnership (PPP) vaccination control strategies in West and Central Africa.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Veterinary Epidemiology, Economics and Public Health Group, Department of Pathobiology and Population Sciences, The Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom.

Brucellosis is regarded as one of the highest burden zoonotic diseases to persist in many regions globally. While sustained vaccination against B. abortus in an endemic setting can markedly reduce the prevalence of large ruminant and human brucellosis and benefit local livelihoods, the implementation of effective and sustainable control programmes has often failed in the worst affected areas. Read More

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Aqueous eye drops containing drug/cyclodextrin nanoparticles deliver therapeutic drug concentrations to both anterior and posterior segment.

Acta Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

University of Iceland and Oculis ehf., Reykjavik, Iceland.

Using topical application to deliver therapeutic concentrations of drugs to the posterior segment of the eye remains very challenging. As a result, posterior segment diseases are usually treated by intravitreal injection or implant. While topical treatments are commonly used for anterior segment conditions, they sometimes require frequent applications. Read More

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Assessment of the Safety of Lactobacillus casei IMV B-7280 Probiotic Strain on a Mouse Model.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Zabolotny Institute of microbiology and virology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 154, Akad. Zabolotny str, Kyiv, 03143, Ukraine.

Probiotics, in particular Lactobacillus (lactic acid bacteria, LAB) strains, are widely used in clinical practice. Despite that these probiotics have GRAS (generally regarded as safe) and qualified presumption of safety (QPS) statuses, the safety of particular strains still needs to be thoroughly studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety of Lact. Read More

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Neural Mechanisms Underlying Human Auditory Evoked Responses Revealed By Human Neocortical Neurosolver.

Brain Topogr 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Neuroscience, Carney Institute for Brain Sciences, Brown University, Providence, USA.

Auditory evoked fields (AEFs) are commonly studied, yet their underlying neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we used the biophysical modelling software Human Neocortical Neurosolver (HNN) whose foundation is a canonical neocortical circuit model to interpret the cell and network mechanisms contributing to macroscale AEFs elicited by a simple tone, measured with magnetoencephalography. We found that AEFs can be reproduced by activating the neocortical circuit through a layer specific sequence of feedforward and feedback excitatory synaptic drives, similar to prior simulation of somatosensory evoked responses, supporting the notion that basic structures and activation patterns are preserved across sensory regions. Read More

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Role of model organisms and nanocompounds in human health risk assessment.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Apr 20;193(5):285. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Earth, Environment and Life Sciences, University of Genova, Genova, 16132, Italy.

Safeguarding the environment is one of the most serious modern challenges, as increasing amounts of chemical compounds are produced and released into the environment, causing a serious threat to the future health of the Earth as well as organisms and humans on a global scale. Ecotoxicology is an integrative science involving different physical, chemical, biological, and social aspects concerned with the study of toxic effects caused by natural or synthetic pollutants on any constituents of ecosystems, including animals (including humans), plants, or microorganisms, in an integral context. In recent decades, this science has undergone considerable development by addressing environmental risk assessments through the biomonitoring of indicator species using biomarkers, model organisms, and nanocompounds in toxicological assays. Read More

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Effects of parity and days in milk on milk composition in correlation with β-hydroxybutyrate in tropic dairy cows.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Apr 19;53(2):270. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction Ministry of Education, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, Hubei, People's Republic of China.

The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of parity and days in milk on milk yield and milk production traits and their correlation with β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in milk of Chinese tropic Holstein dairy cows which are adapted to a humid subtropical climate in central China. About 3055 milking records of Holstein cows were obtained from three farms in the hot region in the center of China. The records were classified according to parity to 4 categories: first parity, second parity, third parity, and greater than third parity. Read More

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LRRK2 G2019S kinase activity triggers neurotoxic NSF aggregation.

Brain 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

CIBIO, Università degli Studi di Trento, Trento, Italy.

Parkinson's disease is characterized by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta and the presence of protein aggregates in surviving neurons. The LRRK2 G2019S mutation is one of the major determinants of familial Parkinson's disease cases and leads to late-onset Parkinson's disease with pleomorphic pathology, including α-synuclein accumulation and deposition of protein inclusions. We demonstrated that LRRK2 phosphorylates N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF). Read More

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Antimicrobial laser-activated sealants for combating surgical site infections.

Biomater Sci 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Chemical Engineering Program, School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. and Biological Design Graduate Program, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA.

Surgical-site infections (SSIs) occur in 2-5% of patients undergoing surgery in the US alone, impacting 300 000-500 000 lives each year, and presenting up to 11 times greater risk of death compared to patients without SSIs. The most common cause of SSI is Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is the most common pathogen in community hospitals. Read More

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Immunogenicity and efficacy of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine MRT5500 in preclinical animal models.

NPJ Vaccines 2021 Apr 19;6(1):61. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Sanofi Pasteur, Marcy l'Etoile, France.

Emergency use authorization of COVID vaccines has brought hope to mitigate pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there remains a need for additional effective vaccines to meet the global demand and address the potential new viral variants. mRNA technologies offer an expeditious path alternative to traditional vaccine approaches. Read More

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Homeostatic regulation of T follicular helper and antibody response to particle antigens by IL-1Ra of medullary sinus macrophage origin.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(17)

Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center Joint Center for Infection and Immunity, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 200031 Shanghai, China;

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines are composed of surface antigen HBsAg that spontaneously assembles into subviral particles. Factors that impede its humoral immunity in 5% to 10% of vaccinees remain elusive. Here, we showed that the low-level interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) can predict antibody protection both in mice and humans. Read More

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miR-181a-2-3p alleviates the apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cell via targeting GJB2 in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury.

Mol Cell Biol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Emergency Department, First Affiliated Hospital of Gannan Medical University, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi Province, People's Republic of China.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most common complication of sepsis. microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the sepsis-induced AKI. This paper aimed to explore the role of miR-181a-2-3p in the sepsis-induced AKI and the underlying mechanism. Read More

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