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Hypoxia induces expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme II in alveolar epithelial cells: Implications for the pathogenesis of acute lung injury in COVID-19.

Physiol Rep 2021 May;9(9):e14854

Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

SARS-CoV-2 uptake by lung epithelial cells is a critical step in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Viral entry is dependent on the binding of the viral spike protein to the angiotensin converting enzyme II protein (ACE2) on the host cell surface, followed by proteolytic cleavage by a host serine protease such as TMPRSS2. Infection of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) in the distal lung is a key feature in progression to the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Read More

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Vitamin D and COVID-19: Role of ACE2, Age, Gender and Ethnicity.

J Med Virol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Howard University, College of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Washington DC, 20059.

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus, disproportionally targets older people, particularly men, ethnic minorities and individuals with underlying diseases such as compromised immune system, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The discrepancy in COVID-19 incidence and severity is multifaceted and likely involves biological, social, as well as nutritional status. Vitamin D deficiency, notably common in Black and Brown people and elderly, is associated with an increased susceptibility to many of the diseases comorbid with COVID-19. Read More

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