5,886 results match your criteria angiosperm wood


Efflux and assimilation of xylem-transported CO in stems and leaves of tree species with different wood anatomy.

Plant Cell Environ 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Laboratory of Plant Ecology, Department of Plants and Crops, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Determining the fate of CO respired in woody tissues is necessary to understand plant respiratory physiology and to evaluate CO recycling mechanisms. An aqueous C-enriched CO solution was infused into the stem of 3-4 m tall trees to estimate efflux and assimilation of xylem-transported CO via cavity ring down laser spectroscopy and isotope ratio mass spectrometry, respectively. Different tree locations (lower stem, upper stem and leafy shoots) and tissues (xylem, bark and leaves) were monitored in species with tracheid, diffuse- and ring- porous wood anatomy (cedar, maple and oak, respectively). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Transcriptional Reprogramming of Xylem Cell Wall Biosynthesis in Tension Wood.

Plant Physiol 2021 Feb 2. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, 150040, China.

Tension wood (TW) is a specialized xylem tissue developed under mechanical/tension stress in angiosperm trees. TW development involves transregulation of secondary cell wall genes, which leads to altered wood properties for stress adaptation. We induced TW in the stems of California poplar (Populus trichocarpa, Nisqually-1) and identified two significantly repressed transcription factor (TF) genes: class B3 Heat-Shock Transcription Factor (HSFB3-1) and MYB092. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Recovery of logged forest fragments in a human-modified tropical landscape during the 2015-16 El Niño.

Nat Commun 2021 03 9;12(1):1526. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Plant Sciences and Conservation Research Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ, UK.

The past 40 years in Southeast Asia have seen about 50% of lowland rainforests converted to oil palm and other plantations, and much of the remaining forest heavily logged. Little is known about how fragmentation influences recovery and whether climate change will hamper restoration. Here, we use repeat airborne LiDAR surveys spanning the hot and dry 2015-16 El Niño Southern Oscillation event to measure canopy height growth across 3,300 ha of regenerating tropical forests spanning a logging intensity gradient in Malaysian Borneo. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hydrogen-rich gas production from steam co-gasification of banana peel with agricultural residues and woody biomass.

Waste Manag 2021 Apr 9;125:204-214. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Graduate School of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, 1-Bunkyocho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8560, Japan; Institute of Regional Innovation, Hirosaki University, 2-1-3 Matsubara, Aomori 030-0813, Japan. Electronic address:

Steam co-gasification of banana peel with other biomass, i.e., Japanese cedar wood, rice husk and their mixture, was carried out for the hydrogen-rich gas production in a fixed-bed reactor. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Wood profiling by non-targeted high-resolution mass spectrometry: Part 1, Metabolite profiling in Cedrela wood for the determination of the geographical origin.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Mar 12;1641:461993. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Hamburg School of Food Science, Institute of Food Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Grindelallee 117, 20146 Hamburg, Germany; Cluster of Excellence, Understanding Written Artefacts, University of Hamburg, Warburgstraße 26, 20354 Hamburg, Germany.

The determination of the geographical origin of wood can be highly relevant for several reasons: On the one hand, it can help to prevent illegal logging and timber trade, on the other hand, it is of special interest for archaeological artefacts made of wood, as well as for a variety of biological questions. For this reason, different extraction methods were first tested for the analysis of polar and non-polar metabolites using liquid chromatography coupled electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). A two-phase extraction with chloroform, methanol and water proved to be particularly successful. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Genotype and soil substrate effects on the wood quality of poplar grown in a reclaimed lignite-mining area.

J Environ Manage 2021 May 15;285:112146. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Forest Ecology and Silviculture, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Al 29 Listopada 46, Krakow, PL, 31425, Poland.

An understanding of the structural organisation and chemistry of the cell walls in woody tissues is crucial from the perspective of plant mechanical strength, water transportability, as well as subsequent commercial utilisation of the wood. Poplar trees (Populus sp.), grown on two reclamation substrates ("Humus" and "Sand") under the extreme soil conditions of an external coal mining spoil heap of the lignite mine in Bełchatów (Central Poland), were examined. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pore constrictions in intervessel pit membranes provide a mechanistic explanation for xylem embolism resistance in angiosperms.

New Phytol 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Institute of Systematic Botany and Ecology, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm, D-89081, Germany.

Embolism spreading in angiosperm xylem occurs via mesoporous pit membranes between vessels. Here, we investigate how the size of pore constrictions in pit membranes is related to pit membrane thickness and embolism resistance. Pit membranes were modelled as multiple layers to investigate how pit membrane thickness and the number of intervessel pits per vessel determine pore constriction sizes, the probability of encountering large pores, and embolism resistance. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Deciphering the roles of leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinases (LRR-RLKs) in response to Fusarium wilt in the Vernicia fordii (Tung tree).

Phytochemistry 2021 May 12;185:112686. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Key Laboratory of Cultivation and Protection for Non-Wood Forest Trees, Ministry of Education, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, 410004, Hunan, China; Key Lab of Non-wood Forest Products of State Forestry Administration, College of Forestry, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, 410004, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinases (LRR-RLKs) are vital for plant growth and development, signal transduction, immunity, and play diverse roles in plant defense responses. However, the LRR-RLK genes have not been systematically studied in Vernicia fordii (tung tree), especially its response to Fusarium wilt. Here, we carried out an integrative analysis of LRR-RLKs among five Euphorbiaceae species: Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree), Manihot esculenta (cassava), Jatropha curcas (physic nut), Ricinus communis (castor bean), and V. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Subfamily Anischiinae (Coleoptera: Eucnemidae) in Early Cretaceous of Northeast China.

Insects 2021 Jan 26;12(2). Epub 2021 Jan 26.

College of Life Sciences and Academy for Multidisciplinary Studies, Capital Normal University, Xisanhuanbeilu 105, Haidian District, Beijing 100048, China.

new genus, type species new species (Eucnemidae, Anischiinae) is described from the Lower Cretaceous of Liaoning, China. The presence of this species in early Cretaceous deposits provides new insight into the evolution of basal lignicolous Eucnemidae clades. Both Anischiinae and Palaeoxeninae species diversified in a world dominated by gymnosperms, before the main radiation of angiosperms. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

New Acetophenones and Chromenes from the Leaves of A. Gray.

Molecules 2021 Jan 28;26(3). Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology and Biotechnology, Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, 40225 Duesseldorf, Germany.

The dichloromethane extract from leaves of (Rutaceae), endemic to the Hawaiian island of Kaua'i, yielded four new and three previously known acetophenones and 2-chromenes, all found for the first time in . The structures of the new compounds obtained from the dichloromethane extract after purification by chromatographic methods were unambiguously elucidated by spectroscopic analyses including 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy and HRESIMS. The absolute configuration was determined by modified Mosher's method. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Global and regional drivers of land-use emissions in 1961-2017.

Nature 2021 01 27;589(7843):554-561. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.

Historically, human uses of land have transformed and fragmented ecosystems, degraded biodiversity, disrupted carbon and nitrogen cycles and added prodigious quantities of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere. However, in contrast to fossil-fuel carbon dioxide (CO) emissions, trends and drivers of GHG emissions from land management and land-use change (together referred to as 'land-use emissions') have not been as comprehensively and systematically assessed. Here we present country-, process-, GHG- and product-specific inventories of global land-use emissions from 1961 to 2017, we decompose key demographic, economic and technical drivers of emissions and we assess the uncertainties and the sensitivity of results to different accounting assumptions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Thermal Degradation of Linalool-Chemotype Leaf Essential Oil and Its Stabilization by Microencapsulation with β-Cyclodextrin.

Molecules 2021 Jan 14;26(2). Epub 2021 Jan 14.

School of Forestry and Resource Conservation, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan.

The thermal degradation of linalool-chemotype leaf essential oil and the stability effect of microencapsulation of leaf essential oil with β-cyclodextrin were studied. After thermal degradation of linalool-chemotype leaf essential oil, degraded compounds including β-myrcene, -ocimene and -ocimene, were formed through the dehydroxylation of linalool; and ene cyclization also occurs to linalool and its dehydroxylated products to form the compounds such as limonene, terpinolene and α-terpinene. The optimal microencapsulation conditions of leaf essential oil microcapsules were at a leaf essential oil to the β-cyclodextrin ratio of 15:85 and with a solvent ratio (ethanol to water) of 1:5. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Screening of Wood/Forest and Vine By-Products as Sources of New Drugs for Sustainable Strategies to Control and the Production of Mycotoxins.

Molecules 2021 Jan 14;26(2). Epub 2021 Jan 14.

INRAE, UR1264 Mycology and Food Safety (MycSA), F-33882 Villenave d'Ornon, France.

is a fungal pathogen that can colonize small-grain cereals and maize and secrete type B trichothecene (TCTB) mycotoxins. The development of environmental-friendly strategies guaranteeing the safety of food and feed is a key challenge facing agriculture today. One of these strategies lies on the promising capacity of products issued from natural sources to counteract crop pests. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Coleoborers (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in native and homogeneous systems of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa bonpl.) in the Southern Amazon, Brazil.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(1):e0234287. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Federal University of Pará, Belem, Brazil.

Brazil nut is one of the most important species of the Amazon due to its socioeconomic importance. Especially in homogeneous production systems, it may be susceptible to damage by wood-boring insects, as by the subfamily Scolytinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); thus, inadequate management conditions can cause economic damage. Therefore, the objective of the present work is to evaluate the occurrence of wood-boring insects (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in native and homogeneous systems of Brazil nut in the Meridional Amazonian, Brazil. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Comparative studies on lignin structures in normal and tension wood of Populus × euramericana cv. "74/76".

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Mar 6;172:178-185. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Forestry and Landscape Architecture, AnHui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, China.

Tension wood is a type of defect of wood, however, it has some especial character and structure. In this study, cellulase lignin structures in normal and tension wood of Poplar 107 (Populus × euramericana cv. '74/76') were compared using ultraviolet (UV), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Raman and magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and elemental analysis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

An updated tribal classification of Lamiaceae based on plastome phylogenomics.

BMC Biol 2021 Jan 8;19(1). Epub 2021 Jan 8.

CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650201, China.

Background: A robust molecular phylogeny is fundamental for developing a stable classification and providing a solid framework to understand patterns of diversification, historical biogeography, and character evolution. As the sixth largest angiosperm family, Lamiaceae, or the mint family, consitutes a major source of aromatic oil, wood, ornamentals, and culinary and medicinal herbs, making it an exceptionally important group ecologically, ethnobotanically, and floristically. The lack of a reliable phylogenetic framework for this family has thus far hindered broad-scale biogeographic studies and our comprehension of diversification. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Evolutionary histories and mycorrhizal associations of mycoheterotrophic plants dependent on saprotrophic fungi.

J Plant Res 2021 Jan 8;134(1):19-41. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Kyushu Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Kumamoto city, Chuo-ku, Kurokami, Kumamoto, 860-0862, Japan.

Mycoheterotrophic plants (MHPs) are leafless, achlorophyllous, and completely dependent on mycorrhizal fungi for their carbon supply. Mycorrhizal symbiosis is a mutualistic association with fungi that is undertaken by the majority of land plants, but mycoheterotrophy represents a breakdown of this mutualism in that plants parasitize fungi. Most MHPs are associated with fungi that are mycorrhizal with autotrophic plants, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) or ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

MICROSTRUCTURAL CHARACERISTICS OF RHODODENDRON PONTICUM L. LEAVES.

Georgian Med News 2020 Nov(308):98-101

Tbilisi State Medical University, I. Kutateladze Institute of Pharmacochemistry, Georgia.

The microstructural characteristics of the leaf of Rhododendron ponticum L., an alternative source of biologically active compounds - constituents of the antiherpetic ointment Rhodopes, were studied. The study resulted in the establishment of the sustainable diagnostic characteristics of Rh. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

[Impacts of transgenic insect-resistant maize HGK60 with gene on biodiversity of arthropods and weeds in the field.]

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2020 Dec;31(12):4180-4188

Institute of Crops and Nuclear Technology Utilization, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021, China.

Transgenic technology has developed rapidly in recent years. The environmental risk of the release of transgenic organisms is still a key issue. Research on the impacts on biodiversity is an effective way to objectively evaluate the risk. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Chemical signature of Eurois occulta L. outbreaks in the xylem cell wall of Salix glauca L. in Greenland.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 30;764:144607. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Science, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, Rolighedsvej 23, 1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark. Electronic address:

Insect defoliations are a major natural disturbance in high-latitude ecosystems and are expected to increase in frequency and severity due to current climatic change. Defoliations cause severe reductions in biomass and carbon investments that affect the functioning and productivity of tundra ecosystems. Here we combined dendro-anatomical analysis with chemical imaging to investigate the direct and lagged effects of insect outbreaks on carbon investment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Preparation of alpha cellulose from sugarcane bagasse and its cationization: Synthesis, characterization, validation and application as wet-end additive.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Feb 30;170:793-809. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Cellulose & Paper Discipline, Forest Products Division, Forest Research Institute, P.O. New Forest, Dehradun, Uttarakhand 248006, India. Electronic address:

Paper industry uses cationic polymers for imparting strong bonds with pulp furnish to enhance strength properties. Due to environmental reasons, emphasis is on utilization of biobased polymers in place of synthetic. Sugarcane bagasse, an agro-industrial waste, was processed for extraction of alpha cellulose and preparation of cationic derivative. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Characterization and use of a lignin sample extracted from Eucalyptus grandis sawdust for the removal of methylene blue dye.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Feb 24;170:375-389. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Área do conhecimento de Ciências Exatas e Engenharias, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Rua Francisco Getúlio Vargas, 1130, Caxias do Sul 95070-560, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

A lignin sample was extracted from Eucalyptus grandis sawdust, by the Klason method, and used as adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. By using a set of complementary analytical tools, the lignin appeared to be constituted of oxygenated functional groups and aromatic moieties, while showing a specific surface area of 20 m g and polydisperse particles. Different experimental conditions with various solid to liquid ratio, pH, as well as other external experimental parameters were investigated for the removal of MB by the lignin sample. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Micro- and nanofibrillated cellulose from virgin and recycled fibers: A comparative study of its effects on the properties of hygiene tissue paper.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Feb 26;254:117430. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Tissue Pack Innovation Lab, Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27695, USA. Electronic address:

This study aims to understand the effect of micro- and nanofibrillated cellulose (MNFC) on the tensile index, softness, and water absorbency of tissue paper. MNFC was produced from four different fiber sources. The results show that MNFC acts as an effective strength enhancer at the expense of a reduced water absorbency and softness. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Order in cellulosics: Historical review of crystal structure research on cellulose.

Authors:
Zugenmaier Peter

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Feb 28;254:117417. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Institute of Physical Chemistry TU Clausthal, D-38678 Claushal-Zellerfeld, Germany. Electronic address:

The structure determination of cellulose represents a significant part in the history of polymer science. On one side, cellulose as a natural and renewable material has valuable physical properties which can be improved with detailed knowledge of the structure. On the other side, it is produced by nature as fibers, e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Maize Silage Pretreatment via Steam Refining and Subsequent Enzymatic Hydrolysis for the Production of Fermentable Carbohydrates.

Molecules 2020 Dec 19;25(24). Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Department of Chemical Wood Technology, University of Hamburg, Haidkrugsweg 1, 22885 Barsbüttel, Germany.

Maize, also called corn, is one of the most available feedstocks worldwide for lignocellulosic biorefineries. However, a permanent biomass supply over the year is essential for industrial biorefinery application. In that context, ensiling is a well-known agricultural application to produce durable animal feed for the whole year. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

[Influence of early bolting on anatomical structure and coumarins of Peucedanum praeruptorum].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2020 Oct;45(20):4861-4866

Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Hunan Academy of Chinese Medicine Changsha 410013, China.

To explore the effects of early bolting on the quality of Peucedanum praeruptorum, the anatomical structures of P. praeruptorum root between bolting and no-bolting were investigated by paraffin section method, and contents of praeruptorin A, praeruptorin B, praeruptorin E, bergapten were determined by HPLC, then the differences and inter-relations were studied by comparative analysis method. The results showed that there existed great influences of early bolting on the root anatomical structures and coumarins content of P. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

Dissolution reaction kinetics and mass transfer during aqueous choline chloride pre-treatment of oak wood.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Feb 9;322:124519. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Chemical & Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia; ARC Training Centre for Transformation of Australia's Biosolids Resource, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia. Electronic address:

Lignocellulosic biomass processing employing ionic liquids is of recent research interest for the biorefinery industry. The data on biomass dissolution kinetics in ionic liquids is important for designing scale-up pre-treatment reactor design. In this study, the reaction mechanism and kinetics of oak wood dissolution in aqueous choline chloride was investigated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Enhanced metabolism and target gene overexpression confer resistance against acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides in Bromus sterilis.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Apr 1;77(4):2122-2128. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Agroecology and Crop Production, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: Intensive application of acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides has resulted in herbicide-resistance in many weeds, including Bromus sterilis. The present study was conducted to identify the mechanisms conferring resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in a Bromus sterilis biotype.

Results: Dose-response studies revealed the resistant biotype to be 288 times less sensitive to pyroxsulam than the susceptible biotype. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Livestock grazing is associated with seasonal reduction in pollinator biodiversity and functional dispersion but cheatgrass invasion is not: Variation in bee assemblages in a multi-use shortgrass prairie.

PLoS One 2020 17;15(12):e0237484. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Agricultural Biology, College of Agricultural Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.

Livestock grazing and non-native plant species affect rangeland habitats globally. These factors may have important effects on ecosystem services including pollination, yet, interactions between pollinators, grazing, and invasive plants are poorly understood. To address this, we tested the hypothesis that cattle grazing and site colonization by cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) impact bee foraging and nesting habitats, and the biodiversity of wild bee communities, in a shortgrass prairie system. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Genetic and morphometric variability between populations of Betula ×oycoviensis from Poland and Czechia: A revised view of the taxonomic treatment of the Ojców birch.

PLoS One 2020 16;15(12):e0243310. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Suchdol, Czechia.

Birches are generally known for their high genetic and morphological variability, which has resulted in the description of many species. Ojców birch was described in 1809 by Willibald Suibert Joseph Gottlieb Besser in Poland. Since then, several studies assessing its taxonomy were conducted. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021