154,789 results match your criteria anatomy biomedical

Gross anatomy of the longitudinal fascicle of Sapajus sp.

PLoS One 2021 24;16(6):e0252178. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Behavioral Neurology, Clinical Hospital, Federal University of Goias, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil.

Opposing genetic and cultural-social explanations for the origin of language are currently the focus of much discussion. One of the functions linked to the longitudinal fascicle is language, which links Wernicke's area and Broca's area in the brain, and its size should indicate the brain increase in the evolution. Sapajus is a New World primate genus with high cognition and advanced tool use similar to that of chimpanzees. Read More

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Additive Manufacturing of Multi-Scale Porous Soft Tissue Implants That Encourage Vascularization and Tissue Ingrowth.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Jun 24:e2100229. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

UCD Centre for Biomedical Engineering, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University College Dublin, Dublin, D04 V1W8, Ireland.

Medical devices, such as silicone-based prostheses designed for soft tissue implantation, often induce a suboptimal foreign-body response which results in a hardened avascular fibrotic capsule around the device, often leading to patient discomfort or implant failure. Here, it is proposed that additive manufacturing techniques can be used to deposit durable coatings with multiscale porosity on soft tissue implant surfaces to promote optimal tissue integration. Specifically, the "liquid rope coil effect", is exploited via direct ink writing, to create a controlled macro open-pore architecture, including over highly curved surfaces, while adapting atomizing spray deposition of a silicone ink to create a microporous texture. Read More

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The alternative serotonin transporter promoter P2 impacts gene function in females with irritable bowel syndrome.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Science, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gut-brain disorder in which symptoms are shaped by serotonin acting centrally and peripherally. The serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 has been implicated in IBS pathophysiology, but the underlying genetic mechanisms remain unclear. We sequenced the alternative P2 promoter driving intestinal SLC6A4 expression and identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were associated with IBS in a discovery sample. Read More

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Use of MTT Assay for Proliferation of U937 Cell Line and its Inter-rater Reliability - Best Taken with a Grain of Salt.

Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) 2020 Oct.-Dec.;18(72):396-401

Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Bibinagar, Telangana - 508126, India.

Background Biomedical research frequently employs immortal human cell lines to study various physiological and pathological topics of interest. An important problem that is often ignored is the question of reliability of observations made while using a particular assay on cell lines, especially MTT Assay. Recent studies have questioned its reliability by highlighting the diverse intracellular environmental factors that affect accuracy of MTT assay results. Read More

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Transforming a pre-existing MRI environment into an interventional cardiac MRI suite.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Aims: To illustrate the practical and technical challenges along with the safety aspects when performing MRI-guided electrophysiological procedures in a pre-existing diagnostic MRI environment.

Methods And Results: A dedicated, well-trained multidisciplinary interventional cardiac MRI team (iCMR team), consisting of electrophysiologists, imaging cardiologists, radiologists, anaesthesiologists, MRI physicists, electrophysiological (EP) and MRI technicians, biomedical engineers, and medical instrumentation technologists is a prerequisite for a safe and feasible implementation of CMR-guided electrophysiological procedures (iCMR) in a pre-existing MRI environment. A formal dry run "mock-up" to address the entire spectrum of technical, logistic, and safety issues was performed prior to obtaining final approval of the Board of Directors. Read More

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Timing of chocolate intake affects hunger, substrate oxidation, and microbiota: A randomized controlled trial.

FASEB J 2021 Jul;35(7):e21649

Department of Physiology, Regional Campus of International Excellence, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.

Eating chocolate in the morning or in the evening/at night, may differentially affect energy balance and impact body weight due to changes in energy intake, substrate oxidation, microbiota (composition/function), and circadian-related variables. In a randomized controlled trial, postmenopausal females (n = 19) had 100 g of chocolate in the morning (MC), in the evening/at night (EC), or no chocolate (N) for 2 weeks and ate any other food ad libitum. Our results show that 14 days of chocolate intake did not increase body weight. Read More

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Variation in Ontogenetic Facial Suture Fusion Patterns in Catarrhines.

Folia Primatol (Basel) 2021 Jun 23:1-8. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Biomedical Education and Anatomy, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Timing of craniofacial suture fusion is important for the determination of demographics and primate ontogeny. There has been much work concerning the timing of fusion of calvarial sutures over the last century, but little comprehensive work focusing on facial sutures. Here we assess the relationships of facial suture fusion across ontogeny among select catarrhines. Read More

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Pumilio2 and Staufen2 selectively balance the synaptic proteome.

Cell Rep 2021 Jun;35(12):109279

Biomedical Center (BMC), Department for Cell Biology & Anatomy, Medical Faculty, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried, Germany. Electronic address:

Neurons have the capacity to adapt to environmental stimuli, a phenomenon termed cellular plasticity. The underlying processes are controlled by a network of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Their precise impact, however, is largely unknown. Read More

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Exploring the distribution of statistical feature parameters for natural sound textures.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(6):e0238960. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Dept. of Neuroscience, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Sounds like "running water" and "buzzing bees" are classes of sounds which are a collective result of many similar acoustic events and are known as "sound textures". A recent psychoacoustic study using sound textures has reported that natural sounding textures can be synthesized from white noise by imposing statistical features such as marginals and correlations computed from the outputs of cochlear models responding to the textures. The outputs being the envelopes of bandpass filter responses, the 'cochlear envelope'. Read More

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Interleukin-6 is an activator of pituitary stem cells upon local damage, a competence quenched in the aging gland.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jun;118(25)

Laboratory of Tissue Plasticity in Health and Disease, Cluster of Stem Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Development and Regeneration, Leuven Stem Cell Institute, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium;

Stem cells in the adult pituitary are quiescent yet show acute activation upon tissue injury. The molecular mechanisms underlying this reaction are completely unknown. We applied single-cell transcriptomics to start unraveling the acute pituitary stem cell activation process as occurring upon targeted endocrine cell-ablation damage. Read More

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SIRM-SIC appropriateness criteria for the use of Cardiac Computed Tomography. Part 1: Congenital heart diseases, primary prevention, risk assessment before surgery, suspected CAD in symptomatic patients, plaque and epicardial adipose tissue characterization, and functional assessment of stenosis.

Radiol Med 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Cardiothoracovascular Department, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy.

In the past 20 years, Cardiac Computed Tomography (CCT) has become a pivotal technique for the noninvasive diagnostic work-up of coronary and cardiac diseases. Continuous technical and methodological improvements, combined with fast growing scientific evidence, have progressively expanded the clinical role of CCT. Recent large multicenter randomized clinical trials documented the high prognostic value of CCT and its capability to increase the cost-effectiveness of the management of patients with suspected CAD. Read More

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Selective intra-carotid blood cooling in acute ischemic stroke: A safety and feasibility study in an ovine stroke model.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2021 Jun 23:271678X211024952. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Neuroradiology, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Selective therapeutic hypothermia (TH) showed promising preclinical results as a neuroprotective strategy in acute ischemic stroke. We aimed to assess safety and feasibility of an intracarotid cooling catheter conceived for fast and selective brain cooling during endovascular thrombectomy in an ovine stroke model.Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, 3 h) was performed in 20 sheep. Read More

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Segmentation of MRI head anatomy using deep volumetric networks and multiple spatial priors.

J Med Imaging (Bellingham) 2021 May 17;8(3):034001. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

City College New York, Department of Biomedical Engineering, New York City, New York, United States.

Conventional automated segmentation of the head anatomy in magnetic resonance images distinguishes different brain and nonbrain tissues based on image intensities and prior tissue probability maps (TPMs). This works well for normal head anatomies but fails in the presence of unexpected lesions. Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) leverage instead spatial patterns and can learn to segment lesions but often ignore prior probabilities. Read More

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Ileal inflammatory pseudotumor in adolescent male patient with prior Burkitt lymphoma: A challenging diagnosis.

Radiol Case Rep 2021 Aug 8;16(8):2047-2052. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy.

Inflammatory pseudotumor is a rare benign mesenchymal pediatric neoplasm, that can mimic tumoral residue or relapse at metabolic imaging with nonspecific clinical presentation and difficult diagnosis. We present the case of a 14year old male patient with fever of unknown origin and large ileal mass, diagnosed with and treated for Burkitt lymphoma, who performed several 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scans, during and after first line chemotherapy, showing persistent and focal uptake, while ileal mass volume decreased dramatically and the patient was clinically asymptomatic. Histopathological analysis of residual ileal mass was suggestive for xanthomatous pseudotumor, a type of inflammatory pseudotumor. Read More

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Role of the Cadaver Lab in Lymphatic Microsurgery Education: Validation of a New Training Model.

J Invest Surg 2021 Jun 22:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department Biomedical Cell & Systems, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Microsurgical transplantation of vascularized lymph nodes (VLNT) or lymphatic vessels (VLVT) alongside derivative lymphaticovenous procedures are promising approaches for treatment of lymphedema. However, clinically relevant training models for mastering these techniques are still lacking. Here we describe a new training model in human cadaver and validate its use as training tool for microsurgical lymphatic reconstruction. Read More

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Predictive factors of smell recovery in a clinical series of 288 COVID-19 patients with olfactory dysfunction.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Institute for Medical Immunology, Université libre de Bruxelles, Charleroi, Belgium.

Objective: To evaluate potential predictive factors of smell recovery in a clinical series of 288 patients presenting olfactory dysfunction (OD) related to the COVID19. Potential correlations are sought between epidemiological, clinical and immunological characteristics of patients and the persistence of OD at 60 days.

Methods: COVID-19 positive patients presenting olfactory dysfunction were prospectively recruited from three European hospitals. Read More

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Adaption of Lung Fibroblasts to Fluoro-Edenite Fibers: Evaluation of Molecular and Physiological Dynamics.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2021 Jun;55(3):327-343

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Science - Section of Physiology, University of Catania, Catania, Italy,

Background/aims: The fluoro-edenite fibrous amphibole was identified as an environmental pollutant associate to risk of carcinogenicity. In Sicily (Italy), it represents a public health issue because fluoro-edenite fibers are present in the soil of Biancavilla, a town located on the south-west slopes of the volcano Etna. Since the relationship between exposure to fluoro-edenite and the onset of lung disorders have been documented, in vitro studies were performed to clarify the mechanisms of damage, but most aspects remain unknown. Read More

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Mechanistic underpinning of an inside-out concept for autoimmunity in multiple sclerosis.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department Anatomy and Neuroscience, University Medical Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The neuroinflammatory disease multiple sclerosis is driven by autoimmune pathology in the central nervous system. However, the trigger of the autoimmune pathogenic process is unknown. MS models in immunologically naïve, specific-pathogen-free bred rodents support an exogenous trigger, such as an infection. Read More

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Sorafenib and hepatocellular carcinoma: is alpha-fetoprotein a biomarker predictive of tumor biology and primary resistance?

Future Oncol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Biomedical Sciences & Human Oncology, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the only biomarker with proven prognostic value in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Preliminary data indicate crosstalk between AFP and VEGF signaling. The authors looked at 69 patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma who were previously tested for VEGFR2 expression, had available baseline AFP serum concentrations and were treated with sorafenib within clinical trials. Read More

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Hypermetabolic Cerebellar Connectome in Alzheimer's Disease.

Brain Connect 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

University of Manitoba Faculty of Health Sciences, 423134, Human Anatomy and Cell Science, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Introduction: Hypermetabolism in the cerebellum in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) has been consistently observed but often neglected as an artefact produced by the commonly used proportional scaling procedure in the statistical parametric mapping. We hypothesize that the hypermetabolic regions are also important in disease pathology in AD.

Methods: Using FDG-PET images from 88 AD subjects and 88 age-sex matched normal controls from the publicly available ADNI database, we developed general linear model based classifier that differentiated AD patients from normal individuals (sensitivity= 87. Read More

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Design Considerations for Macroencapsulation Devices for Stem Cell Derived Islets for the Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jun 21:e2100820. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.

Stem cell derived insulin producing cells or islets have shown promise in reversing Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), yet successful transplantation currently necessitates long-term modulation with immunosuppressant drugs. An alternative approach to avoiding this immune response is to utilize an islet macroencapsulation device, where islets are incorporated into a selectively permeable membrane that can protect the transplanted cells from acute host response, whilst enabling delivery of insulin. These macroencapsulation systems have to meet a number of stringent and challenging design criteria in order to achieve the ultimate goal of reversing T1D. Read More

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Condensation of pericentrin proteins in human cells illuminates phase separation in centrosome assembly.

J Cell Sci 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Cell Biology and Human Anatomy, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

At the onset of mitosis, centrosomes expand the pericentriolar material (PCM) to maximize their microtubule-organizing activity. This step, termed centrosome maturation, ensures proper spindle organization and faithful chromosome segregation. However, as the centrosome expands, how PCM proteins are recruited and held together without membrane enclosure remains elusive. Read More

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The effect of pre-resection obesity on post-resection body composition after 75% small bowel resection in rats.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 21;11(1):13009. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Surgery, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 983280 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 68198-3280, USA.

In patients with short bowel syndrome, an elevated pre-resection Body Mass Index may be protective of post-resection body composition. We hypothesized that rats with diet-induced obesity would lose less lean body mass after undergoing massive small bowel resection compared to non-obese rats. Rats (CD IGS; age = 2 mo; N = 80) were randomly assigned to either a high-fat (obese rats) or a low-fat diet (non-obese rats), and fed ad lib for six months. Read More

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Rescuing auditory temporal processing with a novel augmented acoustic environment in an animal model of congenital hearing loss.

eNeuro 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Departments of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering and Global Center of Speech and Hearing Research, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620

Congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) affects thousands of infants each year and results in significant delays in speech and language development. Previous studies have shown that early exposure to a simple augmented acoustic environment (AAE) can limit the effects of progressive SNHL on hearing sensitivity. However, SNHL is also accompanied by hearing loss that is not assessed on standard audiological exams, such as reduced temporal processing acuity. Read More

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Protective role of vitamin E in testicular development of mice exposed to valproic acid.

Andrologia 2021 Jun 21:e14140. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Center of Biotechnology on Reproduction (CEBIOR-BIOREN), Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile.

Valproic acid (VPA) is a teratogenic antiepileptic, causing alterations in oxidative stress in prenatal development, being altered the development of the male reproductive system. The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effect of vitamin E (VE) on the testicular development in embryos, foetuses and pubertal mice exposed to VPA, VPA+VE and only VE. Sixty pregnant adult female mice were used, to which they were administered 600 mg/kg of VPA (VPA groups), 600 mg/kg of VPA and 200 IU of VE (VPA+VE groups), 200 IU VE (VE groups) and 0. Read More

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A Time-Efficient Fluorescence Spectroscopy-Based Assay for Evaluating Actin Polymerization Status in Rodent and Human Brain Tissues.

J Vis Exp 2021 Jun 3(172). Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Anatomy, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Otago.

Actin, the major component of cytoskeleton, plays a critical role in the maintenance of neuronal structure and function. Under physiological states, actin occurs in equilibrium in its two forms: monomeric globular (G-actin) and polymerized filamentous (F- actin). At the synaptic terminals, actin cytoskeleton forms the basis for critical pre- and post-synaptic functions. Read More

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The IntelliCage System: A Review of Its Utility as a Novel Behavioral Platform for a Rodent Model of Substance Use Disorder.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 4;15:683780. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Neurosciences, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia.

The use of animal models for substance use disorder (SUD) has made an important contribution in the investigation of the behavioral and molecular mechanisms underlying substance abuse and addiction. Here, we review a novel and comprehensive behavioral platform to characterize addiction-like traits in rodents using a fully automated learning system, the IntelliCage. This system simultaneously captures the basic behavioral navigation, reward preference, and aversion, as well as the multi-dimensional complex behaviors and cognitive functions of group-housed rodents. Read More

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Facility-based and home-based multidomain interventions including cognitive training, exercise, diet, vascular risk management, and motivation for older adults: a randomized controlled feasibility trial.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Jun 18;13. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Neurology, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon 22332, Republic of Korea.

We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of multidomain intervention (MI) tailored to the Korean context. In an outcome assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial, participants without dementia and with one or more modifiable dementia risk factors, aged 60-79 years, were randomly assigned to the facility-based MI (FMI; n=51), the home-based MI (HMI; n=51), or the control group receiving general health advice (n=50). The 24-week intervention comprised vascular risk management, cognitive training, social activity, physical exercise, nutrition guidance, and motivational enhancement. Read More

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Optimization of alkali fusion process for determination of I-129 in solidified radwastes by neutron activation.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 May 29;176:109762. Epub 2021 May 29.

Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan, ROC.

This study determines the optimum temperature for the alkali fusion process used to effectively separate iodine from solidified radwaste attaining low-level I by neutron activation. The alkali fusion temperature was adjusted to 120, 200, and 400 °C to approach the optimum conditions associated with a good statistical distribution of the measured I data and high chemical recovery yield. Statistical analysis revealed that the optimum temperature of the alkali fusion process was 200 °C, displaying good central tendency and low variance of the measured I data, and the respective chemical recovery yields were higher than other temperatures. Read More

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Modulation of Folliculogenesis in Adult Laying Chickens by Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S: Perspectives on Ovarian Morphology and Gene Expression.

Reprod Toxicol 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, United States. Electronic address:

Both bisphenol A (BPA) and its analog bisphenol S (BPS) are industrial chemicals that have been used to make certain plastic products applied in chicken farms, including food and water containers. They are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with xenoestrogenic activities and affect reproductive success in many ways. It was hypothesized that BPA and BPS could adversely affect the folliculogenesis in chickens due to their disruption of the estrogen responses, using either genomic or non-genomic mechanisms. Read More

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