8,672 results match your criteria anaphase

FBXO34 Regulates the G2/M Transition and Anaphase Entry in Meiotic Oocytes.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 25;9:647103. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

State Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

There are two important events in oocyte meiotic maturation, the G2/M transition and metaphase I progression. Thousands of proteins participate in regulating oocyte maturation, which highlights the importance of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) in regulating protein synthesis and degradation. Skp1-Cullin-F-box (SCF) complexes, as the best characterized ubiquitin E3 ligases in the UPS, specifically recognize their substrates. Read More

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Coupling of Cdc20 inhibition and activation by BubR1.

J Cell Biol 2021 May;220(5)

Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Science, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Tight regulation of the APC/C-Cdc20 ubiquitin ligase that targets cyclin B1 for degradation is important for mitotic fidelity. The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) inhibits Cdc20 through the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). In addition, phosphorylation of Cdc20 by cyclin B1-Cdk1 independently inhibits APC/C-Cdc20 activation. Read More

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Inhibition of Cdc20 suppresses the metastasis in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC).

Breast Cancer 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Division of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Background: Cdc20 is a crucial activator of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) and is known to be essential in mitosis regulation. Abnormally high expression of Cdc20 has been reported in several malignancies. We aimed to study the Cdc20 expression in human breast cancer tissues, focusing specifically on Cdc20 in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC). Read More

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Immunoproteomic analysis of fish ectoparasite, Argulus siamensis antigens.

Parasite Immunol 2021 Apr 2:e12837. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

ICAR-Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Bhubaneswar, 751002, India.

Aim: An immunoproteomic approach was followed to identify immunoreactive antigens of fish ectoparasite, Argulus siamensis with rohu (Labeo rohita) immune sera for screening of potential vaccine candidates.

Materials And Results: The whole adult Argulus antigen was run in 2D electrophoresis with IEF in 7 cm IPG strips of pH 4-7 and SDS-PAGE with 12% acrylamide concentration. Two parallel gels were run; one was stained with silver stain, and the other was western blotted to nitrocellulose paper (NCP) and reacted with rohu anti-A. Read More

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Back to the new beginning: Mitotic exit in space and time.

Paola Vagnarelli

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

College of Medicine, Health and Life Science, Centre for Genomic Engineering and Maintenance (CenGEM), Brunel University London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH, UK. Electronic address:

The ultimate goal of cell division is to generate two identical daughter cells that resemble the mother cell from which they derived. Once all the proper attachments to the spindle have occurred, the chromosomes have aligned at the metaphase plate and the spindle assembly checkpoint (a surveillance mechanism that halts cells form progressing in the cell cycle in case of spindle - microtubule attachment errors) has been satisfied, mitotic exit will occur. Mitotic exit has the purpose of completing the separation of the genomic material but also to rebuild the cellular structures necessary for the new cell cycle. Read More

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Combined Inactivation of Pocket Proteins and APC/C by Cdk4/6 Controls Recovery from DNA Damage in G1 Phase.

Cells 2021 Mar 4;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Division of Cell Biology and Cancer Genomics Center, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Most Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are redundant for normal cell division. Here we tested whether these redundancies are maintained during cell cycle recovery after a DNA damage-induced arrest in G1. Using non-transformed RPE-1 cells, we find that while Cdk4 and Cdk6 act redundantly during normal S-phase entry, they both become essential for S-phase entry after DNA damage in G1. Read More

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Foliar Application of CeO Nanoparticles Alters Generative Components Fitness and Seed Productivity in Bean Crop ( L.).

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 28;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Life Sciences, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan.

In the era of technology, nanotechnology has been introduced as a new window for agriculture. However, no attention has been paid to the effect of cerium dioxide nanoparticles (nCeO) on the reproductive stage of plant development to evaluate their toxicity and safety. To address this important topic, bean plants ( L. Read More

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Molecular mechanisms of APC/C release from spindle assembly checkpoint inhibition by APC/C SUMOylation.

Cell Rep 2021 Mar;34(13):108929

MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK. Electronic address:

The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls cell cycle transitions. Its regulation by the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is coordinated with the attachment of sister chromatids to the mitotic spindle. APC/C SUMOylation on APC4 ensures timely anaphase onset and chromosome segregation. Read More

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Hyaluronan-Mediated Motility Receptor Governs Chromosome Segregation by Regulating Microtubules Sliding Within the Bridging Fiber.

Adv Biol (Weinh) 2021 Mar 31:e2000493. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117543, Singapore.

Accurate segregation of chromosomes during anaphase relies on the central spindle and its regulators. A newly raised concept of the central spindle, the bridging fiber, shows that sliding of antiparallel microtubules (MTs) within the bridging fiber promotes chromosome segregation. However, the regulators of the bridging fiber and its regulatory mechanism on MTs sliding remain largely unknown. Read More

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Seminars in cell and developmental biology: Anaphase A.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Dept. of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0347, USA. Electronic address:

Anaphase A is the motion of recently separated chromosomes to the spindle pole they face. It is accompanied by the shortening of kinetochore-attached microtubules. The requisite tubulin depolymerization may occur at kinetochores, at poles, or both, depending on the species and/or the time in mitosis. Read More

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The RAC1 activator Tiam1 regulates centriole duplication through controlling PLK4 levels.

J Cell Sci 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Cell Signalling Group, Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute, The University of Manchester, Alderley Park, Macclesfield SK10 4TG, UK

Centriole duplication is tightly controlled to maintain correct centriole number through the cell cycle. Key to this is the regulated degradation of PLK4, the master regulator of centriole duplication. Here we show that the Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Tiam1 localises to centrosomes during S-phase, where it is required for maintenance of normal centriole number. Read More

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The importance of CDC27 in cancer: molecular pathology and clinical aspects.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 Mar 9;21(1):160. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Shahid Hemmat Highway, P.O. Box: 14665-354, Tehran, 14496-14535, Iran.

Background: CDC27 is one of the core components of Anaphase Promoting complex/cyclosome. The main role of this protein is defined at cellular division to control cell cycle transitions. Here we review the molecular aspects that may affect CDC27 regulation from cell cycle and mitosis to cancer pathogenesis and prognosis. Read More

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EMBRYO SAC DEVELOPMENT 1 affects seed setting rate in rice by controlling embryo sac development.

Plant Physiol 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

College of Agronomy, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China.

Seed setting rate is one of the critical factors that determine rice yield. Grain formation is a complex biological process, whose molecular mechanism is yet to be improved. Here we investigated the function of an OVATE family protein, Embryo Sac Development 1 (ESD1), in the regulation of seed setting rate in rice (Oryza sativa) by examining its loss-of-function mutants generated via clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated9 (Cas9) technology. Read More

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Decabromodiphenyl ethane exposure damaged the asymmetric division of mouse oocytes by inhibiting the inactivation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1.

FASEB J 2021 Apr;35(4):e21449

College of Life Science, The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.

Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) is a new brominated flame retardant and is widely added to flammable materials to prevent fire. Because it has been continuously detected in a variety of organisms and humans, it is important to reveal the biological toxicity of DBDPE. However, the influence of DBDPE for female reproduction is unclear. Read More

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The Role of Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) in Plant Reproduction.

Front Plant Sci 2021 24;12:642934. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Biological Sciences, Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz," University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, Brazil.

Most eukaryotic species propagate through sexual reproduction that requires male and female gametes. In flowering plants, it starts through a single round of DNA replication (S phase) and two consecutive chromosome segregation (meiosis I and II). Subsequently, haploid mitotic divisions occur, which results in a male gametophyte (pollen grain) and a female gametophyte (embryo sac) formation. Read More

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February 2021

Nuclear maturation kinetics and in vitro fertilization of immature bovine oocytes injected into pre-ovulatory follicles.

Theriogenology 2021 May 3;166:90-96. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras, MG, 37200-900, Brazil; Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG, 36010-041, Brazil.

The maturation kinetics and in vitro fertilization of immature bovine oocytes injected by the intra-follicular oocyte injection (IFOT) technique into pre-ovulatory follicles of previously synchronized cows were evaluated. In Experiment 1, grade I, II and III cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were randomly distributed to one of three Groups: Matvitro22 (COCs matured in vitro for 22 h), MatFol20 and MatFol28 (COCs matured in vivo after being injected into a pre-ovulatory follicle of previously synchronized cows for 19.8 ± 0. Read More

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Ethylene-regulated asymmetric growth of the petal base promotes flower opening in rose (Rosa hybrida).

Plant Cell 2021 Feb 2. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Ornamental Horticulture, State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Development and Quality Control of Ornamental Crops, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Flowers are the core reproductive structures and key distinguishing features of angiosperms. Flower opening to expose stamens and gynoecia is important in cases where pollinators much be attracted to promote cross-pollination, which can enhance reproductive success and species preservation. The floral opening process is accompanied by the coordinated movement of various floral organs, particularly petals. Read More

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February 2021

DIAPH1 regulates chromosomal instability of cancer cells by controlling microtubule dynamics.

Eur J Cell Biol 2021 Mar 1;100(3):151156. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Biochemistry and Signal Transduction, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, D-20246, Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a hallmark of cancer, resulting from misalignment and missegregation of chromosomes during meta- and anaphase, due to non-precise regulation of spindle-MT dynamics. Diaphanous Related Formin 1 (DIAPH1) is an actin nucleator and also binds microtubule (MT) with high affinity. In this study, we analyzed the role of DIAPH1 in regulation of spindle MT-dynamics and CIN in HT29 and HCT-116 colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Read More

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Novel Mutations in CDC20 Are Associated with Female Infertility Due to Oocyte Maturation Abnormality and Early Embryonic Arrest.

Reprod Sci 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230001, Anhui, China.

The cell division cycle 20 (CDC20) protein is a co-activator of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), required for mitotic exit and also meiotic exit, containing seven WD40 repeats in the C-terminus responsible for protein-protein interactions. Recently, a previous study has shown that biallelic mutations in CDC20 are causative for female infertility with abnormalities in oocyte maturation and embryonic development. This study is to further identify new mutations of CDC20 and the prevalence of variants in our cohort. Read More

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Mechanical Mechanisms of Chromosome Segregation.

Cells 2021 Feb 22;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.

Chromosome segregation-the partitioning of genetic material into two daughter cells-is one of the most crucial processes in cell division. In all Eukaryotes, chromosome segregation is driven by the spindle, a microtubule-based, self-organizing subcellular structure. Extensive research performed over the past 150 years has identified numerous commonalities and contrasts between spindles in different systems. Read More

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February 2021

Live-cell Imaging and Quantitative Analysis of Meiotic Divisions in Males.

Bio Protoc 2020 Oct 20;10(20):e3785. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Experimental Center, Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany.

Live-imaging of meiotic cell division has been performed in extracted spermatocytes of a number of species using phase-contrast microscopy. For the nematode , removal of spermatocytes from gonads has damaging effects, as most of the extracted spermatocytes show a high variability in the timing of meiotic divisions or simply arrest during the experiment. Therefore, we developed a live-cell imaging approach for filming of spermatocyte meiosis in whole immobilized males, thus allowing an observation of male germ cells within an unperturbed environment. Read More

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October 2020

The BRCT domains of ECT2 have distinct functions during cytokinesis.

Cell Rep 2021 Mar;34(9):108805

Department Biology II, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Planegg-Martinsried, Munich 82152, Germany. Electronic address:

During cell division, the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) ECT2 activates RhoA in a narrow zone at the cell equator in anaphase. ECT2 consists of three BRCT domains (BRCT0, 1, and 2), a catalytic GEF, and a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. How the conserved BRCT domains spatially and temporally control ECT2 activity remains unclear. Read More

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CENP-A chromatin prevents replication stress at centromeres to avoid structural aneuploidy.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(10)

Institut Curie, PSL Research University, CNRS, UMR 144, F-75005 Paris, France;

Chromosome segregation relies on centromeres, yet their repetitive DNA is often prone to aberrant rearrangements under pathological conditions. Factors that maintain centromere integrity to prevent centromere-associated chromosome translocations are unknown. Here, we demonstrate the importance of the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A in safeguarding DNA replication of alpha-satellite repeats to prevent structural aneuploidy. Read More

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Kinetochore stretching-mediated rapid silencing of the spindle-assembly checkpoint required for failsafe chromosome segregation.

Curr Biol 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Division of Experimental Pathology, Cancer Institute of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

The spindle-assembly checkpoint facilitates mitotic fidelity by delaying anaphase onset in response to microtubule vacancy at kinetochores. Following microtubule attachment, kinetochores receive microtubule-derived force, which causes kinetochores to undergo repetitive cycles of deformation; this phenomenon is referred to as kinetochore stretching. The nature of the forces and the relevance relating this deformation are not well understood. Read More

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February 2021

Deprotection of centromeric cohesin at meiosis II requires APC/C activity but not kinetochore tension.

EMBO J 2021 Apr 1;40(7):e106812. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Laboratory of Chromosome Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany.

Genome haploidization involves sequential loss of cohesin from chromosome arms and centromeres during two meiotic divisions. At centromeres, cohesin's Rec8 subunit is protected from separase cleavage at meiosis I and then deprotected to allow its cleavage at meiosis II. Protection of centromeric cohesin by shugoshin-PP2A seems evolutionarily conserved. Read More

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Kinetochore individualization in meiosis I is required for centromeric cohesin removal in meiosis II.

EMBO J 2021 Apr 1;40(7):e106797. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Institut de Biologie Paris Seine, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.

Partitioning of the genome in meiosis occurs through two highly specialized cell divisions, named meiosis I and meiosis II. Step-wise cohesin removal is required for chromosome segregation in meiosis I, and sister chromatid segregation in meiosis II. In meiosis I, mono-oriented sister kinetochores appear as fused together when examined by high-resolution confocal microscopy, whereas they are clearly separated in meiosis II, when attachments are bipolar. Read More

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Plant Physiol 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Institute of Biological Chemistry, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA.

The phragmoplast separates daughter cells during cytokinesis by constructing the cell plate, which depends on interaction between cytoskeleton and membrane compartments. Proteins responsible for these interactions remain unknown, but formins can link cytoskeleton with membranes and several members of formin protein family localize to the cell plate. Progress in functional characterization of formins in cytokinesis is hindered by functional redundancies within the large formin gene family. Read More

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February 2021

Overlapping roles for PLK1 and Aurora A during meiotic centrosome biogenesis in mouse spermatocytes.

EMBO Rep 2021 Apr 21;22(4):e51023. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

The establishment of bipolar spindles during meiotic divisions ensures faithful chromosome segregation to prevent gamete aneuploidy. We analyzed centriole duplication, as well as centrosome maturation and separation during meiosis I and II using mouse spermatocytes. The first round of centriole duplication occurs during early prophase I, and then, centrosomes mature and begin to separate by the end of prophase I to prime formation of bipolar metaphase I spindles. Read More

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Glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibition synergizes with PARP inhibitors through the induction of homologous recombination deficiency in colorectal cancer.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Feb 15;12(2):183. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Division of Anti-Tumor Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201203, China.

Monotherapy with poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors results in a limited objective response rate (≤60% in most cases) in patients with homologous recombination repair (HRR)-deficient cancer, which suggests a high rate of resistance in this subset of patients to PARP inhibitors (PARPi). To overcome resistance to PARPi and to broaden their clinical use, we performed high-throughput screening of 99 anticancer drugs in combination with PARPi to identify potential therapeutic combinations. Here, we found that GSK3 inhibitors (GSK3i) exhibited a strong synergistic effect with PARPi in a panel of colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines with diverse genetic backgrounds. Read More

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February 2021