65 results match your criteria anamensis


New Pliocene hominin remains from the Leado Dido'a area of Woranso-Mille, Ethiopia.

J Hum Evol 2021 Apr 9;153:102956. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Physical Anthropology, Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Cleveland, OH, USA; Departments of Anthropology and Biology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Fossiliferous deposits at Woranso-Mille span the period when Australopithecus anamensis gave rise to Australopithecus afarensis (3.8-3.6 Ma) and encompass the core of the A. Read More

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The environments of Australopithecus anamensis at Allia Bay, Kenya: A multiproxy analysis of early Pliocene Bovidae.

J Hum Evol 2021 Feb 13;151:102928. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Center for the Advanced Study of Human Paleobiology, The George Washington University, 800 22(nd)Street Northwest, Suite 6000, Washington, DC 20052, USA.

Australopithecus anamensis, among the earliest fully bipedal hominin species, lived in eastern Africa around 4 Ma. Much of what is currently known about the paleoecology of A. anamensis comes from the type locality, Kanapoi, Kenya. Read More

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February 2021

Did the Australopithecus anamensis-Australopithecus afarensis lineage wax and wane? A commentary to Du et al. (2020).

J Hum Evol 2021 Jan 9;150:102872. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Computer Science, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 68, 00014 Finland. Electronic address:

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January 2021

Calcium isotopic ecology of Turkana Basin hominins.

Nat Commun 2020 07 17;11(1):3587. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

CNRS, ENSL, LGL-TPE, Univ Lyon, Univ Lyon 1, F-69007, Lyon, France.

Diet is a major driver of hominin evolution, but most of the geochemical evidence relies on carbon isotopes (δC). Here, we report enamel stable calcium isotope (δCa) values against δC values for several hominins and co-existing primates in the Turkana Basin area, circa 4 to 2 Ma. Australopithecus anamensis clusters with mammal browsers, Kenyanthropus platyops is distinct from A. Read More

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Maxillary molar enamel thickness of Plio-Pleistocene hominins.

J Hum Evol 2020 05 19;142:102731. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, 04103, Germany; School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NR, United Kingdom; Evolutionary Studies Institute, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Electronic address:

Enamel thickness remains an important morphological character in hominin systematics and is regularly incorporated into dietary reconstructions in hominin species. We expand upon a previous study of enamel thickness in mandibular molars by examining a large maxillary molar sample of Plio-Pleistocene hominins (n = 62) and a comparative sample of extant nonhuman apes (n = 48) and modern humans (n = 29). 2D mesial planes of section were generated through microtomography, and standard dental tissue variables were measured to calculate average enamel thickness (AET) and relative enamel thickness (RET). Read More

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Introduction to special issue Kanapoi: Paleobiology of a Pliocene site in Kenya.

J Hum Evol 2020 03 10;140:102718. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Department of Earth Sciences, National Museums of Kenya, P.O. Box 40658, Nairobi, Kenya. Electronic address:

This paper introduces this Special Issue of the Journal of Human Evolution entitled "Kanapoi: Paleobiology of a Pliocene site in Kenya." Kanapoi, West Turkana, Kenya, is part of the Omo-Turkana Basin and is the type site of the earliest known genus of Australopithecus, A. anamensis. Read More

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Cercopithecid fossils from Kanapoi, West Turkana, Kenya (2007-2015).

J Hum Evol 2020 03 18;140:102642. Epub 2020 Jan 18.

Department of Anthropology, 330 Old Main, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA.

Recent fieldwork at Kanapoi has expanded the sample of fossil cercopithecids, facilitating a re-appraisal of their taxonomy. The assemblage now includes at least one species of cercopithecin, two papionins, and two colobines. The guenon Nanopithecus browni is similar in dental size to extant Miopithecus. Read More

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The ecology of Australopithecus anamensis in the early Pliocene of Kanapoi, Kenya.

J Hum Evol 2020 03 6;140:102717. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Primate Models for Behavioural Evolution Lab, Institute of Cognitive & Evolutionary Anthropology, School of Anthropology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Gorongosa National Park, Sofala, Mozambique; Interdisciplinary Centre for Archaeology and Evolution of Human Behaviour (ICArEHB), Universidade Do Algarve, Faro, Portugal; Centre for Functional Ecology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

Australopithecus anamensis is a pivotal species in human evolution. It is likely to be the direct ancestor of Australopithecus afarensis and the species that may have given rise to the Homo and Paranthropus lineages. It had a suite of adaptations for habitual bipedalism and a diet that differed from that of earlier hominin species. Read More

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Rodents and other terrestrial small mammals from Kanapoi, north-western Kenya.

J Hum Evol 2020 03 20;140:102694. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Roy M. Huffington Department of Earth Sciences, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, 75275, USA; Department of Cell Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 75390, USA. Electronic address:

Excavations at Kanapoi in north-western Kenya have yielded the most numerically abundant and taxonomically diverse early Pliocene (4.19 Ma) terrestrial small mammal assemblage known from Kenya. A minimum of 15 species are reported, including soricids, sengis, leporids, and rodents: all taxa are referable to extant genera, with the exception of the murine rodent, Saidomys. Read More

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Statistical estimates of hominin origination and extinction dates: A case study examining the Australopithecus anamensis-afarensis lineage.

J Hum Evol 2020 01 20;138:102688. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

Reliable estimates of when hominin taxa originated and went extinct are central to addressing many paleoanthropological questions, including those relating to macroevolutionary patterns. The timing of hominin temporal ranges can be used to test chronological predictions generated from phylogenetic hypotheses. For example, hypotheses of phyletic ancestor-descendant relationships, based on morphological data, predict no temporal range overlap between the two taxa. Read More

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January 2020

Endostructural morphology in hominoid mandibular third premolars: Discrete traits at the enamel-dentine junction.

J Hum Evol 2019 11 1;136:102670. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NZ, UK; Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103, Leipzig, Germany; Evolutionary Studies Institute, University of the Witwatersrand, 1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Braamfontein, 2000, Johannesburg, South Africa.

The mandibular third premolar (P) exhibits substantial differences in size and shape among hominoid taxa, and displays a number of discrete traits that have proven to be useful in studies of hominin taxonomy and phylogeny. Discrete traits at the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) can be accurately assessed on moderately worn specimens, and often appear sharper than at the outer-enamel surface (OES). Here we use microtomography to image the P EDJ of a broad sample of extant apes, extinct hominins and modern humans (n = 100). Read More

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November 2019

A 3.8-million-year-old hominin cranium from Woranso-Mille, Ethiopia.

Nature 2019 09 28;573(7773):214-219. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Department of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

The cranial morphology of the earliest known hominins in the genus Australopithecus remains unclear. The oldest species in this genus (Australopithecus anamensis, specimens of which have been dated to 4.2-3. Read More

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September 2019

The skull of StW 573, a 3.67 Ma Australopithecus prometheus skeleton from Sterkfontein Caves, South Africa.

J Hum Evol 2019 09 2;134:102634. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, WITS 2050, South Africa.

Here we present the first full anatomical description of the 3.67 million-year-old Australopithecus skull StW 573 that was recovered with its skeleton from the Sterkfontein Member 2 breccia in the Silberberg Grotto. Analysis demonstrates that it is most similar in multiple key morphological characters to a group of fossils from Sterkfontein Member 4 and Makapansgat that are here distinguished taxonomically as Australopithecus prometheus. Read More

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September 2019

Dental microwear texture analysis of Pliocene Suidae from Hadar and Kanapoi in the context of early hominin dietary breadth expansion.

J Hum Evol 2019 07 18;132:80-100. Epub 2019 May 18.

The Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies and Departments of Maritime Civilizations and Archaeology, University of Haifa, Haifa 3498838, Israel; Institute of Human Origins and School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85282, USA. Electronic address:

Stable carbon isotope studies suggest that early hominins may have diversified their diet as early as 3.76 Ma. Early Pliocene hominins, including Australopithecus anamensis, had diets that were dominated by C resources while Late Pliocene hominins, including Australopithecus afarensis-a putative descendant of A. Read More

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Earliest axial fossils from the genus Australopithecus.

J Hum Evol 2019 07 30;132:189-214. Epub 2019 May 30.

Center for the Study of Human Origins, Department of Anthropology, New York University, 25 Waverly Place, New York, NY, 10003, USA; New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology, New York, NY, 10024, USA.

Australopitheus anamensis fossils demonstrate that craniodentally and postcranially the taxon was more primitive than its evolutionary successor Australopithecus afarensis. Postcranial evidence suggests habitual bipedality combined with primitive upper limbs and an inferred significant arboreal adaptation. Here we report on A. Read More

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Comparative description and taxonomy of new hominin juvenile mandibles from the Pliocene of Woranso-Mille (Central Afar, Ethiopia).

J Hum Evol 2019 07 3;132:15-31. Epub 2019 May 3.

Department of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.

Mandibular morphology of Australopithecus afarensis is well known based on abundant fossil mandibles of adult individuals from multiple sites in Ethiopia (Hadar, Woranso-Mille, and Middle Awash) and Tanzania (Laetoli). However, there are only a few juvenile mandibles of the species known from these sites. Here, we describe two recently discovered Pliocene hominin juvenile mandibles from Woranso-Mille (KSD-VP-1/29 and MKM-VP-1/626), that have been radioisotopically dated to 3. Read More

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Isotopic equifinality and rethinking the diet of Australopithecus anamensis.

Authors:
Rhonda L Quinn

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 07 3;169(3):403-421. Epub 2019 May 3.

Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Social Work, Seton Hall University, South Orange, New Jersey.

Objectives: Australopithecus anamensis has comparable δ C values to Ardipithecus ramidus, and both have been characterized as C feeders in open woodland habitats similar to "savanna" chimps. Unlike Ar. ramidus and "savanna" chimps, A. Read More

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Revisiting the pedogenic carbonate isotopes and paleoenvironmental interpretation of Kanapoi.

J Hum Evol 2020 03 6;140:102549. Epub 2019 Jan 6.

Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Rutgers University, 610 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8066, USA; Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY, USA.

Reconstructed habitats of Australopithecus anamensis at Kanapoi by Wynn (2000) yielded evidence for both wooded and grassy environments. Wynn's study was based on stable isotopic (δC, δO) analyses of a small sample of pedogenic nodules (n = 14) collected from paleosols spanning Kanapoi's stratigraphic interval. Whether this small sample size adequately characterized Kanapoi's vegetation or was the result of time averaging remains unclear. Read More

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Oblique human symphyseal angle is associated with an evolutionary rate-shift early in the hominin clade.

J Hum Evol 2018 10 26;123:84-95. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Department of Anthropology, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA.

The rate of change in primate mandibular symphyseal angles was modeled with particular aim of locating a rate-shift within the hominin clade. Prior work noted that the human symphyseal angle must have experienced a rapid rate of change in order to assume the modern human form, suggestive of the non-random work of natural selection. This study indicates that the rate of symphyseal evolution rose dramatically between Australopithecus anamensis and Australopithecus afarensis and continued throughout the diversification of the hominin clade. Read More

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October 2018

Diets of mammalian fossil fauna from Kanapoi, northwestern Kenya.

J Hum Evol 2020 03 13;140:102338. Epub 2017 Oct 13.

Research Laboratory for Archaeology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Carbon isotope ratios of mammalian teeth from the Kanapoi site in northern Kenya are interpreted in the context of C and C derived resources to investigate the paleoecology of Australopithecus anamensis. δC values of large mammals, when compared at the taxon level, show an ecosystem that is strongly biased towards mixed feeders and browsers. However, sufficient C resources were present such that some C dominated grazers were also present in the large mammal fauna. Read More

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Preliminary paleoecological insights from the Pliocene avifauna of Kanapoi, Kenya: Implications for the ecology of Australopithecus anamensis.

Authors:
Daniel J Field

J Hum Evol 2020 03 29;140:102384. Epub 2017 Sep 29.

Milner Centre for Evolution, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK; Department of Geology & Geophysics, Yale University, 210 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511, USA. Electronic address:

Fossil bird remains from the Pliocene hominin-bearing locality of Kanapoi comprise >100 elements representing at least 10 avian families, including previously undescribed elements referred to the 'giant' Pliocene marabou stork Leptoptilos cf. falconeri. The taxonomic composition of the Kanapoi fossil avifauna reveals an assemblage with a substantial aquatic component, corroborating geological evidence of this locality's close proximity to a large, slow-moving body of water. Read More

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New fossils of Australopithecus anamensis from Kanapoi, West Turkana, Kenya (2012-2015).

J Hum Evol 2020 03 23;140:102368. Epub 2017 Aug 23.

Department of Earth Sciences, National Museums of Kenya, P.O. Box 40658, Nairobi, Kenya.

Kanapoi, Kenya, has yielded the earliest evidence of the genus Australopithecus, Australopithecus anamensis. Renewed fieldwork from 2012 through 2015 yielded 18 new fossils attributable to this species. The new specimens include the second maxillary fragment known from a Kanapoi hominin and the first from a relatively young adult. Read More

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Early Pliocene anuran fossils from Kanapoi, Kenya, and the first fossil record for the African burrowing frog Hemisus (Neobatrachia: Hemisotidae).

Authors:
Massimo Delfino

J Hum Evol 2020 03 13;140:102353. Epub 2017 Jul 13.

Dipartimento di Scienze Della Terra, Università di Torino, Via Valperga Caluso 35, 10125, Torino, Italy; Institut Català de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Edifici ICTA-ICP, Carrer de Les Columnes S/n, Campus de La UAB, 08193, Cerdanyola Del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Isolated amphibian bones from the early Pliocene of Kanapoi (West Turkana, Kenya) help to improve the scarce fossil record of the late Neogene and Quaternary amphibians from East Africa. All currently available 579 bones are referable exclusively to the Anura (frogs and toads). More than half of the remains (366) are identified as Hemisus cf. Read More

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Dental microwear and Pliocene paleocommunity ecology of bovids, primates, rodents, and suids at Kanapoi.

J Hum Evol 2020 03 9;140:102315. Epub 2017 May 9.

Department of Pathology and Anatomical Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.

Reconstructions of habitat at sites like Kanapoi are key to understanding the environmental circumstances in which hominins evolved during the early Pliocene. While Australopithecus anamensis shows evidence of terrestrial bipedality traditionally associated with a more open setting, its enamel has low δC values consistent with consumption of C foods, which predominate in wooded areas of tropical Africa. Habitat proxies, ranging from paleosols and their carbonates to associated herbivore fauna and their carbon isotope ratios, suggest a heterogeneous setting with both grass and woody plant components, though the proportions of each have been difficult to pin down. Read More

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Paleoecological reconstruction of hominin-bearing middle Pliocene localities at Woranso-Mille, Ethiopia.

J Hum Evol 2016 07 11;96:97-112. Epub 2016 Jun 11.

Cleveland Museum of Natural History, 1 Wade Oval Drive, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA.

Woranso-Mille is a paleoanthropological site in Ethiopia sampling an important and under-represented time period in human evolution (3.8-3.6 million years ago). Read More

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The stable isotope ecology of Pan in Uganda and beyond.

Am J Primatol 2016 Oct 17;78(10):1070-85. Epub 2016 May 17.

Department of Anthropology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado.

Stable isotope analysis has long been used to study the dietary ecology of living and fossil primates, and there has been increasing interest in using stable isotopes to study primate habitat use and anthropogenic impacts on non-human primates. Here, we examine the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from seven communities in Uganda across a continuum of habitat structure (closed to more open) and access to anthropogenic resources (no reliance to heavy reliance). In general, the hair δ(13) C, but not δ(15) N, values of these communities vary depending on forest structure and degree of anthropogenic influence. Read More

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October 2016

Tephrostratigraphy of the Waki-Mille area of the Woranso-Mille paleoanthropological research project, Afar, Ethiopia.

J Hum Evol 2016 Apr 27;93:25-45. Epub 2016 Feb 27.

Department of Physical Anthropology, Cleveland Museum of Natural History, 1 Wade Oval Drive, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.

Tephra geochemistry and (40)Ar/(39)Ar geochronology are reported for the Waki-Mille area in the northwestern part of the Woranso-Mille paleoanthropological project area in the west central Afar region of Ethiopia. Previous studies documented dentognathic fossils that are morphologically intermediate between Australopithecus anamensis and Australopithecus afarensis and some that are attributed to Australopithecus afarensis. Additional dentognathic remains from the study area were assigned to the newly identified species Australopithecus deyiremeda. Read More

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A geometric morphometrics comparative analysis of Neandertal humeri (epiphyses-fused) from the El Sidrón cave site (Asturias, Spain).

J Hum Evol 2015 May 24;82:51-66. Epub 2015 Mar 24.

Área de Prehistoria, Department of History, Universidad de Oviedo, Calle Teniente Alfonso Martínez s/n, 33011 Oviedo, Spain.

A new collection of 49,000 year old Neandertal fossil humeri from the El Sidrón cave site (Asturias, Spain) is presented. A total of 49 humeral remains were recovered, representing 10 left and 8 right humeri from adults, adolescents, and a juvenile (not included in the analyses). 3D geometric morphometric (GM) methods as well as classic anthropological variables were employed to conduct a broad comparative analysis by means of mean centroid size and shape comparisons, principal components analysis, and cluster studies. Read More

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Dental ontogeny in pliocene and early pleistocene hominins.

PLoS One 2015 18;10(2):e0118118. Epub 2015 Feb 18.

Centre for Anthropological Research, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Until recently, our understanding of the evolution of human growth and development derived from studies of fossil juveniles that employed extant populations for both age determination and comparison. This circular approach has led to considerable debate about the human-like and ape-like affinities of fossil hominins. Teeth are invaluable for understanding maturation as age at death can be directly assessed from dental microstructure, and dental development has been shown to correlate with life history across primates broadly. Read More

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January 2016

Middle Pliocene hominin mandibular fourth premolars from Woranso-Mille (Central Afar, Ethiopia).

J Hum Evol 2015 Jan 8;78:44-59. Epub 2014 Sep 8.

Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

The Woranso-Mille study area has thus far yielded more than 120 early hominin fossil specimens dated to between 3.4 and 3.8 million years ago. Read More

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January 2015