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The linkage of cell cycle and DNA replication with growth difference in female Chinese tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis): Analysis from transcriptomic study and WGCNA.

Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics 2021 Apr 7;39:100833. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Key Laboratory for Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266235, China; Shandong Key Laboratory of Marine Fisheries Biotechnology and Genetic Breeding, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China. Electronic address:

In addition to the typical sexual size dimorphism, considerable size differences within the female population of the Chinese tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) have become a further bottleneck of the improvement of sole aquaculture. To identify the internal mechanism, transcriptomic analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) were employed simultaneously. Transcriptomic analyses of brain, pituitary gland, liver, gonad, and muscle tissues from two female groups with size differences identified 109, 698, 1325, 2299, and 2141 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), respectively. Read More

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Identifying classes of the pain, fatigue, and depression symptom cluster in long-term prostate cancer survivors-results from the multi-regional Prostate Cancer Survivorship Study in Switzerland (PROCAS).

Support Care Cancer 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

National Institute for Cancer Epidemiology and Registration (NICER), c/o University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Purpose: Aside from urological and sexual problems, long-term (≥5 years after initial diagnosis) prostate cancer (PC) survivors might suffer from pain, fatigue, and depression. These concurrent symptoms can form a cluster. In this study, we aimed to investigate classes of this symptom cluster in long-term PC survivors, to classify PC survivors accordingly, and to explore associations between classes of this cluster and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Read More

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Sexual dimorphism in mastoid process volumes measured from 3D models of dry crania from mediaeval Croatia.

Homo 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

UCLA/Getty Conservation Programme, Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

3D analysis of skeletal volumes has become an important field in digital anthropology studies. The volume of the mastoid process has been proposed to display significant sexual dimorphism, but it has a complex shape and to date no study has quantified the full mastoid volume for sex estimation purposes. In this study we compared three different ways to isolate the volume of the mastoid process from digital 3D models of dry crania, and then evaluated the performance of the three different volume definitions for sex estimation purposes. Read More

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Microdiscectomy compared with transforaminal epidural steroid injection for persistent radicular pain caused by prolapsed intervertebral disc: the NERVES RCT.

Health Technol Assess 2021 Apr;25(24):1-86

Liverpool Clinical Trials Centre, University of Liverpool (member of Liverpool Health Partners), Liverpool, UK.

Background: Sciatica is a common condition reported to affect > 3% of the UK population at any time and is most often caused by a prolapsed intervertebral disc. Currently, there is no uniformly adopted treatment strategy. Invasive treatments, such as surgery (i. Read More

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Multi-arm Trial of Inflammatory Signal Inhibitors (MATIS) for hospitalised patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 pneumonia: a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Apr 12;22(1):270. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Imperial College, London and Imperial NHS Trust, London, UK.

Objectives: The primary objective of MATIS is to determine the efficacy of ruxolitinib (RUX) or fostamatinib (FOS) compared to standard of care (SOC) with respect to reducing the proportion of hospitalised patients progressing from mild or moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Secondary objectives, at 14 and 28 days, are to: Determine the efficacy of RUX or FOS to reduce mortality Determine the efficacy of RUX or FOS to reduce the need for invasive ventilation or ECMO Determine the efficacy of RUX or FOS to reduce the need for non-invasive ventilation Determine the efficacy of RUX or FOS to reduce the proportion of participants suffering significant oxygen desaturation Determine the efficacy of RUX or FOS to reduce the need for renal replacement therapy Determine the efficacy of RUX and FOS to reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolism Determine the efficacy of RUX and FOS to reduce the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia [graded by a 9-point modified WHO Ordinal Scale* Determine the efficacy of RUX or FOS to reduce systemic inflammation Determine the efficacy of RUX or FOS to the incidence of renal impairment Determine the efficacy of RUX or FOS to reduce duration of hospital stay Evaluate the safety of RUX and FOS for treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia.

Trial Design: A multi-arm, multi-stage (3-arm parallel-group, 2-stage) randomised controlled trial that allocates participants 1:1:1 and tests for superiority in experimental arms versus standard of care. Read More

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Sex-specific foraging of an apex predator puts females at risk of human-wildlife conflict.

J Anim Ecol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, 1142, New Zealand.

Urbanisation and anthropogenic alteration of ecosystems has led to conflict between humans and wildlife. Such conflict is often observed in apex predators. Although human-wildlife conflict has been extensively studied, male / female differences in behaviour are rarely considered. Read More

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[Association between knowledge and practices on HIV infection in Peruvian women: secondary analysis of national survey].

Rev Chilena Infectol 2020 Dec;37(6):719-727

Universidad Continental, Huancayo, Perú.

Background: Reproductive-age women are a vulnerable population for HIV infection. The relationship between knowledge and practices is not well described in a context where levels of knowledge, attitudes, and practices about HIV infection are inadequate.

Aim: To determine the association between knowledge and practices about HIV infection in Peruvian reproductive-age women. Read More

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December 2020

A latent profile analysis of romantic attachment anxiety and avoidance.

J Marital Fam Ther 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Sexology, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

We conducted latent profile analyses on community (n = 1663) and clinical (n = 575) samples to determine whether continuous scores of attachment anxiety and avoidance would lead to the identification of theoretically consistent and clinically useful profiles. We then compared these profiles according to gender, relationship status, psychological distress, and relationship satisfaction. Analysis on the community sample yielded four profiles: secure, preoccupied, dismissive, and fearful individuals; whereas, the clinical sample yielded three profiles: secure, preoccupied, and fearful individuals. Read More

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Evidence Collection and Analysis for Touch Deoxyribonucleic Acid in Groping and Sexual Assault Cases.

J Forensic Nurs 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Author Affiliations:Brigham Young University RTI International Utah Bureau of Forensic Services.

Abstract: Historically, evidence collection in sexual assault cases focused on obtaining foreign contributor bodily fluids through swab collection. With improvements in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis methods, DNA profiles can be developed from touch DNA and applied to sexual assault cases. Following a literature review on factors affecting touch DNA transfer, a groping case study with innovative evidence collection is presented to support the expansion of touch DNA evidence collection in sexual assault cases. Read More

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Qualitative Study of African-American Women's Intergenerational Dialogue for HIV Prevention.

Authors:
Gayle Robinson

West J Nurs Res 2021 May 14;43(5):409-415. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

College of Nursing, Seattle University, Seattle, WA, USA.

Despite the many established strategies designed to prevent Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transmission in the United States, African-American (AA) women are disproportionately affected by the virus. This descriptive qualitative study explored AA women's experiences of Intergenerational Dialogues (IGD) about HIV prevention. Study participants included 30 AA women representing four generational cohorts (the Silent Generation, Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Millennials). Read More

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Three-Dimensional Proteome-Wide Scale Screening for the 5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitor Finasteride: Identification of a Novel Off-Target.

J Med Chem 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Balzaretti 9, 20133 Milano, Italy.

Finasteride, a 5-alpha reductase (5α-R) inhibitor, is a widely used drug for treating androgen-dependent conditions. However, its use is associated with sexual, psychological, and physical complaints, suggesting that other mechanisms, in addition to 5α-R inhibition, may be involved. Here, a multidisciplinary approach has been used to identify potential finasteride off-target proteins. Read More

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 detected in placentas of 2 coronavirus disease 2019-positive asymptomatic pregnant women-case report.

AJOG Glob Rep 2021 Feb 27;1(1):100001. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Virology and Biotechnology Research, Gorgas Memorial Institute for Health Studies, Panama City, Republic of Panama (Ms Gaitán, Ms Chen-Germán, Ms Araúz, Saenz and Dr López-Vergès).

There is limited evidence regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in the placenta of pregnant women who tested positive, and if this could be a route for vertical transmission of the virus in utero. We present the cases of 2 pregnant women in their third trimester who were admitted for delivery by cesarean delivery and who, through universal screening, tested positive for coronavirus disease 2019. The maternal and fetal sides of the placenta were sectioned from both patients for viral analysis. Read More

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February 2021

Impact of screening on the prevalence and incidence of and its macrolide resistance in men who have sex with men living in Australia: A mathematical model.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Mar 3;33:100779. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Central Clinical School, Monash University, Victoria, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: (MG) causes a sexually transmitted infection (STI) with a rising rate of antimicrobial resistance. Currently, guidelines do not recommend screening asymptomatic men who have sex with men (MSM). We developed a mathematical model of MG transmission to examine the impact of various screening strategies on the incidence and prevalence of MG among MSM attending a sexual health clinic. Read More

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Intersecting Structural Oppression and Black Sexual Minority Men's Health.

Am J Prev Med 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Psychology, Hunter College of City University of New York, New York, New York; Health Psychology and Clinical Science Doctoral Program, The Graduate Center, City University of New York, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Introduction: Although evidence indicates that Black gay, bisexual, and other sexual minority men experience vast psychological and behavioral health inequities, most research has focused on individual rather than structural drivers of these inequities. This study examines the associations between structural racism and anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer policies and the psychological and behavioral health of Black and White sexual minority men.

Methods: Participants were an Internet-based U. Read More

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Social Media Activism and Convergence in Tweet Topics After the Initial #MeToo Movement for Two Distinct Groups of Twitter Users.

J Interpers Violence 2021 Apr 12:8862605211001481. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Online social media movements are now common and support cultural discussions on difficult health and social topics. The #MeToo movement, focusing on the pervasiveness of sexual assault and harassment, has been one of the largest and most influential online movements. Our study examines topics of conversation on Twitter by supporters of the #MeToo movement and by Twitter users who were uninvolved in the movement to explore the extent to which tweet topics for these two groups converge over time. Read More

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The co-occurrence of intimate partner violence exposure with other victimizations: A nationally representative survey of Chilean adolescents.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Apr 8;117:105046. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Departamento de Psicología, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Chile, Avenida Capitán Ignacio Carrera Pinto 1045, Ñuñoa, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address:

Background: Previous studies have found a high co-occurrence between Intimate Partner Violence exposure (IPVe) and other forms of victimization, such as physical and sexual abuse, yet little is known about this issue from community samples in Latin America or -in particular- Chile.

Objective: To examine the prevalence, sociodemographic correlates and co-occurrence of IPVe with other youth victimizations in Chile.

Participants And Setting: A secondary data analysis of the First Poly-victimization Survey in Children and Adolescents in Chile was conducted, which had 19,684 responses from 7 to 11 grade students attending publicly-funded, subsidized and independent schools in urban areas across the country. Read More

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Combined transcriptomic, proteomic and genomic analysis identifies reproductive-related proteins and potential modulators of female behaviors in Spodoptera litura.

Genomics 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Key Laboratory of Forest Disaster Warning and Control of Yunnan Province, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224, China. Electronic address:

The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, is a polyandrous moth with high reproductive ability. Sexual reproduction is a unique strategy for survival and reproduction of population in this species. However, to date available information about its reproductive genes is rare. Read More

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Morphological integration of the canine region within the hominine alveolar arch.

J Hum Evol 2021 Apr 7;154:102942. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institute of Human Origins, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287, USA; School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287, USA.

The early hominin record is characterized by numerous shifts in dental proportions (e.g., canine reduction and megadontia) linked to changes in diet and social behavior. Read More

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A novel tool to screen for treatments with clenbuterol in bovine: Identification of two hepatic markers by metabolomics investigation.

Food Chem 2021 Feb 23;353:129366. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Department of Chemistry, Legnaro (PD), Italy.

Surveillance of illegal use of growth promoters such as β-agonists in food producing animals rely on the detection of drug residues by LC-MS/MS. Screening strategies focusing on indirect physiological responses following administration of active compounds are promising approaches to strengthen existing targeted methods and ensure food safety. A metabolomics analysis based on LC-HRMS was carried out on liver extracts from bulls experimentally treated with clenbuterol combined with dexamethasone (n = 8) to mimic a potential anabolic practice, and control animals (n = 8). Read More

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February 2021

A genome-wide association study, supported by a new chromosome-level genome assembly, suggests sox2 as a main driver of the undifferentiatiated ZZ/ZW sex determination of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

Genomics 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Departament of Zoology, Genetics and Physical Anthropology, Faculty of Biology, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Understanding sex determination (SD) across taxa is a major challenge for evolutionary biology. The new genomic tools are paving the way to identify genomic features underlying SD in fish, a group frequently showing limited sex chromosome differentiation and high SD evolutionary turnover. Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a commercially important flatfish with an undifferentiated ZW/ZZ SD system and remarkable sexual dimorphism. Read More

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"I just keep quiet about it and act as if everything is alright" - The cascade from trauma to disengagement among adolescents living with HIV in western Kenya.

J Int AIDS Soc 2021 Apr;24(4):e25695

Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH), Eldoret, Kenya.

Introduction: There are approximately 1.7 million adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV, ages 10 to 19) globally, including 110,000 in Kenya. While ALHIV experience poor retention in care, limited data exist on factors underlying disengagement. Read More

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Limited sexual segregation in a dimorphic avian scavenger, the Andean condor.

Oecologia 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1630 Linden Dr., Madison, WI, 53706, USA.

Sexual segregation is widely reported among sexually dimorphic species and generally attributed to intraspecific competition. Prey diversity and human activities can reinforce niche segregation by increasing resource heterogeneity. Here, we explored trophic and spatial sexual segregation in the only avian scavenger that exhibits pronounced sexual size dimorphism (up to 50% difference in body mass) and a highly despotic social system, the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus). Read More

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Sequence analysis and ontogenetic expression patterns of cone opsin genes in the bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei).

J Hered 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL.

Sensory systems allow for the transfer of environmental stimuli into internal cues that can alter physiology and behaviour. Many studies of visual systems focus on opsins to compare spectral sensitivity among individuals, populations, and species living in different lighting environments. This requires an understanding of the cone opsins, which can be numerous. Read More

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Association Between Specific Childhood Adversities and Symptom Dimensions in People With Psychosis: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Schizophr Bull 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Despite the accepted link between childhood abuse and positive psychotic symptoms, findings between other adversities, such as neglect, and the remaining dimensions in people with psychosis have been inconsistent, with evidence not yet reviewed quantitatively. The aim of this study was to systematically examine quantitatively the association between broadly defined childhood adversity (CA), abuse (sexual/physical/emotional), and neglect (physical/emotional) subtypes, with positive, negative, depressive, manic, and disorganized dimensions in those with psychosis. A search was conducted across EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and Cochrane Libraries using search terms related to psychosis population, CA, and psychopathological dimensions. Read More

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Screening for HPV and dysplasia in transgender patients: Do we need it?

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Mar 31;260:177-182. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Introduction: Aim of this study was the evaluation of prevalence of HPV infection and resulting genital dysplasia to assess the necessity and reasonability of pap smears and HPV testing in transgender patients. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection and responsible for the majority of genital dysplasias and malignancies. However, few data exist about the prevalence of HPV and dysplasia in transgender people. Read More

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Transition from Pediatric to Adult Care for Transgender Youth: A Qualitative Study of Patient, Parent, and Provider Perspectives.

LGBT Health 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Children's Health Systems of Texas, Dallas, Texas, USA.

No information exists on the needs of transgender youth transitioning their gender-affirming health care from pediatric to adult settings. We obtained perspectives of transgender youth, their parents, and providers, and aimed to identify barriers and unmet needs during the transition of care. Five online focus groups were conducted between February and March 2019 with separate groups for transgender youth 13-17 and 18-21 years old; parents of transgender youth 13-17 and 18-21 years old; and gender-affirming health care providers. Read More

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Sexual Dimorphism in Hemispheric Processing of Faces in Humans: A Meta-Analysis of 817 Cases.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Neuro-Mi Center for Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20162 Milan, Italy.

A well-established neuroimaging literature predicts a right-sided asymmetry in the activation of face-devoted areas such as the fusiform gyrus (FG) and its resulting M/N170 response during face processing. However, the face-related response sometimes appears to be bihemispheric. A few studies have argued that bilaterality depended on the sex composition of the sample. Read More

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Attitudes Toward Intimate Partner Violence in Dyadic Perspective: Evidence From Sub-Saharan Africa.

Demography 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Sociology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Although intimate partner violence (IPV) is inherently a relational event shaped by couple-level factors, most empirical examinations of IPV-related attitudes have used individuals as the unit of analysis. We apply a dyadic perspective to the study of attitudes about the acceptability of IPV, harnessing couple-level data from 33 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, a region characterized by particularly high levels of both the incidence and acceptance of IPV. We document considerable geographic heterogeneity in the distribution of attitudinal concordance or discordance regarding the acceptability of IPV within couples, a descriptive finding that is overlooked by studies focused on individuals as the unit of analysis. Read More

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