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Symptom severity moderates the outcome of attention bias modification for depression: An exploratory study.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 May 5;138:528-534. Epub 2021 May 5.

Clinical Neuroscience Research Group, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Division of Psychiatry, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

A recent meta-analysis has questioned the relevance of attention bias modification (ABM) for depression outcomes. However, there might be patient characteristics not yet accounted for, that are relevant to the outcome. In the context of personalized treatment, the lack of moderator studies have limited the potential for matching ABM-treatment to individual patient characteristics. Read More

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High spatial resolution measurements of passive-sampler derived air concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the Campania region, Italy: Implications for source identification and risk analysis.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 29;286:117248. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Earth Sciences, Environment and Resources, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, 80125, Italy.

Because most relevant studies have used small sample sizes, to date, representative atmospheric monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on a regional scale has been very limited, which makes it difficult to precisely identify "hotspots" and possible pollution sources. In this study, an ultrahigh resolution monitoring technique was used to measure the atmospheric spatial variations in POP concentrations on a regional scale, throughout Campania, Italy. The occurrence of specific POPs-including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and phthalate esters (PAEs)-were investigated using polyurethane foam-based passive air samplers (PUF-PAS), which were deployed at 129 sites across the Campania Territory between April and July 2016. Read More

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Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in women with endometriosis.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 May 4;262:7-12. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Erlangen University Hospital, Erlangen, Germany; Friedrich Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Objective: This study aimed to provide an overview of the extent to which women with endometriosis are informed about, interested in, and make use of CAM, and to evaluate which of the methods are most often applied.

Study Design: A retrospective, two-center cohort study was conducted using a validated questionnaire among women with laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis at two urban teaching hospitals, certified as endometriosis centres.

Results: A total of 592 patients were included in the study and received the questionnaire; 114 (19. Read More

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Patterns of integrating palliative care into standard oncology in an early ESMO designated center: a 10-year experience.

ESMO Open 2021 May 10;6(3):100147. Epub 2021 May 10.

Oncological Palliative Medicine, Clinic Oncology/Hematology, Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Switzerland.

Background: Integration of specialist palliative care (PC) into standard oncology care is recommended. This study investigated how integration at the Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen (KSSG) was manifested 10 years after initial accreditation as a European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Designated Center (ESMO-DC) of Integrated Oncology and Palliative Care. Read More

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Metformin facilitates mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular nanovesicles release and optimizes therapeutic efficacy in intervertebral disc degeneration.

Biomaterials 2021 May 6;274:120850. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China. Electronic address:

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are extracellular nanovesicles that deliver diverse cargoes to the cell and participate in cell communication. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs)-derived EVs are considered a therapeutic approach in musculoskeletal degenerative diseases, including intervertebral disc degeneration. However, limited production yield and unstable quality have impeded the clinical application of EVs. Read More

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Fuzheng Jiedu Xiaoji formulation inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma progression in patients by targeting the AKT/CyclinD1/p21/p27 pathway.

Phytomedicine 2021 Apr 18;87:153575. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Center of Integrative Medicine, Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumor with limited treatment options. Conventional antitumor therapy combined with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to limit tumor progression has gradually become the focus of complementary and alternative therapies for HCC treatment. The Fuzheng Jiedu Xiaoji formulation (FZJDXJ) alleviates the clinical symptoms of patients and inhibits tumor progression, but its curative effect still requires extensive clinical research and mechanistic analysis. Read More

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Global sensitivity analysis informed model reduction and selection applied to a Valsalva maneuver model.

J Theor Biol 2021 May 10:110759. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC. Electronic address:

In this study, we develop a methodology for model reduction and selection informed by global sensitivity analysis (GSA) methods. We apply these techniques to a control model that takes systolic blood pressure and thoracic tissue pressure data as inputs and predicts heart rate in response to the Valsalva maneuver (VM). The study compares four GSA methods based on Sobol' indices (SIs) quantifying the parameter influence on the difference between the model output and the heart rate data. Read More

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Days Alive Out of Hospital in Heart Failure: Insights from the PARADIGM-HF and CHARM Trials.

Am Heart J 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Director, Division of Cardiology and Nephrology, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Background: An endpoint that has received some attention in recent cardiovascular trials is 'days alive and out of hospital' (DAOH). Percent DAOH is a natural extension of DAOH that adjusts for differences in length of follow-up. This endpoint measure incorporates mortality and morbidity together in a way that has the potential to give more insight regarding treatment effects compared to conventional time-to-event endpoints. Read More

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Racial and Ethnic Differences in Reconstructive Surgery for Apical Vaginal Prolapse.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Science, University of California San.

Background: There is limited literature identifying racial and ethnic health disparities among surgical modalities and outcomes in the field of urogynecology and specifically pelvic organ prolapse surgery.

Objective: To evaluate differences in surgical approach for apical vaginal prolapse and postoperative complications by race and ethnicity STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective cohort study of women undergoing surgical repair for apical vaginal prolapse between 2014 and 2017 using data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they underwent either a vaginal colpopexy or abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC). Read More

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Maternal Weight Gain and Pregnancy Outcomes in Twin Gestations.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lis Maternity Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel, affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Data on the optimal gestational weight gain (GWG) in twin pregnancies are limited. As a result, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) currently provides only provisional recommendations on GWG in this population.

Objective: To identify the optimal range of GWG in twin pregnancies and to estimate the association between inappropriate GWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Read More

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The effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapy in light versus heavier smokers.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

University of Toronto, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Toronto, ON.

Purpose: The prevalence of light smoking has increased in North America; however, research on the effectiveness of current treatments in this sub-population of smokers is limited. We compared quit outcomes between light (1-10 cigarettes per day (CPD)) versus heavier smokers (>10 CPD) enrolled in a treatment program at their primary care clinic.

Methods: This secondary analysis analyzed 45,087 participants (light smokers (n=9,861); heavier smokers (n=35,226)) enrolled in a smoking cessation program between April 2016 and March 2020. Read More

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Psychosocial effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on university students: Understanding apprehensions through a phenomenographic approach.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251641. Epub 2021 May 13.

University of Okara, Okara, Pakistan.

Limited evidence exists to help understand the experiences of university students in relation to the long-term lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic. For that reason, we conducted a study using a phenomenographic approach in order to understand how university students perceive COVID-19 and the associated lockdown. Data were collected from 25 students in Pakistan. Read More

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Risk factors and protective factors of depression in older people 65+. A systematic review.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251326. Epub 2021 May 13.

Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Social Medicine, Occupational Health and Public Health, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Objectives: Identifying risk factors of depression can provide a better understanding of the disorder in older people. However, to minimize bias due to the influence of confounders and to detect reverse influence, a focus on longitudinal studies using multivariate analysis is required.

Design: A systematic literature search was conducted by searching the databases MEDLINE, Cochrane, PsycINFO and Web of Science for all relevant articles published from January 2000 to the end of March 2020. Read More

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Predictive factors of venous recanalization in upper-extremity vein thrombosis.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251269. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Internal Medicine and Vascular Medicine, CHU de Nantes, Nantes, France.

Background: Upper extremity venous thrombosis (UEVT) represents about 10% of venous thrombo-embolic disease. This is mainly explained by the increasing use of central venous line, for oncologic or nutritional care. The factors associated with venous recanalization are not known. Read More

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Tracking conflict and emotions with a computational qualitative discourse analytic support approach.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251186. Epub 2021 May 13.

Digital Media Research Centre, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.

Accurate inferences of the emotional state of conversation participants can be critical in shaping analysis and interpretation of conversational exchanges. In qualitative analyses of discourse, most labelling of the perceived emotional state of conversation participants is performed by hand, and is limited to selected moments where an analyst may believe that emotional information is valuable for interpretation. This reliance on manual labelling processes can have implications for repeatability and objectivity, both in terms of accuracy, but also in terms of changes in emotional state that might go unnoticed. Read More

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Correlation between the immuno-virological response and the nutritional profile of treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients in the East region of Cameroon.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0229550. Epub 2021 May 13.

Chantal BIYA International Reference Centre for Research on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Management (CIRCB), Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Background: HIV management remains concerning and even more challenging in the frame of comorbidities like malnutrition that favors disease progression and mortality in resource-limited settings (RLS).

Objective: To describe the nutritional parameters of antiretroviral therapy (ART) recipients (without nutritional support) with respect to CD4 count and virological failure.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from October to December 2018 among 146 consenting participants enrolled in two health facilities of the East-Region of Cameroon. Read More

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Risk perception of the pre-distribution of stable iodine to guardians of children living around the Genkai Nuclear Power Plant, Saga Prefecture, Japan.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0250570. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Global Health, Medicine and Welfare, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.

Iodine thyroid blocking (ITB) is effective for preventing childhood thyroid cancer when radioactive iodine is released into the environment during a nuclear power plant accident. Japan employs the pre-distribution of stable iodine (PDSI) to residents living near nuclear power plants; however, the number of residents who have actually received stable iodine to date remains limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the profile of guardians of children living around the Genkai Nuclear Power Plant (GNPP) in Japan. Read More

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RNA editing at a limited number of sites is sufficient to prevent MDA5 activation in the mouse brain.

PLoS Genet 2021 May 13;17(5):e1009516. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of RNA Biology and Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Japan.

Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1), an enzyme responsible for adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing, is composed of two isoforms: nuclear p110 and cytoplasmic p150. Deletion of Adar1 or Adar1 p150 genes in mice results in embryonic lethality with overexpression of interferon-stimulating genes (ISGs), caused by the aberrant recognition of unedited endogenous transcripts by melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5). However, among numerous RNA editing sites, how many RNA sites require editing, especially by ADAR1 p150, to avoid MDA5 activation and whether ADAR1 p110 contributes to this function remains elusive. Read More

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Intraindividual dynamics between alliance and symptom severity in long-term psychotherapy: Why time matters.

J Couns Psychol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of General Internal Medicine and Psychosomatics.

The association between alliance and therapy outcome is one of the most investigated factors in psychotherapy research. However, even studies using advanced methods estimate effects over a specific time period (interval) between measurement occasions. Thus, it remains unknown how the magnitude and direction of effects depend on the considered time interval, resulting in limited comparability across studies. Read More

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Common Reference-Based Tandem Mass Tag Multiplexing for the Relative Quantification of Peptides: Design and Application to Degradome Analysis of Diphtheria Toxoid.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Intravacc, Institute for Translational Vaccinology, 3721 MA Bilthoven, The Netherlands.

Currently, animal tests are being used to confirm the potency and lack of toxicity of toxoid vaccines. In a consistency approach, animal tests could be replaced if production consistency (compared to known good products) can be proven in a panel of in vitro assays. By mimicking the in vivo antigen processing in a simplified in vitro approach, it may be possible to distinguish aberrant products from good products. Read More

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Factors associated with COVID-19 in people with Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur J Neurol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Cognitive neurology center, Instituto Peruano de Neurociencias, Lima, Perú.

Background: There is a debate about whether there is an increased risk of COVID-19 infection in people with Parkinson's disease (PD), possibly due to associated factors. This study aimed to systematically review the factors associated with COVID-19 in people with PD.

Methods: The search was carried out in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science until November 2020 (updated until April 1, 2021). Read More

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Echocardiographic parameters associated with in-hospital adverse outcomes in patients with Takotsubo syndrome.

Echocardiography 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Division of Cardiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

Introduction: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is an acute heart failure syndrome that leads to significant morbidity and mortality. We sought to evaluate the association of cardiac mechanics on presentation with in-hospital adverse outcomes in patients with apical TTS.

Methods: We retrospectively identified 468 patients with TTS based on ICD-9/10 codes between 2006 and 2017. Read More

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Simulating longitudinal data from marginal structural models using the additive hazard model.

Biom J 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Medical Statistics, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Observational longitudinal data on treatments and covariates are increasingly used to investigate treatment effects, but are often subject to time-dependent confounding. Marginal structural models (MSMs), estimated using inverse probability of treatment weighting or the g-formula, are popular for handling this problem. With increasing development of advanced causal inference methods, it is important to be able to assess their performance in different scenarios to guide their application. Read More

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Impaired psychomotor vigilance associated with sleep-disordered breathing in women working in the care of older adults in Japan.

Sleep Breath 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Public Health, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8421, Japan.

Purpose: With a rapidly aging society, there is increasing interest in the health of female workers in the field of care services for older adults due to increasing demands to maintain 24-h care and to support older adults without errors or accidents. Therefore, the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and sustained attention in women caring for older adults in Japan.

Methods: The study was conducted in women aged 18-67 years old working in care service facilities for older adults in Japan. Read More

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Liquid Biopsy in Breast Cancer: Circulating Tumor Cells and Circulating Tumor DNA.

Authors:
Tae-Kyung Yoo

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1187:337-361

Department of Surgery, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Cancer is associated with gene mutations, and the analysis of tumor-associated mutations is increasingly used for diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment purposes. These molecular landscapes of solid tumors are currently obtained from surgical or biopsy specimens. However, during cancer progression and treatment, selective pressures lead to additional genetic changes as tumors acquire drug resistance. Read More

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January 2021

Healthcare for the Homeless (HCH) Projects and Medicaid Expansion.

J Community Health 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Center for Public Policy and Health, College of Public Health, Kent State University, 800 Hilltop Drive, Kent, OH, 44242, USA.

Medicaid expansion was ruled optional in 2012 by the Supreme Court, which allowed some states to adopt it while others did not. This study examines the differences in the percent uninsured, healthcare utilization by service type, and clinical quality of care measures at HCH (Healthcare for the Homeless) projects between expansion and non-expansion states. An exploratory state-level retrospective analysis of annual Uniform Data System data limited to HCHs from 2012 to 2019 from 50 states plus Washington DC is presented. Read More

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A seven week observational analysis of clinical activities in a North Italian orthopaedic hospital during the second wave of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: far from usual volumes, but different from the first wave.

Int Orthop 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Laboratory of Experimental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: We previously described the radical changes occurred in an orthopaedic hospital in Milan (Italy) during the first SARS-CoV-2 pandemic outbreak. Currently, during the second wave, the situation is still far from normality. Here we describe the changes that took place, and are still ongoing, in the clinical practice. Read More

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Comparison of the Quality of Chronic Disease Management Between Adults With and Without Dementia.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 May 3;4(5):e219622. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Health Policy and Management, UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles), Fielding School of Public Health.

Importance: Adults with dementia may experience poorer quality of chronic disease management because of the difficulty in reporting symptoms and engaging in shared decision-making associated with cognitive impairment.

Objective: To compare the quality of chronic disease management received by adults with and without dementia.

Design, Setting, And Participants: For this cross-sectional study, nationally representative data from noninstitutionalized patients 65 years or older were obtained from the 2002-2015 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Read More

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Effects on smoking behavior of switching menthol smokers to non-menthol cigarettes.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

Introduction: Bans of menthol characterizing flavor in cigarettes have been implemented in some localities and have been proposed more broadly. One proposed benefit of such a ban is to increase cessation rates among current menthol smokers. There is currently relatively limited data regarding how smoking behavior changes if menthol smokers switch to non-menthol cigarettes. Read More

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Efficacy and Safety of Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brainstem Metastases: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

JAMA Oncol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco.

Importance: Owing to the proximity to critical neurologic structures, treatment options for brainstem metastases (BSM) are limited, and BSM growth can cause acute morbidity or death. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is the only local therapy for BSM, but efficacy and safety of this approach are incompletely understood because patients with BSM are excluded from most clinical trials.

Objective: To perform a systematic review and comparative meta-analysis of SRS studies for BSM in the context of prospective trials of SRS or molecular therapy for nonbrainstem brain metastases (BM). Read More

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