1,314,655 results match your criteria analysis levels


Changes in drug use in European cities during early COVID-19 lockdowns - A snapshot from wastewater analysis.

Environ Int 2021 Mar 26;153:106540. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Environmental and Public Health Analytical Chemistry, Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Castellón, Spain; Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

The COVID-19 outbreak has forced countries to introduce severe restrictive measures to contain its spread. In particular, physical distancing and restriction of movement have had important consequences on human behaviour and potentially also on illicit drug use and supply. These changes can be associated with additional risks for users, in particular due to reduced access to prevention and harm reduction activities. Read More

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Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects in China.

Environ Int 2021 Apr 7;153:106548. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China. Electronic address:

Background: Evidence of maternal exposure to ambient air pollution on congenital heart defects (CHD) has been mixed and are still relatively limited in developing countries. We aimed to investigate the association between maternal exposure to air pollution and CHD in China.

Method: This longitudinal, population-based, case-control study consecutively recruited fetuses with CHD and healthy volunteers from 21 cities, Southern China, between January 2006 and December 2016. Read More

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Synthesis and biological evaluation of 2-(4-alkoxy-3-cyano)phenylpyrimidine derivatives with 4-amino or 4-hydroxy as a pharmacophore element binding with xanthine oxidase active site.

Bioorg Med Chem 2021 Apr 2;38:116117. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Key Laboratory of Structure-Based Drugs Design & Discovery of Ministry of Education, School of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103 Culture Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016, China. Electronic address:

Xanthine oxidase is the rate-limiting enzyme critical for the synthesis of uric acid, and therefore xanthine oxidase inhibitors are considered as one of the promising therapies for hyperuricemia and gout. In our previous study, series of 2-(4-alkoxy-3-cyano)phenyl-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyrimidine-5-carboxylic acids and 2-(4-alkoxy-3-cyano)phenyl-6-imino-1,6-dihydropyrimidine-5-carboxylic acids were synthesized that presented excellent in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory potency. Interestingly, molecular docking studies revealed that the interaction behavior of these compounds with xanthine oxidase was changed after the conversion from a hydroxy group to amine group. Read More

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Analysis of pharmaceutical products and dietary supplements seized from the black market among bodybuilders.

Forensic Sci Int 2021 Mar 30;322:110771. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Laboratoire de Pharmacologie - Toxicologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Raymond Poincaré, FHU Sepsis, AP-HP, 104 boulevard Raymond Poincaré, 92380 Garches, France; Plateforme de Spectrométrie de Masse MassSpecLab, INSERM UMR 1173, UFR des Sciences de la Santé Simone Veil, Université Paris-Saclay (Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines), 2 avenue de la source de la Bièvre, 78180 Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France. Electronic address:

Substandard/counterfeit drugs are a growing global problem. According to the World Health Organisation, counterfeit medicines are medicines that are mislabelled deliberately and fraudulently regarding their identity and/or source. In high income countries, drugs seized are mainly represented by performance and image enhancing drugs (PIEDs). Read More

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We need to do better: A systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy of restless legs syndrome screening instruments.

Sleep Med Rev 2021 Mar 13;58:101461. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Departments of Psychiatry and Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of screening instruments for restless legs syndrome (RLS) and reports sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV). Searches for primary studies were conducted in electronic databases. Of the 1541 citations identified, 52 were included in the meta-analysis. Read More

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Prevalence of at-risk hyperandrogenism by age and race/ethnicity among females in the United States using NHANES III.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Mar 26;260:189-197. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Office of Research Resources, Biostatistics and Epidemiology Consulting Lab, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, El Paso, Texas, USA; Division of Biostatistics & Epidemiology, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, El Paso, Texas, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Hyperandrogenism in females leads to multiple endocrine and metabolic disorders including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) that yields adverse health outcomes across all ages. We sought to estimate the prevalence of hyperandrogenemia and at-risk hyperandrogenism among the US females of different age groups, racial/ethnic, and metabolic characteristics.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective population-based cross-sectional study of females 6 years or older having serum testosterone measures using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2013-2016 was conducted. Read More

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Recurrence of disease activity after fingolimod discontinuation in older patients previously stable on treatment.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Mar 21;51:102918. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Division of Neurology, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Discontinuing fingolimod (FTY) in older patients is a growing concern with little evidence supporting the decision to pursue treatment and reasonable doubt for disease reactivation after withdrawal.

Objective: To estimate the incidence of recurrence of disease activity (RDA) and rebound after FTY withdrawal in patients older than 50 years.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of all MS patients in our clinic who discontinued FTY after at least 6 months of treatment, according to disease activity on FTY and age at discontinuation. Read More

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Three-dimensional heterogeneity analysis of climate aid's carbon reduction effect.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 7;289:112524. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Economics, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430070, PR China.

Exploring the effectiveness of climate aid is crucial to distribute funds scientifically and maximize its impact. A body of related literature has estimated the impact of international climate aid on carbon emissions. However, these studies did not adequately consider the multi-dimensional heterogeneity of climate aid's carbon reduction effect. Read More

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Effects of polyethylene microplastics on the microbiome and metabolism in larval zebrafish.

Environ Pollut 2021 Mar 31;282:117039. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310032, China. Electronic address:

Various microplastics (MPs) are found in the environment and organisms. MP residues in organisms can affect health; however, their impacts on metabolism in aquatic organisms remain unclear. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to polyethylene MPs with sizes ranging from 1 to 4 μm at concentrations of 0, 10, 100, and 1000 μg/L for 7 days. Read More

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Identification of inference fallacies in solid waste generation estimations of developing countries. A case-study in Panama.

Waste Manag 2021 Apr 7;126:454-465. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain; Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Barcelona, Spain.

The absence of sound sampling procedures and statistical analyses to estimate solid waste generation in many developing countries has resulted in incomplete historical records of waste quantity and composition. Data is often arbitrarily aggregated or disaggregated as a function of waste generators to obtain results at the desired spatial level of analysis. Inference fallacies arising from the generalization or individualization of results are almost never considered. Read More

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Exploring unknown per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the German environment - The total oxidizable precursor assay as helpful tool in research and regulation.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 29;782:146825. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

German Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt), 06813 Dessau-Rosslau, Germany.

Limnetic, marine and soil samples of the German environmental specimen bank (ESB) were analyzed for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) using target analysis and a modified total oxidizable precursor (TOP) assay (direct TOP assay (dTOP)) that works without prior extraction. Target analysis determined ∑PFAS concentrations in bream livers of 8.7-282 μg kg wet weight (ww) in 2019, with highest contaminations in the Rhine and lower Elbe. Read More

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Pre and postnatal exposure to mercury and respiratory health in preschool children from the Spanish INMA Birth Cohort Study.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 20;782:146654. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia, Spain; Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Av. Monforte de Lemos, 3-5. Pabellón 11, 28029 Madrid, Spain.

Effects of mercury on maturing immune system have been reported, however the association with respiratory and allergy problems during infancy remains unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between pre and postnatal mercury exposure and respiratory and allergy problems among preschool children and to examine the role of potential modifying factors. Study subjects were children participant in Spanish Childhood and Environment Project (INMA, 2003-2008). Read More

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Review of carbon leakage under regionally differentiated climate policies.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 27;782:146765. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China; School of Management and Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China; Beijing Key Lab of Energy Economics and Environmental Management, Beijing 100081, China.

Despite the increasing challenges of coping with global climate change, current climate policy is still implemented unilaterally at national and subnational levels, with different forms and intensities in both time and space dimensions. Such regionally differentiated climate policies inevitably cause carbon leakage phenomenon, that is, reduced carbon emissions in abating areas may be offset to some extent by increased carbon emissions in non-abating areas. The occurrence of carbon leakage could undermine the environmental effectiveness of implemented climate policies and cause extra emission reduction costs. Read More

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Robust antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with Curcumin-Poly (Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid) nanoparticles against COVID-19: A preliminary in vitro study in Vero cell line as a model.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Apr 7:102286. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Fellowship in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: In this study, the ability of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as a treatment approach and adjuvant therapy using Curcumin-Poly (Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid) nanoparticles (Cur@PLGA-NPs) to inactivate Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in plasma was investigated. Furthermore, to verify whether the quality requirement of aPDT-treated plasma is acceptable, the differences of the levels of clotting factors, total plasma proteins, and anti-A and/or anti-B antibodies titrations in plasma of patient before and after aPDT treatment were investigated.

Materials And Methods: Cur@PLGA-NPs was synthesized using Electrospinning process and characterized by different analysis including Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy assays. Read More

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Anti-inflammatory activity of the Tongmai Yangxin Pill in the treatment of Coronary Heart Disease is associated with Estrogen Receptor and NF-κB signaling pathway.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 7:114106. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Integrative Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, 301617, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The Tongmai Yangxin Pill (TMYX) is a patented traditional Chinese medicine originating from two classic prescriptions, Zhigancao Decoction and Shenmai Yin, which composed of 11 Chinese medicinal herbs: Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaertn.) DC., Spatholobus suberectus Dunn, Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb. Read More

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Changes in redox plasma proteome of Pon1-/- mice are exacerbated by a hyperhomocysteinemic diet.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Life Sciences, 60-632 Poznań, Poland;; Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Rutgers University-New Jersey Medical School, International Center for Public Health, Newark, NJ, USA. Electronic address:

High-density lipoprotein (HDL), in addition to promoting reverse cholesterol transport, possesses anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic activities, which are thought to be promoted by paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an HDL-associated enzyme. Reduced levels of PON1 are associated with increased oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease both in humans and Pon1 mice. However, molecular basis of these associations are not fully understood. Read More

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Brain morphology is differentially impacted by peripheral cytokines in schizophrenia-spectrum disorder.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, Department of Psychiatry, The University of Melbourne and Melbourne Health; Department of Psychiatry, The University of Melbourne; Centre for Mental Health, Faculty of Health, Arts and Design, School of Health Sciences, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia.

Deficits in brain morphology are one of the most widely replicated neuropathological features in schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (SSD), although their biological underpinnings remain unclear. Despite the existence of hypotheses by which peripheral inflammation may impact brain structure, few studies have examined this relationship in SSD. This study aimed to establish the relationship between peripheral markers of inflammation and brain morphology and determine whether such relationships differed across healthy controls and individuals with first episode psychosis (FEP) and chronic schizophrenia. Read More

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Pharmacological inhibition of HSP90 radiosensitizes HNSCC xenograft by inhibition of DNA damage repair, nucleotide metabolism, and radiation-induced tumor vasculogenesis.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Radiation Biology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Electronic address:

Purpose: Recent pre-clinical studies suggest combining the HSP90 inhibitor AT13387 (Onalespib) with radiation (IR) against colon cancer and HNSCC. These studies emphasized that AT13387 down-regulates HSP90 client proteins involved in oncogenic signaling and DNA repair mechanisms as major drivers of enhanced radiosensitivity. Given the large array of client proteins HSP90 directs, we hypothesized that other key proteins or signaling pathways may be inhibited by AT13387 and contribute to enhanced radiosensitivity. Read More

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Upregulation of histone acetylation reverses organic anion transporter 2 repression and enhances 5-fluorouracil sensitivity in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Apr 7:114546. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institute of Drug Metabolism and Pharmaceutical Analysis; Cancer Center of Zhejiang University, Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Anti-Cancer Drug Research, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world. The failure of chemotherapy in HCC patients is partly due to inadequate intracellular drug accumulation caused by abnormally expressed drug transporters. Human organic anion transporter 2 (hOAT2), a transporter mainly expressed in liver and kidney, is responsible for uptake of various antineoplastic drugs such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Read More

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The long-term genetic stability and individual specificity of the human gut microbiome.

Cell 2021 Apr 4. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Department of Genetics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen 9713GZ, the Netherlands; Department of Pediatrics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen 9713GZ, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

By following up the gut microbiome, 51 human phenotypes and plasma levels of 1,183 metabolites in 338 individuals after 4 years, we characterize microbial stability and variation in relation to host physiology. Using these individual-specific and temporally stable microbial profiles, including bacterial SNPs and structural variations, we develop a microbial fingerprinting method that shows up to 85% accuracy in classifying metagenomic samples taken 4 years apart. Application of our fingerprinting method to the independent HMP cohort results in 95% accuracy for samples taken 1 year apart. Read More

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Neural activity during cognitive reappraisal in chronic low back pain: a preliminary study.

Scand J Pain 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC3004, Australia.

Objectives: Chronic pain patients often report higher levels of negative emotions, suggesting reduced ability to regulate emotions effectively, however, little is known of the underlying neural cognitive mechanisms. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore brain activity and connectivity during cognitive reappraisal in chronic low back pain (CLBP).

Methods: This study recruited 24 female participants; 12 with CLBP and 12 healthy controls. Read More

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Navigating dietary advice for multiple sclerosis.

Health Expect 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

School of Population Health, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease with no known cure. Numerous diets are promoted to reduce symptoms or even cure MS, despite insufficient evidence for any therapeutic diet. There are few qualitative studies exploring the experiences of people with MS in relation to diet, and no use of theory to explain the findings. Read More

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Sleep symptomatology is associated with greater subjective cognitive concerns: Findings from the community-based Healthy Brain Project.

Sleep 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

The Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Study Objectives: To examine if sleep symptomatology was associated with subjective cognitive concerns or objective cognitive performance in a dementia-free community-based sample.

Methods: A total of 1421 middle-aged participants (mean±standard deviation = 57±7; 77% female) from the Healthy Brain Project completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) to measure sleep quality, insomnia symptom severity, and daytime sleepiness, respectively. Participants were classified as having no sleep symptomatology (normal scores on each sleep measure), moderate sleep symptomatology (abnormal scores on one sleep measure), or high sleep symptomatology (abnormal scores on at least two sleep measures), using established cut-off values. Read More

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No causal effects of plasma homocysteine levels on the risk of coronary heart disease or acute myocardial infarction: A Mendelian randomization study.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 Apr;28(2):227-234

Clinical Laboratory of The Affiliated Cancer Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, China.

Background: Although many observational studies have shown an association between plasma homocysteine levels and cardiovascular diseases, controversy remains. In this study, we estimated the role of increased plasma homocysteine levels on the etiology of coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarction.

Methods: A two-sample Mendelian randomization study on disease was conducted, i. Read More

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Prognostic value of total testosterone levels in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 Apr;28(2):235-242

Cardiology Division, Geneva University Hospitals, Switzerland.

Background: Endogenous testosterone levels decrease in men with aging. Controversies persist regarding the screening and treatment of low testosterone levels in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS).

Methods And Results: Total serum testosterone levels were measured in 1054 men hospitalized for ACS that were part of a Swiss prospective cohort. Read More

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First but not second postoperative day growth hormone assessments as early predictive tests for long-term acromegaly persistence.

J Endocrinol Invest 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Corso Dogliotti 14, 10126, Turin, Italy.

Purpose: Postoperative assessment of acromegaly activity is typically performed at least 3 months after neurosurgery (NS). Few studies have evaluated the use of early postoperative growth hormone (GH) levels as a test to predict short- and long-term remission of acromegaly. Our objective was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of serum random GH on a postoperative day one (D1-rGH) and two (D2-rGH), particularly in predicting long-term disease persistence. Read More

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Plasma levels of extracellular vesicles and the risk of post-operative pulmonary embolism in patients with primary brain tumors: a prospective study.

J Thromb Thrombolysis 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

A. Bianchi Bonomi Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Via Pace 9, 20122, Milan, Italy.

Primary brain tumors are associated with an increased risk of pulmonary embolism (PE), particularly in the early post-operative period. The pathophysiological mechanisms of PE are poorly understood. This study aims to describe prospectively extracellular vesicles (EVs) levels and investigate whether or not their variations allow to identify patients at increased risk of post-operative PE. Read More

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Circulating miR-21-5p and miR-126-3p: diagnostic, prognostic value, and multivariate analysis in non-small-cell lung cancer.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Biochemistry Division of Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt.

One of the most recent of tumor molecular characterization approaches is the microRNA (miR) expression profile. No single marker is sufficiently accurate for clinical use. Numerous biomarkers panels were created for three main purposes: tumor subtype, classification and, early detection, and prediction of tumor responses to treatment and prognosis of patients. Read More

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Ruthenium (II)/allopurinol complex inhibits breast cancer progression via multiple targets.

J Biol Inorg Chem 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Laboratório de Genética Molecular E Citogenética Humana, sala 213, Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas I, Campus Samambaia, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Avenida Esperança, s/n, Cx Postal: 131, Goiânia, Goiás, CEP 74690-900, Brazil.

Metal complexes based on ruthenium have established excellent activity with less toxicity and great selectivity for tumor cells. This study aims to assess the anticancer potential of ruthenium(II)/allopurinol complexes called [RuCl(allo)(PPh)] (1) and [RuCl(allo)(dppb)] (2), where allo means allopurinol, PPh is triphenylphosphine and dppb, 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane. The complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis and NMR spectroscopies, cyclic voltammetry, molar conductance measurements, as well as the X-ray crystallographic analysis of complex 2. Read More

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Limited sexual segregation in a dimorphic avian scavenger, the Andean condor.

Oecologia 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1630 Linden Dr., Madison, WI, 53706, USA.

Sexual segregation is widely reported among sexually dimorphic species and generally attributed to intraspecific competition. Prey diversity and human activities can reinforce niche segregation by increasing resource heterogeneity. Here, we explored trophic and spatial sexual segregation in the only avian scavenger that exhibits pronounced sexual size dimorphism (up to 50% difference in body mass) and a highly despotic social system, the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus). Read More

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