34,335 results match your criteria analysis discrete

Mass-Like Fat at the Medial Midfoot: A Common Pseudolesion.

Indian J Radiol Imaging 2021 Apr 28;31(2):245-251. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Radiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, United States.

Fatty masses are common and may be encountered in the foot and ankle. In some cases, normal subcutaneous fat may be mistaken for a discrete mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate the common finding of prominent subcutaneous fat at the medial midfoot resembling a lipoma and to determine the prevalence of this pseudolesion by applying a series of potential size cutoff criteria. Read More

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What we talk about when we talk about colors.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 09;118(39)

MindCORE, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104;

Names for colors vary widely across languages, but color categories are remarkably consistent. Shared mechanisms of color perception help explain consistent partitions of visible light into discrete color vocabularies. But the mappings from colors to words are not identical across languages, which may reflect communicative needs-how often speakers must refer to objects of different color. Read More

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September 2021

Association Between Cognitive Trajectories and Disability Progression in Patients With Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

Neurology 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Neuroscience, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia

Background And Objectives: Longitudinal cognitive trajectories in multiple sclerosis are heterogenous and difficult to measure. We aimed to identify discrete longitudinal reaction time trajectories in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis using a computerized cognitive battery and assess the association between trajectories of reaction time and disability progression.

Methods: All participants serially completed computerized reaction time tasks measuring psychomotor speed, visual attention and working memory. Read More

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September 2021

Valuing child and adolescent health: a qualitative study on different perspectives and priorities taken by the adult general public.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2021 Sep 23;19(1):222. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, Regent Court, 30 Regent Street, Sheffield, S1 4DA, UK.

Background: Quantitative health preference research has shown that different "perspectives", defined here as who is imagined to be experiencing particular health states, impact stated preferences. This qualitative project aimed to elucidate this phenomenon, within the context of adults' valuation of child and adolescent health states.

Methods: Six focus groups with 30 members of the UK adult public were conducted between December 2019 and February 2020 and analysed using framework analysis. Read More

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September 2021

Using integrated modeling to support the global eradication of vaccine-preventable diseases.

Syst Dyn Rev 2018 Jun;34(1-2):78-120

Kid Risk, Inc., Orlando, FL, USA.

The long-term management of global disease eradication initiatives involves numerous inherently dynamic processes, health and economic trade-offs, significant uncertainty and variability, rare events with big consequences, complex and inter-related decisions, and a requirement for cooperation among a large number of stakeholders. Over the course of more than 16 years of collaborative modeling efforts to support the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, we developed increasingly complex integrated system dynamics models that combined numerous analytical approaches, including differential equation-based modeling, risk and decision analysis, discrete-event and individual-based simulation, probabilistic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, health economics, and optimization. We discuss the central role of systems thinking and system dynamics in the overall effort and the value of integrating different modeling approaches to appropriately address the trade-offs involved in some of the policy questions. Read More

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Three-dimensional electronic microfliers inspired by wind-dispersed seeds.

Nature 2021 Sep 22;597(7877):503-510. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Organic Materials and Fiber Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Large, distributed collections of miniaturized, wireless electronic devices may form the basis of future systems for environmental monitoring, population surveillance, disease management and other applications that demand coverage over expansive spatial scales. Aerial schemes to distribute the components for such networks are required, and-inspired by wind-dispersed seeds-we examined passive structures designed for controlled, unpowered flight across natural environments or city settings. Techniques in mechanically guided assembly of three-dimensional (3D) mesostructures provide access to miniature, 3D fliers optimized for such purposes, in processes that align with the most sophisticated production techniques for electronic, optoelectronic, microfluidic and microelectromechanical technologies. Read More

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September 2021

Competitive coexistence of seasonal breeders.

J Math Biol 2021 Sep 22;83(4):38. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, and Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N6N5, Canada.

Many species are annual breeders who, between reproductive events, consume resources and may die. Their resource often reproduces continuously or has short, overlapping generations. An accurate model for such life cycles needs to represent both, the discrete- and the continuous-time processes in the community. Read More

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September 2021

Navigating into the Chemical Space of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors by Artificial Intelligence and Cheminformatics Approach.

ACS Omega 2021 Sep 1;6(36):23399-23411. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Analysis, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, AIMS Health Sciences Campus, Kochi 682041, India.

The monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzyme class is a prevalent target for many neurodegenerative and depressive disorders. Even though scrutinization of many promising drugs for the treatment of MAO inhibition has been carried out in recent times, a conclusive structural requirement for potent activity needs to be developed. Numerous approaches have been examined for the identification of structural features for potent MAO inhibitors (MAOIs) that mainly involve an array of computational studies, synthetic approaches, and biological evaluation. Read More

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September 2021

Ischiofemoral impingement: the evolutionary cost of pelvic obstetric adaptation.

J Hip Preserv Surg 2020 Dec 8;7(4):677-687. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Human Genetics, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

The risk for ischiofemoral impingement has been mainly related to a reduced ischiofemoral distance and morphological variance of the femur. From an evolutionary perspective, however, there are strong arguments that the condition may also be related to sexual dimorphism of the pelvis. We, therefore, investigated the impact of gender-specific differences in anatomy of the ischiofemoral space on the ischiofemoral clearance, during static and dynamic conditions A random sampling Monte-Carlo experiment was performed to investigate ischiofemoral clearance during stance and gait in a large ( = 40 000) virtual study population, while using gender-specific kinematics. Read More

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December 2020

Stabilization of Discrete-Time Stochastic Delayed Neural Networks by Intermittent Control.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Sep 21;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

This article investigates the stabilization of discrete-time stochastic neural networks with time-varying delay via aperiodically intermittent control (AIC). A comprehensive analysis of the stabilization of discrete-time delayed systems via AIC is provided, where the Lyapunov function method and the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional method are investigated, respectively. Then, three stabilization criteria are given, which extend previous works from the continuous-time framework to the discrete-time one, and the average activation time ratio (AATR) of AIC is estimated. Read More

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September 2021

A novel immune subtype classification of ER-positive, PR-negative and HER2-negative breast cancer based on the genomic and transcriptomic landscape.

J Transl Med 2021 Sep 20;19(1):398. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, 277 West Yanta Road, 710061, Xi'an, People's Republic of China.

Background: The diversity and plasticity behind ER+/PR-/HER2- breast cancer have not been widely explored. It is essential to identify heterogeneous microenvironment phenotypes and investigate specific genomic events driving the formation of these phenotypes.

Methods: Based on the immune-related gene expression profiles of 411 ER+/PR-/HER2- breast cancers in the METABRIC cohort, we used consensus clustering to identify heterogeneous immune subtypes and assessed their reproducibility in an independent meta-cohort including 135 patients collected from GEO database. Read More

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September 2021

Prevalence of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) in a paediatric italian population: An epidemiological study.

Eur J Paediatr Dent 2021 Sep;22(3):189-198

Paediatric Department, ISI (Istituto Stomatologico Italiano), Milano, Italy.

Aim: The present work aims to evaluate, through an epidemiological study, the prevalence of Early Childhood Caries in an Italian paediatric population, aged up to 71 months, evaluating some determinants that will be illustrated in this study in order to adopt preventive care and intervene as early as possible to limit the development of this disease.

Methods: The sample consisted of 76 children aged up to 71 months who were examined at the PAediatric Dentistry Clinic of the University of l'Aquila. Parents were informed of the research that was taking place. Read More

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September 2021

Biotypic classification of facial profiles using discrete cosine transforms on lateral radiographs.

Arch Oral Biol 2021 Aug 27;131:105249. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

University of Pernambuco, Pernambuco Dental School, Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Traumatology, Recife, PE 50100-130, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of the study was to use discrete cosine transforms to graph soft tissue curves in lateral cephalometric radiographs and, with the obtained mathematical values, to group these curves by both traditional biotypes and cluster systems, in order to evaluate discriminatory capacity in terms of accuracy.

Design: A sample of 625 lateral radiographs of adult patients (319 women and 306 men) was classified by facial biotype based on the ANB angle and mandibular plane angle. The curves of the facial profile were digitized with 50 equidistant points and discrete cosine transform was applied to analyze these curves mathematically for the determination of the accuracy of the classification of traditional biotypes. Read More

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Bibliometric analysis of research reports: IMSS Southern Research Forum.

Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2020 ;58(4):458-467

Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Órgano de Operación Administrativa Desconcentrado Estado de México Oriente, Hospital General Regional No. 72, Coordinación Clínica de Cirugía, Tlalnepantla de Baz. Estado de México, México.

IntroducciÓn: La Coordinación de Investigación en Salud del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social promueve acciones para la realización del Foro Sur de Investigación en Salud del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (FSIS-IMSS), entre las que destacan la presentación de reportes de investigación.

Objetivo: Analizar la actividad científica del FSIS-IMSS de 1995 a 2018 a través de los reportes de investigación publicados en el marco del Foro Sur.

Material Y MÉtodos: Estudio bibliométrico de los reportes de investigación publicados. Read More

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January 2020

SARS-CoV-2 adsorption on suspended solids along a sewerage network: mathematical model formulation, sensitivity analysis, and parametric study.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Accounting for SARS-CoV-2 adsorption on solids suspended in wastewater is a necessary step towards the reliable estimation of virus shedding rate in a sewerage system, based on measurements performed at a terminal collection station, i.e., at the entrance of a wastewater treatment plant. Read More

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September 2021

Interaction screening for high-dimensional heterogeneous data via robust hybrid metrics.

Wei Xiong Han Pan

Stat Med 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

School of Statistics, University of International Business and Economics, Beijing, China.

A novel model-free interaction screening approach called the hybrid metrics is introduced for high-dimensional heterogeneous data analysis. The metrics established based on the variation of conditional joint distribution function are measurements of interaction that include both size and direction. They are robust and can work with many types of response variables, including continuous, discrete, and categorical variables. Read More

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September 2021

Regional and temporal patterns of influenza: Application of functional data analysis.

Infect Dis Model 2021 30;6:1061-1072. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Background: The accurate estimation of temporal patterns of influenza may help in utilizing hospital resources and guiding influenza surveillance. This paper proposes functional data analysis (FDA) to improve the prediction of temporal patterns of influenza.

Methods: We illustrate FDA methods using the weekly Influenza-like Illness (ILI) activity level data from the U. Read More

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A Hybrid Approach for Cardiac Blood Flow Vortex Ring Identification Based on Optical Flow and Lagrangian Averaged Vorticity Deviation.

Front Physiol 2021 1;12:698405. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China.

The measurement of cardiac blood flow vortex characteristics can help to facilitate the analysis of blood flow dynamics that regulates heart function. However, the complexity of cardiac flow along with other physical limitations makes it difficult to adequately identify the dominant vortices in a heart chamber, which play a significant role in regulating the heart function. Although the existing vortex quantification methods can achieve this goal, there are still some shortcomings: such as low precision, and ignoring the center of the vortex without the description of vortex deformation processes. Read More

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September 2021

Mathematical analysis and topology of SARS-CoV-2, bonding with cells and unbonding.

J Math Anal Appl 2021 Sep 14:125664. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Mathematics, Washington University in St. Louis, MO, USA.

We consider the structure of the novel coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2) in terms of the number of spikes that are critical in bonding with the cells in the host. Bonding formation is considered for selection criteria with and without any treatments. Functional mappings from the discrete space of spikes and cells and their analysis are performed. Read More

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September 2021

Extraction of intrinsic column peak profiles of narrow-bore and microbore columns by peak deconvolution methods.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Oct 14;1180:338851. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Arlington, USA. Electronic address:

The intrinsic peak profiles (free from the delay and dispersion caused by state-of-the art UHPLC systems) generated by narrow-bore and microbore chromatographic columns used in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) proteomic analyses are extracted from two different deconvolution methods. The first method is based on the classical discrete Fourier transform (DFT) while the second method refers to the Taylor expansion of the continuous Fourier transform (FT). The two numerical methods are compared regarding the accurate determination of the intrinsic peak profiles of the non-retained compound (toluene) expected on a narrow-bore 2. Read More

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October 2021

Identifying hot spots for harm and blind spots across the care pathway from patient complaints about general practice.

Fam Pract 2021 Sep 19. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Discipline of General Practice, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland.

Introduction: Healthcare complaints are underutilized for quality improvement in general practice. Systematic analysis of complaints has identified hot spots (areas across the care pathway where issues occur frequently) and blind spots (areas across the care pathway that cannot be observed by staff) in secondary care. The Healthcare Complaints Analysis Tool (HCAT) has been adapted to the HCAT(GP). Read More

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September 2021

Successful expression of the synthetic merBps gene in tobacco.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Sep 14;167:874-883. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Environmental Studies, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007, India. Electronic address:

Organomercury is the most toxic biomagnifiable state of mercury, and to date, no natural organomercurial detoxification mechanism is encountered in plants. Bacterial merB gene encoding organomercury lyase show low expression in transgenic plants. For ideal expression, a synthetic merBps gene possessing143 out of 213 codons discrete from native merB gene from Escherichia. Read More

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September 2021

Statistically derived geometrical landscapes capture principles of decision-making dynamics during cell fate transitions.

Cell Syst 2021 Sep 11. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Road, London NW1 1AT, UK. Electronic address:

Fate decisions in developing tissues involve cells transitioning between discrete cell states, each defined by distinct gene expression profiles. The Waddington landscape, in which the development of a cell is viewed as a ball rolling through a valley filled terrain, is an appealing way to describe differentiation. To construct and validate accurate landscapes, quantitative methods based on experimental data are necessary. Read More

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September 2021

Diverse oncogenic fusions and distinct gene expression patterns define the genomic landscape of pediatric papillary thyroid carcinoma.

Cancer Res 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Endocrinology, Hospital for Sick Children

Pediatric papillary thyroid carcinoma (PPTC) is clinically distinct from adult-onset disease. Although there are higher rates of metastasis and recurrence in PPTC, prognosis remains highly favorable. Molecular characterization of PPTC has been lacking. Read More

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September 2021

Absorbing it all: A meta-ethnography of parents' unfolding experiences of newborn screening.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Sep 3;287:114367. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

The Healthcare Improvement Studies Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

In a context of increasing international dialogue around the appropriate means and ends of newborn screening programmes, it is critical to explore the perspectives of those directly impacted by such screening. This meta-ethnography uses a systematic review process to identify qualitative studies that focus on parents' experiences of newborn screening published in English-language academic journals from 2000 to 2019 (n = 36). The included studies represent a range of moments, outcomes, and conditions that illuminate discrete elements of the newborn screening journey. Read More

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September 2021

Macro and micro analysis on coal-bearing soil slopes instability based on CFD-DEM coupling method.

PLoS One 2021 17;16(9):e0257362. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

School of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Nanchang Institute of Technology, Nanchang, China.

By combining the discrete element method (DEM) with computational fluid dynamics (CFD), this study proposes a three-dimensional CFD-DEM fluid-solid coupling microscopic computational model for analyzing the micromechanisms of instability and failure in a coal-bearing soil slope during rainfall. The CFD-DEM fluid-solid coupling model indicated that the main failure mode of the coal-bearing soil slopes was rainwater washing, and the slope sliding surface was predicted as an approximately linear segment. The adaptability of this numerical method was verified by comparing its results with those of rain-washed slopes in an outdoor model test. Read More

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September 2021

Using latent class and quantum models to value equity in health care: a tale of 2 stories.

J Manag Care Spec Pharm 2021 Sep;27(9-a Suppl):S14-S18

Department of Health Outcomes Research & Policy, Harrison School of Pharmacy, Auburn University, Auburn, AL.

Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) with quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) was introduced to address health equity concerns in value assessment. However, QALY fails to capture patient preference. Stated preference methods (eg, discrete choice experiment [DCE]) have been increasingly used to incorporate patient preference into the value assessment framework in health care. Read More

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September 2021

Discrete dynamical models on infection frequency in mosquito populations with biased release ratios.

Yantao Shi Bo Zheng

J Biol Dyn 2021 Sep 17:1-20. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

College of Mathematics and Information Sciences, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

We develop two discrete models to study how supplemental releases affect the spreading dynamics in cage mosquito populations. The first model focuses on the case when only infected males are released at each generation. This release strategy has been proved to be capable of speeding up the persistence by suppressing the compatible matings between uninfected individuals. Read More

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September 2021

Integrating animal movements with phylogeography to model the spread of PRRSV in the USA.

Virus Evol 2021 15;7(2):veab060. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 1365 Gortner Avenue, St. Paul, MN, 55108, USA.

Viral sequence data coupled with phylodynamic models have become instrumental in investigating the outbreaks of human and animal diseases, and the incorporation of the hypothesized drivers of pathogen spread can enhance the interpretation from phylodynamic inference. Integrating animal movement data with phylodynamics allows us to quantify the extent to which the spatial diffusion of a pathogen is influenced by animal movements and contrast the relative importance of different types of movements in shaping pathogen distribution. We combine animal movement, spatial, and environmental data in a Bayesian phylodynamic framework to explain the spatial diffusion and evolutionary trends of a rapidly spreading sub-lineage (denoted L1A) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) Type 2 from 2014 to 2017. Read More

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Implementation of social needs screening in primary care: a qualitative study using the health equity implementation framework.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Sep 17;21(1):975. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Health Policy and Management, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: Screening in primary care for unmet individual social needs (e.g., housing instability, food insecurity, unemployment, social isolation) is critical to addressing their deleterious effects on patients' health outcomes. Read More

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September 2021