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Are sniffer dogs a reliable approach for diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 infection?

Diagnosis (Berl) 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, The Heart Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Objectives: Despite inter-individual variations in their diagnostic efficiency, dogs have been trained to investigate many human pathologies, especially cancer, diabetes, migraine, seizures and even infectious diseases. To this end, we performed a critical review and pooled analysis of current scientific literature on the performance of dogs trained for identifying severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive human specimens.

Methods: We carried out an electronic search in PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science with the keywords "dog(s)" AND "sniffer" OR "scent" OR "smell" AND "SARS-CoV-2" OR "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2" OR "coronavirus disease 2019" OR "COVID-19" within all fields, without date or language restrictions, to identify studies describing dogs' performance for identifying SARS-CoV-2 infected material. Read More

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Algogen-induced vasosensory reflexes modulate short-term heart rate variability parameters in experimental rat models.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Physiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Objectives: The present work was designed to study the modulatory effects of algogen-induced vasosensory reflex responses on short-term heart rate variability (HRV) parameters in naïve and vagotomized rat models.

Methods: In this study, vasosensory reflex responses were elicited by instilling algogens (bradykinin/histamine), a component of inflammatory mediators into a local segment of medium-sized peripheral blood vessel (femoral artery) while a continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded. Short-term (5 min) ECG segments obtained from original recordings were examined in detail and relevant data of HRV parameters were pooled. Read More

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Outcomes of patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiation compared with those treated with concurrent chemoradiation.

Cancer 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Background: Induction chemotherapy (IC) has been associated with a decreased risk of distant metastasis in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, its role in the treatment of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is not well established.

Methods: The outcomes of patients with OPSCC treated with IC followed by concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) were compared with the outcomes of those treated with CRT alone. Read More

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A deep analysis of the proteomic and phosphoproteomic alterations that occur in skeletal muscle after the onset of immobilization.

J Physiol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

 A decrease in protein synthesis plays a major role in the loss of muscle mass that occurs in response to immobilization.  In mice, immobilization leads to a rapid (within 6 hr) and progressive decrease in the rate of protein synthesis and this effect is mediated by a decrease in translational efficiency.  Deep proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses of mouse skeletal muscles revealed that the rapid immobilization-induced decrease in protein synthesis cannot be explained by changes in the abundance or phosphorylation state of proteins that have been implicated in the regulation of translation. Read More

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Referential Form and Memory for the Discourse History.

Cogn Sci 2021 Apr;45(4):e12964

Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University.

The way we refer to things in the world is shaped by the immediate physical context as well as the discourse history. But what part of the discourse history is relevant to language use in the present? In four experiments, we combine the study of task-based conversation with measures of recognition memory to examine the role of physical contextual cues that shape what speakers perceive to be a part of the relevant discourse history. Our studies leverage the differentiation effect, a phenomenon in which speakers are more likely to use a modified expression to refer to an object (e. Read More

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Radiographic Results after Vertebral Body Tethering.

Z Orthop Unfall 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Klinik für Orthopädie, Uniklinik RWTH Aachen, Germany.

Vertebral body tethering (VBT), otherwise known as fusion-less anterior scoliosis correction (ASC), is a new and increasingly interesting therapeutic option for selected scoliosis patients. The available data on this surgical technique are still limited and guidelines on patient selection or surgical timing are not available. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the available literature on VBT. Read More

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Anterior Locking Plate Osteosynthesis of Patellar Factures - Analysis of Complications and Functional Outcome.

Z Orthop Unfall 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Orthopaedic Clinic, Hannover Medical University (MHH), DIAKOVERE Annastift, Hannover, Germany.

Background: Tension band wiring is the standard procedure for patellar fractures, but is associated with a high rate of implant related complications and implant failure. Tension band wiring may fail, especially with multifragmentary and comminuted fractures. Plate fixation of complex patellar fractures seems to be superior to wiring, both clinically and biomechanically. Read More

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How Safe and Time Consuming is the Surgical Training of Young Orthopaedic Surgeons? A Retrospective Analysis of Proximal Femur Fractures.

Z Orthop Unfall 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Ulm, Germany.

Background: Fractures of the proximal femur in the elderly population are rising. Teaching the appropriate surgical treatment of these fractures is of paramount importance. The aim of the study was to evaluate differences in outcome of surgical procedures between supervised trainees and senior surgeons. Read More

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Identification of Potential High-Risk Patients on the Basis of PROMs in a Certified Centre for Joint Replacement (EndoProthetikZentrum) Using the Example of Hip Arthroplasty.

Z Orthop Unfall 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Orthopaedics, Rostock University Medical Centre, Germany.

Background: In addition to clinical parameters, the subjective assessment by the patient to evaluate the operative outcome of an arthroplasty is becoming increasingly important. Questionnaires are used to identify patients who have not achieved the treatment goal at an early stage so that further interventions can be indicated.

Material And Methods: A questionnaire consisting of different PROMs was completed pre- and 3 months postoperatively by patients who had been treated with a hip arthroplasty. Read More

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[Weaning from Mechanical Ventilation in Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection after Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation - First Experience].

Pneumologie 2021 Apr 19;75(4):261-267. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Klinik für Pneumologie, Kardiologie und Beatmungsmedizin mit Sektion Gastroenterologie, Weaningzentrum Frankfurt am Main (DGP), Bürgerhospital und Clementine Kinderhospital gGmbH, Frankfurt am Main.

Aim:  With the emergence of a new virus and the associated pandemic, the ICU started to see a brand new kind of patient with severe ARD. As with any disease, sometimes the discontinuation of mechanical ventilation for any reason can be difficult. As a center specializing in weaning patients after prolonged mechanical ventilation, we wanted to compare our results with weaning patients who had prolonged mechanical ventilation for other reasons than those of patients who had prolonged mechanical ventilation due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Read More

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Agreement between the Skull Vibration-Induced Nystagmus Test and Semicircular Canal and Otolith Asymmetry.

J Am Acad Audiol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Vestibular and Balance Program, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background:  How significant asymmetries in otolith organ function in the presence of symmetrical and asymmetrical semicircular canal function influence skull vibration-induced nystagmus testing (SVINT) has not been well described.

Purpose:  The aim of the study is to examine the agreement between SVINT and caloric testing, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP), and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP) for detecting asymmetric vestibular function.

Research Design:  This is a retrospective study of patients presenting with the chief complaint of vertigo, dizziness, or imbalance. Read More

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Benefits of Bilateral Hearing on the Telephone for Cochlear Implant Recipients.

J Am Acad Audiol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Hearts for Hearing Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

Background:  Cochlear implant (CI) recipients frequently experience difficulty understanding speech over the telephone and rely on hearing assistive technology (HAT) to improve performance. Bilateral inter-processor audio streaming technology using nearfield magnetic induction is an advanced technology incorporated within a hearing aid or CI processor that can deliver telephone audio signals captured at one sound processor to the sound processor at the opposite ear. To date, limited data exist examining the efficacy of this technology in CI users to improve speech understanding on the telephone. Read More

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The Relationship between Psychoacoustic and Electrophysiological Assessments of Temporal Resolution.

J Am Acad Audiol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Audiology, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background:  Temporal resolution is essential to speech acoustic perception. However, it may alter in individuals with auditory disorders, impairing the development of spoken and written language. The envelope of speech signals contains amplitude modulation (AM) that has critical information. Read More

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[Social Inequalities in Access to and Utilization of Medical Rehabilitation - Results of the Third German Sociomedical Panel of Employees (GSPE-III)].

Rehabilitation (Stuttg) 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institut für Medizinische Soziologie, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg.

Aim Of The Study: The influence of social status on health is well documented. Preliminary research provides initial evidence for social inequalities in rehabilitation care. Our study examines the role of social inequalities with respect to access and utilisation of medical rehabilitation services by analysing a risk cohort of the German Statutory Pension Insurance Scheme (Deutsche Rentenversicherung Bund). Read More

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Simulation Modeling for the Economic Evaluation of Population-Based Dietary Policies: A Systematic Scoping Review.

Adv Nutr 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute of Health Economics and Health Care Management, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany.

Simulation modeling can be useful to estimate the long-term health and economic impacts of population-based dietary policies. We conducted a systematic scoping review following the PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews) guideline to map and critically appraise economic evaluations of population-based dietary policies using simulation models. We searched Medline, Embase, and EconLit for studies published in English after 2005. Read More

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Nutritional Status Impacts Epigenetic Regulation in Early Embryo Development: A Scoping Review.

Adv Nutr 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

With the increasing maternal age and the use of assisted reproductive technology in various countries worldwide, the influence of epigenetic modification on embryonic development is increasingly notable and prominent. Epigenetic modification disorders caused by various nutritional imbalance would cause embryonic development abnormalities and even have an indelible impact on health in adulthood. In this scoping review, we summarize the main epigenetic modifications in mammals and the synergies among different epigenetic modifications, especially DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and histone methylation. Read More

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Effects of a Mindfulness-Based Intervention versus Health Self-Management on Subclinical Anxiety in Older Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline: The SCD-Well Randomized Superiority Trial.

Psychother Psychosom 2021 Apr 19:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, Department of Medicine and Department of Psychology, Department of Political Science and International Relations, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Introduction: Older adults experiencing subjective cognitive decline (SCD) have a heightened risk of developing dementia and frequently experience subclinical anxiety, which is itself associated with dementia risk.

Objective: To understand whether subclinical anxiety symptoms in SCD can be reduced through behavioral interventions.

Methods: SCD-Well is a randomized controlled trial designed to determine whether an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention (caring mindfulness-based approach for seniors; CMBAS) is superior to a structurally matched health self-management program (HSMP) in reducing subclinical anxiety. Read More

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Can Changes in the Plasma Sodium Concentration Be Predicted Based on the Mass Balance of Sodium, Potassium, and Water in the Face of Osmotically Inactive Sodium Storage?

Nephron 2021 Apr 19:1-4. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Dai-Scott Nguyen and Minh-Kevin Nguyen David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Context: Alterations in the plasma sodium concentration ([Na+]p) is predicted based on changes in the mass balance of Na+, K+, and H2O. However, it is well appreciated that Na+ retention results in both osmotically active and osmotically inactive Na+ storage and that only osmotically active Na+ contributes to the modulation of the [Na+]p. Subject of Review: Recent clinical studies suggested that prediction of changes in the [Na+]p based on the mass balance of Na+, K+, and H2O is inaccurate since the osmotically inactive Na+ storage pool is dynamically regulated. Read More

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Evaluation of Allergic Disease Prevalence and Related Risk Factors in Children with Autoimmune Thyroiditis.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2021 Apr 19:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Ankara Child Health and Diseases Hematology Oncology Training and Research Hospital, University of Health Sciences, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Allergic and autoimmune diseases are caused by an impaired immunological response resulting from different types of T-helper (Th) cells. Since the Th cell production is in a certain balance, an inverse relationship between the 2 disease groups may exist. In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of allergic diseases in children with autoimmune thyroiditis (AT). Read More

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Systematic Review of Microthrombi in COVID-19 Autopsies.

Acta Haematol 2021 Apr 19:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Instituto de Patologia Mejia Jimenez, Department of Pathology, Cali, Colombia.

Background: Histopathological analysis can provide additional clues in COVID-19 understanding. During the last year, autopsy reports have revealed that diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) is the most significant observed finding. The aim of this study is to review cases in the literature about COVID-19 autopsies that reported microthrombi in different organs. Read More

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Personal dosimeter utilisation among South African Interventionalists.

J Radiol Prot 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Medical Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital and Community Health Services, Randwick, New South Wales, AUSTRALIA.

Ionising radiation (IR) is increasingly being used in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and offers increased benefits to patients but poses an increased occupational health risk to operators. The consistent use and monitoring of radiation health care workers' dosimeters is an important part of the process for ensuring adequate monitoring and control of IR in the workplace. There is however often inconsistent dosimeter utilisation among these workers. Read More

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Spin correlations and spin-density wave phase in a finite-temperature quasi-one-dimensional electron gas.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Physics, Kurukshetra University Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University Kurukshetra, Haryana, INDIA, Kurukshetra, Haryana, 136119, INDIA.

In this paper, we theoretically investigate the effect of temperature on spin correlations in an unpolarized quasi-one-dimensional electron gas (Q1DEG). The correlations are treated dynamically within quantum version of the self-consistent mean-field approach of Singwi {\it et al}. Numerical results for the $\uparrow\uparrow$ and $\uparrow\downarrow$ components of static structure factor and pair-correlation function, and the wave vector dependent static spin and charge susceptibilities are presented over a wide range of temperature $T$ and electron coupling $r_s$. Read More

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Review on the Recent Progress in the Development of Fluorescent ProbesTargeting Enzymes.

Methods Appl Fluoresc 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

College of Chemistry, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Wuhan, Hubei, Wuhan, CHINA.

Biomolecules are very important for biological processes in a living being, performing similar or multiple tasks in and out of cells, tissues and other organisms at a particular location. The abnormal activity of particular biomolecule usually caused serious diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cancers, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, arthritis etc. Hence, nondestructive and real-time visualization for certain subcellular tissue is very important for understanding the biological issues, as well as the drug administration and drug metabolism. Read More

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Biocompatibility of platinum-based bulk metallic glass in orthopedic applications.

Biomed Mater 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, 10 Amistad Str, new haven, 060520, UNITED STATES.

Bulk Metallic Glasses (BMGs) are a class of amorphous metals that exhibit high strength, ductility paired with wear and corrosion resistance. These properties suggest that they could serve as an alternative to conventional metallic implants that suffer wear and failure. In the present study, we investigated Platinum (Pt)-BMG biocompatibility in bone applications. Read More

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Transcranial photobiomodulation changes topology, synchronizability, and complexity of resting state brain networks.

J Neural Eng 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Physical Therapy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, 29 Bahaman st., Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz, 5166/15731, Iran (the Islamic Republic of).

Objective: Transcranial photobiomodulation (tPBM) is a recently proposed non-invasive brain stimulation approach with various effects on the nervous system from the cells to the whole brain networks. Specially in the neural network level, tPBM may alter the topology and synchronizability of functional brain networks. However, the functional properties of the neural networks after tPBM are still poorly clarified. Read More

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Metasurface circular polarizer based on rotational symmetric nanoholes.

Nanotechnology 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong, CHINA.

A circular polarizer is proposed based on a single layered metasurface. This metasurface circular polarizer is composed of L-shaped nanoholes etched on the silver film. The L-shaped nanoholes are rotational symmetric, and the special symmetric structure determines the polarization selection transmission of the metasurface. Read More

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A liquid scintillation analysis method for low-Level radioactive wastewater.

J Radiol Prot 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Xi'an Research Institute of High-Tech, Xi'an, CHINA.

There is currently general concern over low-level radioactive wastewater from the development of nuclear industry.In this paper, a method based on ultralow-level liquid scintillation spectrometer for measuring uranium radioactivity in low-level radioactive wastewater is proposed. This method can easily and quickly measure the radioactivity level of uranium in samples and can even distinguish the main isotopes of uranium. Read More

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Modulators of Change-of-Direction Economy After Repeated Sprints in Elite Soccer Players.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2021 Apr 19:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Purpose: To investigate the acute effect of repeated-sprint activity (RSA) on change-of-direction economy (assessed using shuttle running economy [SRE]) in soccer players and explore neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory characteristics that may modulate this effect.

Methods: Eleven young elite male soccer players (18.5 [1. Read More

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The Relationship Between Neuromuscular Function and the W' in Elite Cyclists.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2021 Apr 19:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Purpose: To assess the association between the W' and measures of neuromuscular function relating to the capacity of skeletal muscle to produce force in a group of elite cyclists.

Methods: Twenty-two athletes specializing in a range of disciplines and competing internationally volunteered to participate. Athletes completed assessments of maximum voluntary torque (MVT), voluntary activation, and isometric maximum voluntary contraction to measure rate of torque development (RTD). Read More

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Selenium and anthocyanins share the same transcription factors R2R3MYB and bHLH in wheat.

Food Chem 2021 Mar 27;356:129699. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang 611130, Sichuan, China; Triticeae Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang 611130, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Anthocyanins and selenium have vital biological functions for human and plants, they were investigated thoroughly and separately in plants. Previous studies indicated pigmented fruits and vegetables had higher selenium concentration, but whether there is a relationship between anthocyanins and selenium is unclear. In this study, a combined phenotypic and genotypic methodological approach was undertaken to explore the potential relationship between anthocyanins and selenium accumulation by using phenotypic investigation and RNA-seq analysis. Read More

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