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Fear of Reinjury Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Is Manifested in Muscle Activation Patterns of Single-Leg Side-Hop Landings.

Phys Ther 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Sweden SE-901 87, Umeå, Sweden.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether fear of re-injury is manifested in joint kinematics and muscle activation patterns during landings of a standardized rebound side-hop (SRSH), or in patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), among individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR).

Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, 38 individuals within 2 years post-ACLR were grouped into HIGH-FEAR (n = 21, median 11.2 months post-surgery) or LOW-FEAR (n = 17, median 10. Read More

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September 2021

Rational Design and Characterization of Nitric Oxide Biosensors in Nissle 1917 and Mini SimCells.

ACS Synth Biol 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ, United Kingdom.

Nitric oxide (NO) is an important disease biomarker found in many chronic inflammatory diseases and cancers. A well-characterized nitric sensing system is useful to aid the rapid development of bacteria therapy and synthetic biology. In this work, we engineered a set of NO-responsive biosensors based on the P promoter and its NorR regulator in the operon; the circuits were characterized and optimized in probiotic Nissle 1917 and mini SimCells (minicells containing designed gene circuits for specific tasks). Read More

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September 2021

Phase and amplitude EEG correlations change with disease progression in people with idiopathic rapid eye-movement sleep behavior disorder.

Sleep 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics and System engineering (DIBRIS), University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

Study Objectives: Increased phase synchronization in electroencephalography (EEG) bands might reflect the activation of compensatory mechanisms of cognitive decline in people with neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we investigated whether altered large-scale couplings of brain oscillations could be linked to the balancing of cognitive decline in a longitudinal cohort of people with idiopathic rapid eye-movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD).

Methods: We analyzed 18 patients (17 males, 69. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of acute stress on the oscillatory activity of the hippocampus-amygdala-prefrontal cortex network.

Neuroscience 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Neuronal Circuits Laboratory, Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, Valencia, 46010, Spain. Electronic address:

Displaying a stress response to threatening stimuli is essential for survival. These reactions must be adjusted to be adaptive. Otherwise, even mental illnesses may develop. Read More

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September 2021

Individual localization value of resting-state fMRI in epilepsy presurgical evaluation: A combined study with stereo-EEG.

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Epilepsy Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To examine the individual-patient-level localization value of resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) metrics for the seizure onset zone (SOZ) defined by stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) in patients with medically intractable focal epilepsies.

Methods: We retrospectively included 19 patients who underwent SEEG implantation for epilepsy presurgical evaluation. Voxel-wise whole-brain analysis was performed on 3. Read More

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Machine-learning-based diagnosis of drug-naive adult patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder using mismatch negativity.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 Sep 18;11(1):484. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Psychiatry, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan, Republic of Korea.

Relatively little is investigated regarding the neurophysiology of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential component representing pre-attentive auditory processing, which is closely associated with cognitive status. We investigated MMN features as biomarkers to classify drug-naive adult patients with ADHD and healthy controls (HCs). Read More

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September 2021

How and why do bees buzz? Implications for buzz pollination.

J Exp Bot 2021 Sep 19. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, United Kingdom.

Buzz pollination encompasses the evolutionary convergence of specialised floral morphologies and pollinator behaviour in which bees use vibrations (floral buzzes) to remove pollen. Floral buzzes are one of several types of vibrations produced by bees using their thoracic muscles. Here I review how bees can produce these different types of vibrations and discuss the implications of this mechanistic understanding for buzz pollination. Read More

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September 2021

Cortical activation by a salient sound modulates visual temporal order judgments: An electrophysiological study of multisensory attentional processes.

Psychophysiology 2021 Sep 18:e13943. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Département de Psychologie, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies show that a salient lateral sound activates the visual cortex more strongly contralateral to the sound, observed as an auditory-evoked contralateral occipital positivity (ACOP). Studies showed that this activation enhances the early cortical processing of co-localized visual stimuli presented after, reflected by better detection rates, better discrimination, and sharper perceived contrast. We replicated the ACOP, using earphones, and tested whether auditory cuing can influence temporal order judgments (TOJ) for two visual stimuli (horizontal arrangement) as well as if the ACOP would predict the amplitude of this influence. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of warm-up and muscle fatiguing exercise on knee joint sounds in motion by vibroarthrography: A randomized crossover trial.

PLoS One 2021 17;16(9):e0257652. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Sports Medicine and Exercise Physiology, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany.

Vibroarthrography measures joint sounds caused by sliding of the joint surfaces over each other. and can be affected by joint health, load and type of movement. Since both warm-up and muscle fatigue lead to local changes in the knee joint (e. Read More

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September 2021

Altered Patterns of Amplitude of Low-Frequency Fluctuations and Fractional Amplitude of Low-Frequency Fluctuations Between Amnestic and Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment: An ALE-Based Comparative Meta-Analysis.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 31;13:711023. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Brain Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Changes in the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) have provided stronger evidence for the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment. Whether the altered patterns of ALFF and fALFF differ in amnestic cognitive impairment (aMCI) and vascular mild cognitive impairment (vMCI) is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore the ALFF/fALFF changes in the two diseases and to further explore whether they contribute to the diagnosis and differentiation of these diseases. Read More

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Impact of moderate altitude exposure on cardiovascular risk.

Acta Cardiol 2021 Sep 16:1-4. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik I, Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Acute exposure to extreme altitude increases arterial stiffness by activation of the sympathetic and endothelin system as well as hypoxia-induced reactive oxygen species production. Beyond a certain individual threshold, these physiological adaptations represent a relevant cardiovascular risk factor. In this pilot study we investigated to what extent temporary exposure to moderate altitude, as present during hiking, skiing or in aeroplanes, leads to changes in vascular tone. Read More

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September 2021

Physiology of slow pathway conduction during sinus rhythm: evidence from high density mapping within the triangle of Koch.

J Interv Card Electrophysiol 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

University of Iowa Hospitals, 200 Hawkins Dr., Iowa City, IA, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate nature of AV nodal activation in patients with AVNRT using high density electro-anatomic mapping (HD-EAM).

Methods: HD-EAM was created in 30 patients with AVNRT from the triangle of Koch (ToK) in sinus rhythm (SR). Isochronal late activation maps (ILAM) were created. Read More

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September 2021

Fetal ECG Extraction from Maternal ECG using Attention-based CycleGAN.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Sep 13;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

A non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) is used to monitor the electrical pulse of the fetal heart. Decomposing the FECG signal from the maternal ECG (MECG) is a blind source separation problem, which is hard due to the low amplitude of the FECG, the overlap of R waves, and the potential exposure to noise from different sources. Traditional decomposition techniques, such as adaptive filters, require tuning, alignment, or pre-configuration, such as modeling the noise or desired signal to map the MECG to the FECG. Read More

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September 2021

Tongue acceleration in humans evoked with intramuscular electrical stimulation of genioglossus.

Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2021 Sep 8;295:103786. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Neuroscience Research Australia, Randwick, NSW, Australia; University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

Genioglossus was stimulated intramuscularly to determine the effect of regional activation of the muscle on tongue movement in eight healthy adults. Stimulation at motor threshold was delivered with a needle electrode inserted to different depths in the anterior and posterior regions of genioglossus. The current amplitude that induced muscle contraction was ∼80% higher for anterior than posterior sites. Read More

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September 2021

Regulation of P2X1 receptors by modulators of the cAMP effectors PKA and EPAC.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Sep;118(37)

Smooth Muscle Research Centre, Dundalk Institute of Technology, Dundalk A91 K584, Ireland

P2X1 receptors are adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated cation channels that are functionally important for male fertility, bladder contraction, and platelet aggregation. The activity of P2X1 receptors is modulated by lipids and intracellular messengers such as cAMP, which can stimulate protein kinase A (PKA). Exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) is another cAMP effector; however, its effect on P2X1 receptors has not yet been determined. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of Thresholding on Voxel-Wise Correspondence of Breath-Hold and Resting-State Maps of Cerebrovascular Reactivity.

Front Neurosci 2021 24;15:654957. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States.

Functional magnetic resonance imaging for presurgical brain mapping enables neurosurgeons to identify viable tissue near a site of operable pathology which might be at risk of surgery-induced damage. However, focal brain pathology (e.g. Read More

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Electrophysiological Effects of the Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 4 Channel Inhibitor (4-Chloro-2-(2-chlorophenoxy)acetamido) Benzoic Acid (CBA) in Canine Left Ventricular Cardiomyocytes.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 31;22(17). Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary.

Transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) plays an important role in many tissues, including pacemaker and conductive tissues of the heart, but much less is known about its electrophysiological role in ventricular myocytes. Our earlier results showed the lack of selectivity of 9-phenanthrol, so CBA ((4-chloro-2-(2-chlorophenoxy)acetamido) benzoic acid) was chosen as a new, potentially selective inhibitor. Goal: Our aim was to elucidate the effect and selectivity of CBA in canine left ventricular cardiomyocytes and to study the expression of TRPM4 in the canine heart. Read More

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Effects of Metformin on Spontaneous Ca Signals in Cultured Microglia Cells under Normoxic and Hypoxic Conditions.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 31;22(17). Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Neuroscience Institute, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, LT-50161 Kaunas, Lithuania.

Microglial functioning depends on Ca signaling. By using Ca sensitive fluorescence dye, we studied how inhibition of mitochondrial respiration changed spontaneous Ca signals in soma of microglial cells from 5-7-day-old rats grown under normoxic and mild-hypoxic conditions. In microglia under normoxic conditions, metformin or rotenone elevated the rate and the amplitude of Ca signals 10-15 min after drug application. Read More

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Fatigability of the knee extensor muscles during high-load fast and low-load slow resistance exercise in young and older adults.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Sep 5;154:111546. Epub 2021 Sep 5.

Exercise Science Program, Department of Physical Therapy, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, USA; Athletic and Human Performance Research Center, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, USA. Electronic address:

Resistance exercise training is a cornerstone in preventing age-related declines in muscle mass and strength, and fatigability of limb muscle is important to this adaptive response. It is unknown, however, whether fatigability and the underlying mechanisms differ between different resistance exercise protocols in young and older adults. The purpose of this study was to quantify the fatigability of the knee extensors and identify the mechanisms in 20 young (22. Read More

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September 2021

The Functional Role of Hyperpolarization Activated Current ( ) on Cardiac Pacemaking in Human vs. in the Rabbit Sinoatrial Node: A Simulation and Theoretical Study.

Front Physiol 2021 19;12:582037. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Biological Physics Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.

The cardiac hyperpolarization-activated "funny" current ( ), which contributes to sinoatrial node (SAN) pacemaking, has a more negative half-maximal activation voltage and smaller fully-activated macroscopic conductance in human than in rabbit SAN cells. The consequences of these differences for the relative roles of in the two species, and for their responses to the specific bradycardic agent ivabradine at clinical doses have not been systematically explored. This study aims to address these issues, through incorporating rabbit and human formulations developed by Fabbri et al. Read More

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The immediate effects of foot orthosis geometry on lower limb muscle activity and foot biomechanics.

J Biomech 2021 Aug 28;128:110716. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

School of Health & Society, University of Salford, Salford M6 6PU, United Kingdom.

Foot orthoses (FOs) are used to treat clinical conditions by altering the external forces applied to the foot and thereafter the forces of muscles and tendons. However, whether specific geometric design features of FOs affect muscle activation is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate if medial heel wedging and increased medial arch height have different effects on the electromyography (EMG) amplitude of tibialis posterior, other muscles of the lower limb and the kinematics and kinetics at the rearfoot and ankle. Read More

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Regulation of Dual Specificity Phosphatases by Fibroblast Growth Factor signaling pathways in bovine granulosa cells.

Reproduction 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

C Price, CRRA, University of Montreal, St-Hyacinthe, Canada.

Controling the duration and amplitude of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling is an important element in deciding cell fate. One group of intracellular negative regulators of MAPK activity is a subfamily of the dual specificity phosphatase (DUSP) superfamily, of which up to 16 members have been described in ovarian granulosa cells. Growth factors stimulate proliferation of granulosa cells through MAPK, PKC and AKT pathways, although it is not known which pathways control DUSP expression in these cells. Read More

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September 2021

5-HT receptors enhance inhibitory synaptic input to principal neurons in the mouse basal amygdala.

Neuropharmacology 2021 Sep 3;198:108779. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Physiology, Maj Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smętna 12 Str., 31-343, Kraków, Poland. Electronic address:

The basal amygdala (BA) has been implicated in encoding fear and its extinction. The level of serotonin (5-HT) in the BA increases due to arousal and stress related to aversive stimuli. The effects of 5-HT receptor (5-HTR) activation and blockade on the activity of BA neurons have not yet been investigated. Read More

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September 2021

Neuroepithelial progenitors generate and propagate non-neuronal action potentials across the spinal cord.

Curr Biol 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Sorbonne Université, INSERM, CNRS, Neurosciences Paris Seine - Institut de Biologie Paris Seine (NPS - IBPS), 75005 Paris, France. Electronic address:

In the developing central nervous system, electrical signaling is thought to rely exclusively on differentiating neurons as they acquire the ability to generate and propagate action potentials. Accordingly, neuroepithelial progenitors (NEPs), which give rise to all neurons and glial cells during development, have been reported to remain electrically passive. Here, we investigated the physiological properties of NEPs at the onset of spontaneous neural activity (SNA) initiating motor behavior in mouse embryonic spinal cord. Read More

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Temporal Variabilities Provide Additional Category-Related Information in Object Category Decoding: A Systematic Comparison of Informative EEG Features.

Neural Comput 2021 Aug 30:1-46. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

School of Psychology, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia, and Perception in Action Research Centre and Department of Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, NSW 2109, Australia

How does the human brain encode visual object categories? Our understanding of this has advanced substantially with the development of multivariate decoding analyses. However, conventional electroencephalography (EEG) decoding predominantly uses the mean neural activation within the analysis window to extract category information. Such temporal averaging overlooks the within-trial neural variability that is suggested to provide an additional channel for the encoding of information about the complexity and uncertainty of the sensory input. Read More

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Influence of foam thickness on the control of EMG activity during a step-down task in females.

J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2021 Oct 21;60:102585. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS, USA. Electronic address:

Compliant foams can be used to mitigate ground reaction forces. However, it is unknown how foam surfaces influence the modulation of leg muscle activity. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate how the neuromuscular system managed changes in expected loading due to various thickness of foam placed on the landing surface during a step down task. Read More

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October 2021

Age-related differences in calf muscle recruitment strategies in the time-frequency domain during walking as a function of task demand.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 09 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and North Carolina State University, Chapel Hill, NC, United States.

Activation of the plantar flexors is critical in governing ankle push-off power during walking, which decreases due to age. However, electromyographic (EMG) signal amplitude alone are unable to fully characterize motor unit recruitment during functional activity. Although not yet studied in walking, EMG frequency content may also vary due to age-related differences in muscle morphology and neural signaling. Read More

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September 2021

Molecular basis of Period 1 regulation by adrenergic signaling in the heart.

FASEB J 2021 Oct;35(10):e21886

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

The cardiac circadian clock is responsible for the modulation of different myocardial processes, and its dysregulation has been linked to disease development. How this clock machinery is regulated in the heart remains an open question. Because noradrenaline (NE) can act as a zeitgeber in cardiomyocytes, we tested the hypothesis that adrenergic signaling resets cardiac clock gene expression in vivo. Read More

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October 2021

Optogenetic study of central medial and paraventricular thalamic projections to the basolateral amygdala.

J Neurophysiol 2021 09 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, United States.

The central medial (CMT) and paraventricular (PVT) thalamic nuclei project strongly to the basolateral amygdala (BL). Similarities between the responsiveness of CMT, PVT, and BL neurons suggest that these nuclei strongly influence BL activity. Supporting this possibility, an electron microscopic study reported that in contrast with other extrinsic afferents, CMT and PVT axon terminals form very few synapses with BL interneurons. Read More

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September 2021

Tianeptine induces expression of dual specificity phosphatases and evokes rebound emergence of cortical slow wave electrophysiological activity.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Aug 28;764:136200. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 5E, 00014, Finland; SleepWell Research Program, University of Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

Background: The precise mechanism governing the antidepressant effects of tianeptine is unknown. Modulation of brain glutamatergic neurotransmission has been however implicated, suggesting potential shared features with rapid-acting antidepressants targeting N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR). Our recent studies suggest that a single subanesthetic dose of NMDAR antagonists ketamine or nitrous oxide (NO) gradually evoke 1-4 Hz electrophysiological activity (delta-rhythm) of cerebral cortex that is accompanied by molecular signaling associated with synaptic plasticity (e. Read More

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