68 results match your criteria amphiphilicity block

Amphiphilic copolymers in biomedical applications: Synthesis routes and property control.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Apr 8;123:111952. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento, Italy; BIOTech Research Center, European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, University of Trento, via Delle Regole 101, Trento 38123, Italy.

The request of new materials, matching strict requirements to be applied in precision and patient-specific medicine, is pushing for the synthesis of more and more complex block copolymers. Amphiphilic block copolymers are emerging in the biomedical field due to their great potential in terms of stimuli responsiveness, drug loading capabilities and reversible thermal gelation. Amphiphilicity guarantees self-assembly and thermoreversibility, while grafting polymers offers the possibility of combining blocks with various properties in one single material. Read More

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Biodegradable and Biocompatible Silatrane Polymers.

Molecules 2021 Mar 26;26(7). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991 Moscow, Russia.

In this study, new biodegradable and biocompatible amphiphilic polymers were obtained by modifying the peripheral hydroxyl groups of branched polyethers and polyesters with organosilicon substituents. The structures of the synthesized polymers were confirmed by NMR and GPC. Organosilicon moieties of the polymers were formed by silatranes and trimethylsilyl blocks and displayed hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties, respectively. Read More

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Microphase separation in the melts of diblock copolymers with amphiphilic blocks.

Soft Matter 2021 Jan 5;17(1):90-101. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

A. N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds RAS, Vavilova ul. 28, Moscow 119991, Russia.

Self-assembly of graft diblock copolymers is an actual topic in the development of materials with desirable properties. In the paper, microphase separation in a melt of the diblock copolymer with amphiphilic and non-amphiphilic blocks is investigated using the analytical theory in the strong segregation approximation. Non-amphiphilic blocks are strongly immiscible with the backbone chains of amphiphilic ones but miscible with their side chains. Read More

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January 2021

Targeting anticancer drugs with pluronic aggregates: Recent updates.

Int J Pharm 2020 Aug 16;586:119544. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Chemistry Department, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat 395007, Gujarat, India. Electronic address:

Pluronics are triblock (PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO) copolymers, commercially available in a range of amphiphilicity. Usually, pluronics self-assemble in aqueous solution to form core-shell micelles, but their aggregation behavior is remarkably influenced by the molecular characteristics, solution temperature, and presence of additives. Accompanying transitions result into formation of rigid structures, such as liquid crystals and viscoelastic gels. Read More

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Recent progress in development and chemical modification of poly(hydroxybutyrate)-based blends for potential medical applications.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Oct 19;160:77-100. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Applied Sciences, National Textile University, Faisalabad 37610, Pakistan.

Poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) has been considered as a promising biopolymer produced in certain microbes under specific fermentative and physiological conditions. Being less functional, hydrophobic and brittle, the processability of PHB is difficult which limits its widespread applications. However, its blends with suitable biopolymers, for instance biopolyesters, may impart in them desirable structural functionalities and properties, such as surface reactivity, amphiphilicity, controlled degradation and mechanical strength; thus making them inevitable candidates for biomedical applications. Read More

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October 2020

Sulfur dioxide signaling molecule-responsive polymeric nanoparticles.

Biomater Sci 2020 Apr;8(8):2300-2307

Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Self-Assembly Chemistry for Organic Functional Molecules, Center for Excellence in Molecular Synthesis, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 345 Lingling Road, Shanghai 200032, People's Republic of China.

Stimuli-responsive polymer nano-capsules toward a specific signaling molecule show great potential in the fabrication of smart and efficient controlled/targeted drug vehicles. Herein, we design and synthesize a PEG45-b-PVPOP14 diblock copolymer (PEG = poly(ethylene glycol) and PVPOP = poly(4-vinylphenyl 4-oxopentanoate), the subscripts representing the number of repeat units of each block) with levulinate-protected phenol side groups. The PEG45-b-PVPOP14 diblock copolymer could self-assemble to form large compound micelles in aqueous media. Read More

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In Silico Design Enables the Rapid Production of Surface-Active Colloidal Amphiphiles.

ACS Cent Sci 2020 Feb 24;6(2):166-173. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, United States.

A new technology platform built on the integration of theory and experiments to enable the design of Janus colloids with precision control of surface anisotropy and amphiphilicity could lead to a disruptive transformation in the next generation of surfactants, photonic or phononic materials, and coatings. Here, we exploit molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to guide the rational design of amphiphilic polymer Janus colloids by Flash NanoPrecipitation (FNP), a method capable of the production of colloids with complex structure without the compromise of reduced scalability. Aided by in silico design, we show in experiments that amphiphilic Janus colloids can be produced using a unique blend of hydrophobic homopolymers and the addition of an amphiphilic block copolymer. Read More

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February 2020

Multistimuli-Responsive Emulsifiers Based on Two-Way Amphiphilic Diblock Polymers.

ACS Omega 2019 Sep 12;4(13):15479-15487. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Technology, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Da'an District, Taipei 10607, Taiwan.

Diblock copolymers of poly(-butyl methacrylate) (PBuMA) and poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) of four different block lengths were prepared by sequential two-step reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer radical polymerization, followed by hydrolysis of the PBuMA blocks to obtain poly(methacrylic acid)--PDMAEMA (PMAAPDMAEMA). The effect of the PDMAEMA block length on the multistimuli-responsive amphiphilic features of both types of diblock copolymers was investigated as CO-switchable emulsifiers for emulsification/demulsification of -octane (an oil) in water in response to CO/N bubbling. The amphiphilicity of PBuMAPDMAEMA was switched on, and the amphiphilicity of PMAAPDMAEMA was switched off by CO bubbling at pH 12 and 25 °C to achieve emulsification/demulsification. Read More

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September 2019

Light-Responsive, Shape-Switchable Block Copolymer Particles.

J Am Chem Soc 2019 Sep 4;141(38):15348-15355. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering , Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) , Daejeon 34141 , Republic of Korea.

A robust strategy is developed for preparing light-responsive block copolymer (BCP) particles in which shape and color can be actively controlled with high spatial and temporal resolution. The key to achieving light-responsive shape transitions of BCP particles is the design and synthesis of surfactants containing light-active groups (i.e. Read More

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September 2019

Cationic block amphiphiles show anti-mitochondrial activity in multi-drug resistant breast cancer cells.

J Control Release 2019 07 6;305:210-219. Epub 2019 May 6.

Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3E5, Canada; Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, 164 College Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3G9, Canada; Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, 160 College Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3E1, Canada. Electronic address:

Currently, there are limited treatment options for multi-drug resistant breast cancer. Lipid-modified cationic peptides have the potential to reach the mitochondria, which are attractive targets for the treatment of multi-drug resistant (MDR) breast cancer; yet, little is known about their mitochondrial targeting and anti-cancer activity. Interestingly, lipid-modified cationic peptides, typically used as gene transfection agents, exhibit similar structural features to mitochondrial targeted peptides. Read More

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Polyphilicity-An Extension of the Concept of Amphiphilicity in Polymers.

Polymers (Basel) 2018 Aug 30;10(9). Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Department of Chemistry, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, D-06099 Halle (Saale), Germany.

Recent developments in synthetic pathways as simple reversible-deactivation radical polymerization (RDRP) techniques and quantitative post-polymerization reactions, most notoriously 'click' reactions, leading to segmented copolymers, have broadened the molecular architectures accessible to polymer chemists as a matter of routine. Segments can be blocks, grafted chains, branchings, telechelic end-groups, covalently attached nanoparticles, nanodomains in networks, even sequences of random copolymers, and so on. In this review, we describe the variety of the segmented synthetic copolymers landscape from the point of view of their chemical affinity, or synonymous philicity, in bulk or with their surroundings, such as solvents, permeant gases, and solid surfaces. Read More

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Synthesis of Polypeptoid-Polycaprolactone-Polytetrahydrofuran Heterograft Molecular Polymer Brushes via a Combination of Janus Polymerization and ROMP.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2019 Apr 5;40(7):e1800905. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

MOE Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, China.

Janus polymerization is a novel and efficient way to synthesize diblock and multiblock copolymers in one step by using Lu(OTf) and propylene epoxide as a catalytic system. By modifying the epoxide initiator, which is located at the block junction with various functional groups, the possibility for future topological design is provided. Herein, 2-bicyclo[2. Read More

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Cooperation of Amphiphilicity and Smectic Order in Regulating the Self-Assembly of Cholesterol-Functionalized Brush-Like Block Copolymers.

Langmuir 2018 09 31;34(37):11034-11041. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

State and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Novel Functional Polymeric Materials, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Polymer Design and Application, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science , Soochow University , Suzhou 215123 , China.

Nanoparticle morphology significantly affects the application of nanometer-scale materials. Understanding nanoparticle formation mechanisms and directing morphological control in nanoparticle self-assembly processes have received wide attention. Herein, a series of brush-like amphiphilic liquid crystalline block copolymers, PChEMA - b-POEGMA , containing cholesteryl mesogens with different hydrophobic/hydrophilic block ratios were designed and synthesized. Read More

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September 2018

A Vinyl Ether-Functional Polycarbonate as a Template for Multiple Postpolymerization Modifications.

Macromolecules 2018 May 16;51(9):3233-3242. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Department of Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, and Laboratory for Synthetic-Biologic Interactions, Texas A&M University, P.O. Box 30012, 3255 TAMU, College Station, Texas 77842-3012, United States.

A highly-reactive vinyl ether-functionalized aliphatic polycarbonate and its block copolymer were developed as templates for multiple post-polymerization conjugation chemistries. The vinyl ether-functional six-membered cyclic carbonate monomer was synthesized by a well-established two-step procedure starting from 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid. An organobase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of the synthesized monomer afforded polycarbonates with pendant vinyl ether functionalities (PMVEC). Read More

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Star Block-Copolymers in Shear Flow.

J Phys Chem B 2018 04 29;122(14):4149-4158. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas , Universidad Antonio Nariño , Km 18 via Cali-Jamundí , 760030 Cali , Colombia.

Star block-copolymers (SBCs) have been demonstrated to constitute self-assembling building blocks with specific softness, functionalization, shape, and flexibility. In this work, we study the behavior of an isolated SBC under a shear flow by means of particle-based multiscale simulations. We systematically analyze the conformational properties of low-functionality stars, as well as the formation of attractive patches on their corona as a function of the shear rate. Read More

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Spatial Distribution of Hydrophobic Drugs in Model Nanogel-Core Star Polymers.

Macromolecules 2017 Dec 5;50(24):9702-9712. Epub 2017 Dec 5.

IBM Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, San Jose, California 95120, United States.

Star polymers with a cross-linked nanogel core are promising carriers of cargo for therapeutic applications due to the synthetic control of amphiphilicity of arms and stability at infinite dilution. Three nanogel-core star polymers were investigated to understand how the arm-block chemical structure controls loading efficiency of a model drug, ibuprofen, and its spatial distribution. The spatial distribution profiles of hydrophobic core, hydrophilic corona, and encapsulated drug were determined by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Read More

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December 2017

Using Flash Nanoprecipitation To Produce Highly Potent and Stable Cellax Nanoparticles from Amphiphilic Polymers Derived from Carboxymethyl Cellulose, Polyethylene Glycol, and Cabazitaxel.

Mol Pharm 2017 11 5;14(11):3998-4007. Epub 2017 Oct 5.

Fight Against Cancer Innovation Trust , MaRS Centre, West Tower, 661 University Avenue, suite 510, Toronto, Ontario, Canada , M5G 0A3.

We report the use of flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) as an efficient and scalable means of producing Cellax nanoparticles. Cellax polymeric conjugates consisting of carboxymethyl cellulose functionalized with PEG and hydrophobic anticancer drugs, such as cabazitaxel (coined Cellax-CBZ), have been shown to have high potency against several oncology targets, including prostate cancer. FNP, a robust method used to create nanoparticles through rapid mixing, has been used to encapsulate several hydrophobic drugs with block copolymer stabilizers, but has never been used to form nanoparticles from random copolymers, such as Cellax-CBZ. Read More

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November 2017

Controlled Supramolecular Self-Assembly of Super-charged β-Lactoglobulin A-PEG Conjugates into Nanocapsules.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2017 09 17;56(39):11754-11758. Epub 2017 Aug 17.

Center for Biomimetic Sensor Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 637553, Singapore.

The synthesis and characterization of a new protein-polymer conjugate composed of β lactoglobulin A (βLG A) and poly(ethylene glycol) PEG is described. βLG A was selectively modified to self-assemble by super-charging via amination or succinylation followed by conjugation with PEG. An equimolar mixture of the oppositely charged protein-polymer conjugates self-assemble into spherical capsules of 80-100 nm in diameter. Read More

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September 2017

Self-Assembled Polyprodrug Amphiphile for Subcutaneous Xenograft Tumor Inhibition with Prolonged Acting Time In Vivo.

Macromol Biosci 2017 11 24;17(11). Epub 2017 Jul 24.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, 200240, Shanghai, China.

Polymeric drug delivery system termed as "polyprodrug amphiphile" poly(2-methylacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-b-poly(10-hydroxy-camptothecin methacrylate (pMPC-b-pHCPT) is developed for the prolonged-acting cancer therapy. It is obtained by two-step reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization of zwitterionic monomer MPC and an esterase-responsive polymerizable prodrug methacrylic anhydride-CPT, respectively. This diblock polymer is composed of both antifouling (pMPC) and bioactive (pHCPT) segments and the drug is designed as a building block to construct the polymer skeleton directly. Read More

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November 2017

Mesoscopic Structures of Poly(carboxybetaine) Block Copolymer and Poly(ethylene glycol) Block Copolymer in Solutions.

Langmuir 2017 08 17;33(30):7575-7582. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Product Technology, South China University of Technology , Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640, P. R. China.

The antifouling property of exogenous materials is vital for their in vivo applications. In this work, dissipative particle dynamics simulations are performed to study the self-assembled morphologies of two copolymer systems containing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(carboxybetaine) (PCB) in aqueous solutions. Effects of polymer composition and polymer concentration on the self-assembled structures of the two copolymers (PLA-PEG and PLA-PCB) are investigated, respectively [PLA represents poly(lactic acid)]. Read More

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Sugar-based novel niosomal nanocarrier system for enhanced oral bioavailability of levofloxacin.

Drug Deliv 2016 Nov 25;23(9):3653-3664. Epub 2016 Nov 25.

b H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, Karachi University , Karachi , Pakistan.

Context: Vesicular systems have attracted great attention in drug delivery because of their amphiphilicity, biodegradability, non-toxicity and potential for increasing drug bioavailability.

Objective: A novel sugar-based double-tailed surfactant containing renewable block was synthesized for preparing niosomal vesicles that could be exploited for Levofloxacin encapsulation, aiming to increase its oral bioavailability.

Materials And Methods: The surfactant was characterized by H NMR, mass spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Read More

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November 2016

Amphiphilic Diblock Co-polymers Bearing a Cysteine Junction Group: Synthesis, Encapsulation of Inorganic Nanoparticles, and Near-Infrared Photoresponsive Properties.

Chemistry 2016 Dec 2;22(50):18197-18207. Epub 2016 Nov 2.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu Province Hi-Tech Key Laboratory for Biomedical Research, Jiangsu Optoelectronic Functional Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189, P.R. China.

Encapsulation of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) in the interfaces of amphiphilic vesicles is a challenging task. The traditional strategy is to use amphiphilic triblock co-polymers, which possess two outer blocks for building the walls and coronas of the vesicles, and one middle NP binding block for localizing NPs at the vesicle interfaces. In this manuscript, we describe the design and synthesis of an amphiphilic diblock co-polymer, that is, PEG-SH-b-PS (PEG=poly(ethylene glycol), PS=polystyrene) bearing a cysteine junction with one free pendant thiol group at the center point between the hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) block and the hydrophobic polystyrene block. Read More

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December 2016

Surfactant-Free Emulsions with Erasable Triggered Phase Inversions.

Langmuir 2016 Oct 10;32(42):11039-11042. Epub 2016 Oct 10.

Department of Chemistry, Renmin University of China , Beijing 100872, China.

Complex emulsions including double emulsions and high-internal-phase emulsions (HIPEs) are wonderful templates for producing porous polymeric materials. Yet, surfactants and multiple emulsifications are generally needed. In this work, surfactant-free complex emulsions are successfully prepared using a CO-responsive block copolymer through one-step emulsification. Read More

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October 2016

Cooperation of Amphiphilicity and Crystallization for Regulating the Self-Assembly of Poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) Copolymers.

Langmuir 2016 09 18;32(37):9633-9. Epub 2016 Aug 18.

Department of Chemistry, Renmin University of China , Beijing 100872, China.

Tuning the amphiphilicity of block copolymers has been extensively exploited to manipulate the morphological transition of aggregates. The introduction of crystallizable moieties into the amphiphilic copolymers also offers increasing possibilities for regulating self-assembled structures. In this work, we demonstrate a detailed investigation of the self-assembly behavior of amphiphilic poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(l-lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLLA) diblock copolymers with the assistance of a common solvent in aqueous solution. Read More

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September 2016

HS gasotransmitter-responsive polymer vesicles.

Qiang Yan Wei Sang

Chem Sci 2016 Mar 3;7(3):2100-2105. Epub 2015 Dec 3.

Department of Macromolecular Science , Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers of the Education Ministry of China , Fudan University , Shanghai , China 200433 . Email:

Building biomimetic polymer vesicles that can sense a biological signaling molecule is a tremendous challenge at the cross-frontier of chemistry and biology. We develop a new class of -azidomethylbenzoate (AzMB)-containing block copolymer that can respond to an endogenous signaling molecule, hydrogen sulfide (HS). Such a gasotransmitter can trigger cascade chemical reactions to sever the AzMB side functionalities, which alters the polymer amphiphilicity and further leads to a controllable disassembly of their self-assembly vesicular nanostructure. Read More

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Microfluidics-assisted generation of stimuli-responsive hydrogels based on alginates incorporated with thermo-responsive and amphiphilic polymers as novel biomaterials.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2015 Nov 22;135:619-629. Epub 2015 Aug 22.

INRA, UR1268 Biopolymères Interactions Assemblages, F-44300 Nantes Cedex, France. Electronic address:

We used a droplet-based microfluidics technique to produce monodisperse responsive alginate-block-polyetheramine copolymer microgels. The polyetheramine group (PEA), corresponding to a propylene oxide /ethylene oxide ratio (PO/EO) of 29/6 (Jeffamine(®) M2005), was condensed, via the amine link, to alginates with various mannuronic/guluronic acids ratios and using two alginate:jeffamine mass ratios. The size of the grafted-alginate microgels varied from 60 to 80 μm depending on the type of alginate used and the degree of substitution. Read More

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November 2015

Plasmonic Vesicles of Amphiphilic Nanocrystals: Optically Active Multifunctional Platform for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy.

Acc Chem Res 2015 Sep 2;48(9):2506-15. Epub 2015 Jul 2.

Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health (NIH) , Bethesda, Maryland 20892, United States.

Vesicular structures with compartmentalized, water-filled cavities, such as liposomes of natural and synthetic amphiphiles, have tremendous potential applications in nanomedicine. When block copolymers self-assemble, the result is polymersomes with tailored structural properties and built-in releasing mechanisms, controlled by stimuli-responsive polymer building blocks. More recently, chemists are becoming interested in multifunctional hybrid vesicles containing inorganic nanocrystals with unique optical, electronic, and magnetic properties. Read More

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September 2015

High-Internal-Phase Emulsion Tailoring Polymer Amphiphilicity towards an Efficient NIR-Sensitive Bacteria Filter.

Small 2015 Oct 25;11(37):4876-83. Epub 2015 Jun 25.

Department of Chemistry, Renmin University of China, Beijing, 100872, China.

Emulsions having a high internal-phase volume fraction—termed as HIPEs for high internal phase emulsions—are in high demand as templates for functional macroporous materials. Designing molecular surfactants with appropriate amphiphilicity plays a critical role in the HIPE preparation. In this study, successful tailoring of the amphiphilicity of the originally hydrophobic block co-polymer of polystyrene-b-polyvinylpyridine (PS-b-P4VP) is reported. Read More

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October 2015

Polypeptide vesicles with densely packed multilayer membranes.

Soft Matter 2015 May 5;11(20):4091-8. Epub 2015 May 5.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1304 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.

Multilamellar membranes are important building blocks for constructing self-assembled structures with improved barrier properties, such as multilamellar lipid vesicles. Polymeric vesicles (polymersomes) have attracted growing interest, but multilamellar polymersomes are much less explored. Here, we report the formation of polypeptide vesicles with unprecedented densely packed multilayer membrane structures with poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(γ-(4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzyl)-l-glutamate) (PEG-b-PL), an amphiphilic diblock rod-coil copolymer containing a short PEG block and a short hydrophobic rod-like polypeptide segment. Read More

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Porous polystyrene-block-poly(acrylic acid)/hemoglobin membrane formed by dually driven self-assembly and electrochemical application.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2015 Apr 16;7(16):8852-8. Epub 2015 Apr 16.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225002, China.

This study demonstrated a facile method to form a porous polymeric membrane, immobilizing a biocatalyst. A polyelectrolyte-based amphiphilic diblock copolymer, i.e. Read More

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