12,440 results match your criteria alternative estimate


Propensity score weighting for causal subgroup analysis.

Stat Med 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

A common goal in comparative effectiveness research is to estimate treatment effects on prespecified subpopulations of patients. Though widely used in medical research, causal inference methods for such subgroup analysis (SGA) remain underdeveloped, particularly in observational studies. In this article, we develop a suite of analytical methods and visualization tools for causal SGA. Read More

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Comparing denominator sources for real-time disease incidence modeling: American Community Survey and WorldPop.

SSM Popul Health 2021 Jun 8;14:100786. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Biostatistics, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Across the United States public health community in 2020, in the midst of a pandemic and increased concern regarding racial/ethnic health disparities, there is widespread concern about our ability to accurately estimate small-area disease incidence rates due to the absence of a recent census to obtain reliable population denominators. 2010 decennial census data are likely outdated, and intercensal population estimates from the Census Bureau, which are less temporally misaligned with real-time disease incidence data, are not recommended for use with small areas. Machine learning-based population estimates are an attractive option but have not been validated for use in epidemiologic studies. Read More

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Public health impact of delaying second dose of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 covid-19 vaccine: simulation agent based modeling study.

BMJ 2021 May 12;373:n1087. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA

Objective: To estimate population health outcomes with delayed second dose versus standard schedule of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination.

Design: Simulation agent based modeling study.

Setting: Simulated population based on real world US county. Read More

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Improving the gnomonic approach with the R-package to estimate natural mortality throughout different life stages.

PeerJ 2021 19;9:e11229. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas, La Paz, Baja California Sur, México.

Natural mortality () is defined as the rate of loss that occurs in a fish stock due to natural (non-fishing) causes and can be influenced by density-dependent or density-independent factors. Different methods have been used to estimate , one of these is the gnomonic approach. This method estimates rates by dividing the life cycle of a species into subunits of time that increase as a constant proportion of the time elapsed from birth up to the initiation of each subdivision. Read More

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Using Multiple Cause-of-Death Analysis to Estimate Systemic Autoimmune Disease Mortality Burden in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

MEDICC Rev 2021 Apr 30;23(2). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Arnaldo Milián Castro University Hospital, Medical University of Villa Clara, Santa Clara, Cuba.

Autoimmune diseases are not always recognized as urgent health issues, despite a worldwide prevalence of 4%-5%. Most estimates come from high-income countries, as low- and middle-income countries face more issues of under-reporting. Despite this and the lack of recognition under current reporting practices, the role these diseases play in mortality must be acknowledged. Read More

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Fine-Gray subdistribution hazard models to simultaneously estimate the absolute risk of different event types: Cumulative total failure probability may exceed 1.

Stat Med 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Biomedical Data Sciences, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.

The Fine-Gray subdistribution hazard model has become the default method to estimate the incidence of outcomes over time in the presence of competing risks. This model is attractive because it directly relates covariates to the cumulative incidence function (CIF) of the event of interest. An alternative is to combine the different cause-specific hazard functions to obtain the different CIFs. Read More

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Improving Human Health in China Through Alternative Energy.

Front Public Health 2021 21;9:613517. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Global Health Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States.

In this study, we estimate the health benefits of more stringent alternative energy goals and the costs of reducing coal-fired power plant pollution in China projected in 2030. One of our two overarching alternative energy goals was to estimate the health benefits of complete elimination of coal energy, supplemented by natural gas and renewables. The second was a policy scenario similar to the U. Read More

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Serum Creatinine and Serum Cystatin C are Both Relevant Renal Markers to Estimate Vancomycin Clearance in Critically Ill Neonates.

Front Pharmacol 2021 19;12:634686. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Pediatric Pharmacology and Pharmacometrics, University Children's Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Serum creatinine (SCr) is used as a marker of kidney function to guide dosing of renally eliminated drugs. Serum Cystatin C (S-CysC) has been suggested as a more reliable kidney marker than SCr in adults and children. Purpose of this study was to investigate S-CysC as alternative renal marker to SCr for estimating vancomycin clearance in neonates undergoing intensive care. Read More

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Measuring adrenal and reproductive hormones in hair from Southern Beaufort Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2021 May 5:113807. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Biology and the Ecology Center, Utah State University, 5305 Old Main Hill, Logan, Utah, 84322, USA.

Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) use sea ice to access marine mammal prey. In Alaska's Southern Beaufort Sea, the declining availability of sea ice habitat in summer and fall has reduced opportunities for polar bears to routinely hunt on the ice for seals, their primary prey. This reduced access to prey may result in physiological stress with subsequent potential consequences to reproductive function (physiological changes that accompany reproduction), which can be measured via reproductive hormones. Read More

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Incorporating false negative tests in epidemiological models for SARS-CoV-2 transmission and reconciling with seroprevalence estimates.

Sci Rep 2021 05 7;11(1):9748. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, 1420 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-2029, USA.

Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Removed (SEIR)-type epidemiologic models, modeling unascertained infections latently, can predict unreported cases and deaths assuming perfect testing. We apply a method we developed to account for the high false negative rates of diagnostic RT-PCR tests for detecting an active SARS-CoV-2 infection in a classic SEIR model. The number of unascertained cases and false negatives being unobservable in a real study, population-based serosurveys can help validate model projections. Read More

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A meta-analysis on potential modifiers of LITT efficacy for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: Seizure-freedom seems to fade with time.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Apr 20;205:106644. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Departments of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of Larissa, School of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece.

Background: The efficacy of laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) has not been clearly established yet.

Objective: We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the efficacy of LITT for TLE (Q1). We also examined the effect of the patient's age (Q2), the total ablation volume (TAV) (Q3), the strength of the MRI unit (Q4), the type of the utilized stereotactic platform (Q5), and the follow up period (Q6) on the patient's outcome. Read More

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Oral nicotine marketing claims in direct-mail advertising.

Tob Control 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Behavioral Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USA.

Background: Little is known regarding how oral nicotine products (eg, nicotine pouches, lozenges) are marketed to consumers, including whether potential implicit reduced harm claims are used. In the current study, we explored the marketing claims present in a sample of direct-mail oral nicotine advertisements sent to US consumers (March 2018-August 2020).

Methods: Direct-mail ads (n=50) were acquired from Mintel and dual-coded for the following claims: alternative to other tobacco products, ability to use anywhere, spit-free, smoke-free and product does not contain tobacco leaf. Read More

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Estimating power in (generalized) linear mixed models: An open introduction and tutorial in R.

Behav Res Methods 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Oxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Mixed-effects models are a powerful tool for modeling fixed and random effects simultaneously, but do not offer a feasible analytic solution for estimating the probability that a test correctly rejects the null hypothesis. Being able to estimate this probability, however, is critical for sample size planning, as power is closely linked to the reliability and replicability of empirical findings. A flexible and very intuitive alternative to analytic power solutions are simulation-based power analyses. Read More

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Cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative colorectal cancer screening strategies in high-risk individuals.

Therap Adv Gastroenterol 2021 10;14:17562848211002359. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Institut National du Cancer, Boulogne, France.

Background And Aims: Current guidelines recommend colonoscopy every 3-5 years for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening of individuals with a familial history of CRC. The objective of this study was to compare the cost effectiveness of screening alternatives in this population.

Methods: Eight screening strategies were compared with no screening: immunochemical test (FIT), Stool DNA and blood-based screening every 2 years, colonoscopy, computed tomography colonography, colon capsules, and sigmoidoscopy every 5 years, and colonoscopy at 45 years followed, if negative, by FIT every 2 years. Read More

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Treatment effects on count outcomes with non-normal covariates.

Br J Math Stat Psychol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany.

The effects of a treatment or an intervention on a count outcome are often of interest in applied research. When controlling for additional covariates, a negative binomial regression model is usually applied to estimate conditional expectations of the count outcome. The difference in conditional expectations under treatment and under control is then defined as the (conditional) treatment effect. Read More

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Does methylprednisolone reduce the mortality risk in hospitalized COVID-19 patients? A meta-analysis of randomized control trials.

Expert Rev Respir Med 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pharmacy, School of Applied Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK.

Objectives: The questions remained if mortality benefits with dexamethasone seen in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) also extend to other systemic corticosteroids such as methylprednisolone. This article presents a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to ascertain if methylprednisolone can be recommended for use in patients with COVID-19 to prevent deaths.

Methods: Systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and preprint servers until 13 April 2021. Read More

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Are adults just big kids? Can the newer paediatric weight estimation systems be used in adults?

S Afr Med J 2021 Feb 1;111(2):166-170. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Division of Emergency Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; and Department of Emergency Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: The weight of a patient is an important variable that impacts on their medical care. Although some drugs are prescribed on a so-called 'adult dose' basis, we know that adults come in all shapes and sizes - a 'one-dose-fits-all' approach is not necessarily appropriate. As a measured weight may not always be available, an alternative method of accurately estimating weight is required. Read More

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February 2021

Primary hemiarthroplasty after unstable trochanteric fracture in elderly patients: mortality, readmission and reoperation.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Apr 30;22(1):403. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Statistics, National Taipei University, No.67, Sec. 3, Ming-Shen E. Rd, Taipei, 10478, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Most unstable trochanteric fractures are treated with internal fixation and often with high complication rates. Hemiarthroplasty might be an alternative method in difficult condition, especially in unstable comminuted fracture in fragile bone. However, few have investigated the long-term outcomes after hemiarthroplasty for unstable trochanteric fracture. Read More

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The incidence of construction site injuries to women in Delhi: capture-recapture study.

BMC Public Health 2021 May 3;21(1):858. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK.

Background: In India, the construction sector provides the main alternative to agricultural work - seasonal migration to and from construction work is widespread and construction work remains the second-largest employer of women in the country behind agriculture. Occupational injuries, which kill over 300,000 people annually, are a serious public health concern. However, data on construction site injuries to women are lacking, as India does not publish statistics on occupational injuries and illnesses. Read More

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Spatial-Temporal Functional Mapping Combined With Cortico-Cortical Evoked Potentials in Predicting Cortical Stimulation Results.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 14;15:661976. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Functional human brain mapping is commonly performed during invasive monitoring with intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) electrodes prior to resective surgery for drug- resistant epilepsy. The current gold standard, electrocortical stimulation mapping (ESM), is time -consuming, sometimes elicits pain, and often induces after discharges or seizures. Moreover, there is a risk of overestimating eloquent areas due to propagation of the effects of stimulation to a broader network of language cortex. Read More

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Development of two age estimation models for buccal swab samples based on 3 CpG sites analyzed with pyrosequencing and minisequencing.

Forensic Sci Int Genet 2021 Apr 25;53:102521. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Münster, Röntgenstraße 23, 48149 Münster, Germany. Electronic address:

The analysis of DNA methylation levels of specific CpG sites is one of the most promising molecular techniques to estimate an individual's age. Numerous studies were published recently presenting age estimation models based on DNA methylation patterns from blood samples, with only a few using saliva or buccal swabs. The aim of this study was to identify age-dependent methylation of 88 CpG sites in eight different marker regions (PDE4C, ELOVL2, ITGA2B, ASPA, EDARADD, SST, KLF14 and SLC12A5) in buccal swab samples. Read More

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Curve fitting and linearization of UV-Vis spectrophotometric measurements to estimate yeast in inoculum preparation.

Anal Biochem 2021 Apr 30;625:114216. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Laboratório de Pesquisa em Micologia Aplicada, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

The counting of microorganisms is essential in the area of microbiology, especially in the preparation of inoculum. The main methods for obtaining inoculum are McFarland standard, Neubauer chamber, and plate count. However, the visual comparison is subjective while the counting in the chamber and the plating are technically time-consuming. Read More

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Intra-database validation of case-identifying algorithms using reconstituted electronic health records from healthcare claims data.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2021 May 1;21(1):95. Epub 2021 May 1.

INSERM CIC-P1401, Bordeaux PharmacoEpi, Univ. Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Background: Diagnosis performances of case-identifying algorithms developed in healthcare database are usually assessed by comparing identified cases with an external data source. When this is not feasible, intra-database validation can present an appropriate alternative.

Objectives: To illustrate through two practical examples how to perform intra-database validations of case-identifying algorithms using reconstituted Electronic Health Records (rEHRs). Read More

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Development and evaluation of a new methodology for Soft Tissue Artifact compensation in the lower limb.

J Biomech 2021 Apr 18;122:110464. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Institut de Biomécanique Humaine Georges Charpak, Arts et Métiers Sciences et Technologies, Paris, France.

Skin Marker (SM) based motion capture is the most widespread technique used for motion analysis. Yet, the accuracy is often hindered by Soft Tissue Artifact (STA). This is a major issue in clinical gait analysis where kinematic results are used for decision-making. Read More

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Estimating the Effectiveness of Rotavirus Vaccine Schedules.

Epidemiology 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA Department of Surgery, Division of Public Health Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA NoviSci, Durham, NC, USA Department of Population Health Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Important questions exist regarding the comparative effectiveness of alternative childhood vaccine schedules; however, optimal approaches to studying this complex issue are unclear.

Methods: We applied methods for studying dynamic treatment regimens to estimate the comparative effectiveness of different rotavirus vaccine (RV) schedules for preventing acute gastroenteritis-related emergency department visits or hospitalization. We studied the effectiveness of six separate protocols: one- and two-dose monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1); one-, two-, and three-dose pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5); and no RV vaccine. Read More

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Effect of PARP Inhibitors as Maintenance Treatment on Restricted Mean Survival Time in Platinum-Sensitive Recurrent Ovarian Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Authors:
Masayuki Kaneko

Ann Pharmacother 2021 Apr 29:10600280211013489. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Kitasato University, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Earlier trials on the efficacy of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in platinum-sensitive relapsed ovarian cancer used the hazard ratio (HR) as an efficacy parameter.

Objective: The present meta-analysis was focused on improving the robustness and clinical interpretability of the efficacy evaluation of PARP inhibitors using the restricted mean survival time (RMST).

Methods: A search for relevant studies published up to July 31, 2020, was performed in electronic databases to identify eligible trials comparing PARP inhibitors with placebo. Read More

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Determining Surface Topography of a Dressed Grinding Wheel Using Bio-Inspired DNA-Based Computing.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 11;14(8). Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Chemical, Materials and Industrial Production Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples, Italy.

Grinding is commonly used for machining parts made of hard or brittle materials with the intent of ensuring a better surface finish. The material removal ability of a grinding wheel depends on whether the wheel surface is populated with a sufficiently high number of randomly distributed active abrasive grains. This condition is ensured by performing dressing operations at regular time intervals. Read More

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Characterization of Liposomes Using Quantitative Phase Microscopy (QPM).

Pharmaceutics 2021 Apr 21;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Drug Transport and Delivery Research Group, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway.

The rapid development of nanomedicine and drug delivery systems calls for new and effective characterization techniques that can accurately characterize both the properties and the behavior of nanosystems. Standard methods such as dynamic light scattering (DLS) and fluorescent-based assays present challenges in terms of system's instability, machine sensitivity, and loss of tracking ability, among others. In this study, we explore some of the downsides of batch-mode analyses and fluorescent labeling, while introducing quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) as a label-free complimentary characterization technique. Read More

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Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty: Minimal Important Difference and Patient Acceptable Symptom State for the Forgotten Joint Score.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Apr 1;57(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 200, Trigoria, 00128 Rome, Italy.

: Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is a valid alternative to total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) in selected cases. After surgery, patients' experience and satisfaction were traditionally evaluated by pre- and postsurgical scores and Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs). Otherwise, a statistically significant change does not necessarily correlate to a clinically meaningful improvement when measured using PROMs. Read More

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Biomarker evaluation under imperfect nested case-control design.

Stat Med 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Biostatistics, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

The nested case-control (NCC) design has been widely adopted as a cost-effective sampling design for biomarker research. Under the NCC design, markers are only measured for the NCC subcohort consisting of all cases and a fraction of the controls selected randomly from the matched risk sets of the cases. Robust methods for evaluating prediction performance of risk models have been derived under the inverse probability weighting framework. Read More

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